LEARNING AREA 2 –
COMPUTER SYSTEMS
Topic 2.1 System Concept
2.1.1 Overview of Computer
Systems
2.1.1.1 Define Computer System.
A COMPUTER SYSTEM IS DEFINED AS
COMBINATION OF COMPONENTS
DESIGNED TO PROCESS DATA AND
STORE FILES.
DIDEFINISIKAN SEBAGAI KOMBINASI
KOMPONEN YANG DIREKA UNTUK
MEMPROSES DATA DAN MENYIMPAN FAIL
2.1.1 Overview of Computer
Systems
2.1.1.2 State the meaning of input, processor, output and storage.
I.
INPUT
INPUT IS ANY DATA OR INSTRUCTIONS THAT WE ENTER INTO THE
COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING.
II.
PROCESS
PROCESS IS A MACHINE CYCLE THAT CONSIST FOUR BASIC
OPERATIONS, THAT’S ARE FETCHING,ECODING, EXECUTING AND
STORING.
III.
OUTPUT
OUTPUT IS DATA THAT HAS BEEN PROCESSED INTO A USEFUL FORM,
CALLED INFORMATION. THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF OUTPUT, WHICH
ARE TEXTS, GRAPHICS, AUDIO AND VIDEO.
IV.
STORAGE
STORAGE IS A LOCATION WHICH DATA, INSTRUCTION AND INFORMATION
ARE HELD FOR FUTURE USE. EVERY COMPUTER USES STORAGE TO
HOLD SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE
2.1.1 Overview of Computer
Systems
2.1.1.2 State the meaning of input, processor, output and storage.
I.
MASUKAN
MASUKAN ADALAH APA-APA DATA ATAU ARAHAN YANG DIMASUKKAN
KE DALAM SISTEM KOMPUTER UNTUK DIPROSES
II.
PROSES
PROSES ADALAH KITARAN MESIN YANG MENGANDUNGI 4 OPERSI IAITU
MENARIK, MENGKOD, MELAKSANA DAN MENYIMPAN.
III.
KELUARAN
KELUARAN ADALAH DATA YANG DIPROSES KE DALAM BENTUK
BERGUNA DIPANGGIL MAKLUMAT. ADA 4 JENIS KELUARAN IAITU TEKS,
GRAFIK,AUDIO DAN VIDEO.
IV.
SIMPANAN
SIMPANAN ADALAH TEMPAT DI MANA DATA, ARAHAN DAN MAKLUMAT
DISIMPAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN AKAN DATANG. SETIAP KOMPUTER
MEMPUNYAI SIMPANAN UNTUK MEMEGANG PERISIAN SISTEM DAN
PERISIAN APLIKASI.
2.1.1 Overview of Computer Systems
2.1.1.3 Describe the information processing cycle which includes input, process,
output and storage.
USER WILL INPUT THE DATA TO BE PROCESSED BY THE PROCESSOR. THE
STORAGE HOLDS DATABASES, FILES AND PROGRAMS. THE OUTPUT DEVICES
PRESENT THE PROCESSED DATA AS USEFUL INFORMATION PRODUCTS FOR THE
USER
PENGGUNA AKAN MEMASUKKAN DATA UNTUK DIPROSES OLEH PEMPROSESAN.
SIMPANAN AKAN MEMEGANG PANGKALAN DATA, FAIL DAN PROGRAM. PERANTI
KELUARAN MEMPERSEMBAHKAN DATA YANG TELAH DIPROSES KE DALAM
BENTUK MAKLUMAT YANG BERGUNA UNTUK PENGGUNA
2.1.2 DATA REPRESENTATION
2.1.2.1 State the relationship of data representation : bit, byte and
character.
BIT
A BIT IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF DATA THAT THE COMPUTER CAN
PROCESS. BIT IS A SHORT FOR BINARY DIGIT. A BIT IS
REPRESENTED BY THE NUMBERS 1 AND 0.
MERUPAKAN UNIT DATA TERKECIL DI MANA PC BOLEH
MEMPROSESNYA. BIT SANGAT PENDEK UNTUK DIGIT BINARI. IA
MEWAKILI NOMBOR 0 DAN 1
BYTE
BYTE IS A UNIT OF INFORMATION BUILT FROM BITS. ONE BYTE IS
EQUALS TO 8 BITS.
BAIT ADALAH UNIT MAKLUMAT DARIPADA BIT. SATU BAIT
BERSAMAAN 8 BIT.
CHARACTER
8 BITS = 1 BYTE
8 BIT = 1 BAIT
2.1.3 Introduction to Binary Coding
2.1.3.1 Explain the function of ASCII code
TO ACHIEVE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN VARIOUS TYPES OF DATA
PROCESSING EQUIPMENT MAKING IT POSSIBLE FOR THE
COMPONENTS TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER SUCCESSFULLY.
ENABLES MANUFACTURERS TO PRODUCE COMPONENTS THAT ARE
ASSURED TO OPERATE CORRECTLY IN A COMPUTER.
ENABLES HUMAN TO INTERACT WITH A COMPUTER.
ENABLES USERS TO PURCHASE COMPONENTS THAT ARE COMPATIBLE WITH
THEIR COMPUTER CONFIGURATIONS.
UNTUK MENCAPAI KESESUAIAN ANTARA BERBAGAI JENIS PERALATAN
MEMPROSES DATA BAGI MENJADIKANNYA SESUAI DENGAN KOMPONEN PC
UNTUK BERKOMUNIKASI DENGAN LANCAR
MEMBENARKAN PEMBUAT KOMPONEN MEMBUAT KOMPONEN YANG BOLEH
BEROPERASI DENGAN BETUL DI DALAM PC
MEMBENARKAN MANUSIA BERKOMUNIKASI DENGAN PC
MEMBOLEHKAN PENGGUNA MEMBELI KOMPONEN PC YANG SESUAI DENGAN
KONFIGURASI KOMPUTER MEREKA.
2.1.4Data Measurements
2.1.4.1 STATE THE UNIT OF DATA
MEASUREMENT
• BIT
BIT
• BYTES
BAIT
• KILOBYTES (KB) KILOBAIT
• MEGABYTE (MB) MEGABAIT
• GIGABYTE (GB) GIGABAIT
• TERABYTE (TB) TERABAIT
2.1.5 Clock Speed Measurement
2.1.5.1 Describe the units of clock speed measurement:
MEGAHERTZ (MHZ)
• MEGA IS A PREFIX THAT STANDS FOR MILLION. THUS, MEGAHERTZ (MHZ)
EQUALS TO ONE MILLION CYCLES OF THE SYSTEM CLOCK.
• MEGA ADALAH TAMBAHAN KEPADA JUTA. MAKA MEGAHERTZ BERSAMAAN
DENGAN KITARAN SATU JUTA DARIPADA SISTEM JAM
1 MHZ = 1,000,000
1 SECOND
GIGAHERTZ (GHZ)
• GIGA IS A PREFIX THAT STANDS FOR BILLION.GIGAHERTZ (GHZ) EQUALS TO
ONE BILLION CYCLES OF THE SYSTEM CLOCK.
• GIGA ADALAH TAMBAHAN KEPADA RIBU JUTA. MAKA GIGAHERTZ
BERSAMAAN DENGAN KITARAN SATU RIBU JUTA DARIPADA SISTEM JAM
1 GHZ = 1,000,000,000 CYCLES
1 SECOND
1 GHZ = 1000 MHZ
Topic 2.2 PERKAKASAN
(HARDWARE)
2.2.1 Input Devices
2.2.1.1 Identify the input devices used for
text, graphic, audio and video
• Text – keyboard
• Graphic – scanner
• Audio – microphone
• Video – webcam
2.2.2 Output Devices
2.2.2.1 Identify the output devices used for
text, graphic, audio and video
Text/graphic/video
audio
Text/graphic
2.2.3 Motherboard
• 2.2.3.1 Identify the location of the central
processing unit (CPU), expansion slots,
expansion cards, RAM motherboard
expansion slots
central
processing unit
RAM motherboard
2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.1 Explain types and function of : - primary stroge (RAM , ROM )
PRIMARY STORAGE
IS KNOWN AS THE MAIN MEMORY OF A COMPUTER, INCLUDING RAM (RANDOM-ACCESS
MEMORY) AND ROM (READ-ONLY MEMORY)
IT IS AN INTERNAL MEMORY (INSIDE THE CPU) THAT CAN BE ACCESSED DIRECTLY BY
THE PROCESSOR.
FUNCTION OF RAM :
•
RAM IS VOLATILE WHICH MEANS THE PROGRAMS AND DATA IN RAM ARE LOST WHEN
THE COMPUTER IS POWERED OFF.
•
A COMPUTER USES RAM TO HOLD TEMPORARY INSTRUCTIONS AND DATA NEEDED TO
COMPLETE TASKS. THIS ENABLES THE COMPUTER'S CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSING
UNIT) TO ACCESS INSTRUCTIONS AND DATA STORED IN THE MEMORY VERY QUICKLY.
•
RAM STORES DATA DURING AND AFTER PROCESSING.
FUNCTION OF ROM :
•
ROM IS NON-VOLATILE. IT HOLDS THE PROGRAMS AND DATA WHEN THE COMPUTER IS
POWERED OFF.
•
PROGRAMS IN ROM HAVE BEEN PRE-RECORDED. IT CAN ONLY BE STORED BY THE
MANUFACTURER; ONCE IT IS DONE, IT CANNOT BE CHANGED.
•
MANY COMPLEX FUNCTIONS, SUCH AS START UP OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS,
TRANSLATORS FOR HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES AND OPERATING SYSTEMS ARE PLACED
IN ROM MEMORY.
2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.1 Explain types and function of : - primary stroge (RAM , ROM
STORAN /SIMPANAN PRIMER(UTAMA)
DIKENALI SEBAGAI MEMORI UTAMA PC, IA TERMASUK RAM (MEMORI
CAPAIAN RAWAK) DAN ROM (MEMORI CAPAIAN BACA SHJ)IA MERUPAKAN
MEMORI DALAMAN (DI CPU/UNIT PEMPROSESAN PUSAT) YANG BOLEH
DICAPAI TERUS OLEH PEMPROSES.
FUNGSI RAM
RAM ADALAH MERUAP DI MANA PROGRAM DAN DATA DI DALAM RAM AKAN
HILANG APABILA PC DITUTUP.
PC MENGGUNAKAN RAM UNTUK MEMEGANG SEMENTARA ARAHAN DAN DATA
UNTUK MENYIAPKAN TUGASAN. INI MEMBOLEHKAN CPU KOMPUTER UNTUK
MENCAPAI ARAHAN DAN DATA YANG TERSIMPAN DI DALAM MEMORI
DENGAN CEPAT
RAM MENYIMPAN DATA SEMASA DAN SELEPAS BERLAKUNYA PROSES.
FUNGSI ROM
ROM TIDAK MERUAP DI MANA MAKSUDNYA IA MEMEGANG DATA DAN PROGRAM
WALAUPUN KOMPUTER DITUTUP DAN DIBUKA SEMULA
PROGRAM DI DALAM ROM ADA PRA REKOD. IA HANAYA BOLEH DISIMPAN OLEH
PEMBINA PROGRAM. APABILA IA DIBUAT MAKA IA TIDAK BOLEH DIUBAH
BANYAK FUNGSI RUMIT SEPERTI MEMBUKA ARAHAN OPERASI, ALAT
PENUKARAN BAHASA ARAS TINGGI DAN SISTEM OPERASI ADALAH
TERLETAK DI DALAM ROM.
2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.2 Explain types and function of : - secondary stroge (Magnetic and optical medium AND
Flash memory )
SECONDARY STORAGE IS ANOTHER ALTERNATIVE STORAGE TO KEEP YOUR WORK AND
DOCUMENTS. IT IS VERY USEFUL TO STORE PROGRAMS AND DATA FOR FUTURE USE.
SIMPANAN KEDUA ADALAH SATU LAGI SIMPANAN ALTERNATIF YANG MENYIMPAN KERJA
DAN DOKUMEN. SANGAT BERGUNA UNTUK MENYIMPAN PROGRAM BAGI MASA DEPAN
1. MAGNETIC MEDIUM / MEDIUM MAGNETIK
IS A NON-VOLATILE STORAGE MEDIUM. IT CAN BE ANY TYPE OF STORAGE MEDIUM THAT
UTILIZES MAGNETIC PATTERNS TO REPRESENT INFORMATION. THE DEVICES USE DISKS
THAT ARE COATED WITH MAGNETICALLY SENSITIVE MATERIAL.
THE EXAMPLES OF MAGNETIC STORAGE ARE:
•
MAGNETIC DISK SUCH AS:
– A FLOPPY DISK, USED FOR OFF-LINE STORAGE
– HARD DISK, USED FOR SECONDARY STORAGE
•
MAGNETIC TAPE; INCLUDING VIDEO CASSETTE, AUDIO STORAGE REEL-TO- OPTICAL
MEDIUM IS A NON-VOLATILE STORAGE MEDIA THAT HOLDS CONTENT IN DIGITAL FORM
THAT ARE WRITTEN AND READ BY A LASER. THESE MEDIA INCLUDE VARIOUS TYPES
OF CDS AND DVDS.
MERUPAKAN SIMPANAN TIDAK MERUAP. IA BOLEH JADI PELBAGAI JENIS BERBENTUK
MAGNETIK UNTUK MEMPERSEMBAHAKAN MAKLUMAT. PERANTI MENGGUNAKAN
CAKERA YANG DISALUT BAHAN SENSITIF BERMAGNET
CONTOH SIMPANAN MAGNETIK ADALAH
CAKERA MAGNETIK SEPERTI (DISKET/CAKERA KERAAS
TAPE MAGNETIK TERMASUKLAH VIDEO KASET DAN SEBAGAINYA.
.
2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.2 Explain types and function of : - secondary stroge (Magnetic and optical
medium AND Flash memory )
2. OPTICAL MEDIUM / MEDIUM OPTIK
THESE FOLLOWING FORMS ARE OFTEN COMMONLY USED :
CD, CD-ROM, AND DVD: READ ONLY STORAGE, USED FOR
DISTRIBUTION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION SUCH AS MUSIC,
VIDEO AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS.
• CD-R: WRITE ONCE STORAGE, THE DATA CANNOT BE ERASED OR WRITTEN
OVER ONCE IT IS SAVED.
• CD-RW, DVD-RW, AND DVD-RAM: SLOW TO WRITE BUT FAST READING
STORAGE; IT ALLOWS DATA THAT HAVE BEEN SAVED TO BE ERASED AND
REWRITTEN.
• REEL TAPE AND OTHERS.
BEBERAPA PENDEKATAN SERING DIGUNAKAN SEPERTI:
CD: SIMPANAN BACA SAHAJA DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MEMPERSEMBAHKAN
MAKLUMAT DIGITAL SEPERTI MUZIK, VIDEO DAN PROGRAM KOMPUTER
- CD-R: SIMPANAN TULIS SAHAJA. DATA TIDAK BOLEH DIPADAM ATAU
DITULIS SEMULA
- CD-RW, DVD- RW DAN DVD-RAM: LAMBAT DITULIS TETAPI CEPAT DIBACA
SEMULA. IA MEMBENARKAN DATA DISIMPAN, DIPADAM DAN DITULIS
SEMULA
- TAPE GELENDONG DAN SEBAGAINYA
- DVD=Digital Versatile Disc
2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.2 Explain types and function of : - secondary stroge (Magnetic
and optical medium AND Flash memory )
3. FLASH MEMORY
• FLASH MEMORY IS A SOLID-STATE, NON-VOLATILE,
REWRITABLE MEMORY THAT FUNCTIONS LIKE RAM AND A
HARD DISK DRIVE COMBINED. FLASH MEMORY STORE BITS
OF ELECTRONIC DATA IN MEMORY CELLS JUST LIKE DRAM
(DYNAMIC RAM), BUT IT ALSO WORKS LIKE A HARD DISK
DRIVE THAT WHEN THE POWER IS TURNED OFF, THE DATA
REMAINS IN THE MEMORY. FLASH MEMORY CARDS AND
FLASH MEMORY STICKS ARE EXAMPLES OF FLASH MEMORY
• MEMORI FLASH SANGAT JELAS, TIDAK MERUAP, MEMORY
BOLH BACA,TULIS DAN TULIS SEMULA YANG BERFUNGSI
SEPERTI RAM DAN CAKERA KERAS. MEMEORI FLASH
MENYIMPAN BITS DARIPADA DATA ELEKTRONIL DI DALAM
SEL MEMORI SAMA SEPERTI DRAM(DYNAMIC RAM). MALAH IA
JUGA BEKERJA SEPERTI CAKERA KERAS DI MANA
WALAUPUN PC DITUTUP DAN DIBUKA SEMULA, DATA
KEKAL DALAM MEMORI. KAD MEMORI FLASH DAN KAYU
MEMORI FLASH ADALAH CONTOH-CONTOH MEMORI FLASH.
TOPIC 2.3 SOFTWARE
(PERISIAN)
2.3.1 – OPERATING SYSTEM
2.3.1.1 State the various types of OS used on different platforms.
OPERATING SYSTEM
OS on different platform :
•
Linux is a freely distributed UNIX, it is a compatible operating system for PCs and a number of
other processors.
•
Mac OS X is a multitasking operating system that is the latest version of the Macintosh operating
system.
•
UNIX is an operating system, or family of operating systems, developed at Bell Laboratories in
early 1970sas a replacement for an earlier system called Multics.
•
Windows XP is the latest version of the Windows operating system, which is Microsoft’s fastest,
most reliable Windows operating system.
SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN
SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN DALAM PELBAGAI PLATFOM
•
LINUX – SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN PERCMA BERASAL DARI UNIX, IA SISTEM
PENGOPERSIAN YANG SESUAI BAGI PC DAN BEBERAPA PEMPROSESAN
•
MAC OS X MERUPAKAN SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN PELBAGAI TUGASAN YANG
MERUPAKAN VERSI TERKINI DARIPADA SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN MACHINTOSH
•
UNIX ADALAH SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN UTAMA(BESAR), DIKELUIARKAN OLEH MAKMAL
BELL DI AWAL 70AN DAN DIGANTIKAN DARIPADA SISEM AWALNYA YANG DIKENALI
SEBAGAI MULTICS
•
WINDOWS VISTA MERUPAKAN VERSI TERKINI DARIPADA SISTEM OPERASI WINDOWS.
SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN WINDOW SEBELUMNYA IAITU WINDOW XP MASIH KEKAL
SEBAGAI SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN YANG PALING SESUAI DAN PALING BANYAK
DIGUNAKAN OLEH PENGGUNA PC SELURUH DUNIA.
2.3.1 – OPERATING SYSTEM
2.3.1.2 State the functions of OS.
• THE FUNCTIONS OF THE OPERATING SYSTEMS
ARE:
• STARTING A COMPUTER
MEMBUKA KOMPUTER
• PROVIDING A USER INTERFACE
MERANGKUMI ANTARAMUKA PENGGUNA
• MANAGING DATA AND PROGRAMS
MENGURUS PROGRAM DAN DATA
• MANAGING MEMORY
MENGURUS MEMORI
• CONFIGURING DEVICES
MENGKONFIGURASI PERANTI
2.3.1 – OPERATING SYSTEM
2.3.1.3 State the different interfaces of OS.
1. COMMAND-LINE USER INTERFACE / BARIS ARAHAN ANTARAMUKA PENGGUNA
•
REQUIRES A USER TO TYPE COMMANDS OR PRESS SPECIAL KEYS ON THE
KEYBOARD TO ENTER DATA AND INSTRUCTIONS THAT INSTRUCT THE
OPERATING SYSTEM WHAT TO DO. IT HAS TO BE TYPED ONE LINE AT A
TIME.
•
MEMERLUKAN PENGGUNA MENAIP ARAHAN DAN MENEKAN KEKUNCI KHAS
PADA PAPAN KEKUNCI UNTUK MEMASUKKAN DATA DAN ARAHAN YANG
MENGARAHKAN OS APA YUANG HENDAK DILAKUKAN. IA HARUS DITAIP
SATU BARIS PADA SATU MASA.
•
IS DIFFICULT TO USE BECAUSE IT REQUIRES EXACT SPELLING, SYNTAX OR
A SET OF RULES OF ENTERING COMMANDS AND PUNCTUATION.
•
SUKAR KERANA MEMERLUKAN EJAAN TEPAT, SINTAKS ATAU SET ARAHAN
UNDANG-UNDANG UNTUK MELETAKKAN ARAHAN DAN MESTI TEPAT
•
REQUIRES MEMORISATION. IT IS ALSO EASY TO MAKE A TYPING MISTAKE.
THE ADVANTAGE OF COMMAND-LINE INTERFACE IS, IT HELPS THE USER TO
OPERATE THE COMPUTER QUICKLY AFTER MEMORIZING THE KEYWORDS
AND SYNTAX.
•
MEMERLUKAN INGATAN. AMAT MUDAH BERLAKUNYA KESILAPAN MENAIP.
NAMUN BEGITU KELEBIHANNYA ADALAH IA MEMBANTU PENGGUNA
BERINTERAKSI DENGAN KOMPUTER DENGAN CEPAT SETELAH INGATAN
TERHADAP KATAKUNCI DAN SINTAKS TELAH DIBUAT.
2.3.1 – OPERATING SYSTEM
2.3.1.3 State the different interfaces of OS
2. MENU DRIVEN INTERFACE / ANTARAMUKA BERPANDUKAN
MENU
•
ENABLES THE USER TO AVOID MEMORIZING KEYWORDS
SUCH AS COPY, PASTE AND SYNTAX. ON-SCREEN, MENUDRIVEN INTERFACE PROVIDE MENUS AS MEANS OF
ENTERING COMMANDS. IT SHOWS ALL THE OPTIONS
AVAILABLE AT A GIVEN POINT IN A FORM OF TEXT-BASED
MENU. MENU-DRIVEN USER INTERFACES ARE EASY TO
LEARN.
•
MEMBOLEHKAN PENGGUNA MENGELAK DARIPADA
MELETAKKAN INGATAN PADA KATAKUNCI SEPERTI
MENYALIN DAN TAMPAL SERTA SINTAKS. IA
MENGANDUNGI MENU IAIUTU MELETAKKAN ARAHAN YANG
DIKEHENDAKI. IA MEMAPARKAN SEMUA PILIHAN YANG ADA
YANG DIBERI DALAM BENTUK TEKS. ANATARAMUKA
BERPANDUKAN MENU INI ADALAH SANGAT MUDAH
DIPELAJARI
2.3.1 – OPERATING SYSTEM
2.3.1.3 State the different interfaces of OS
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) /ANTARAMUKA PENGGUNA BERGRAFIK
•
MAKES USE OF THE COMPUTER’S GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES TO MAKE THE
OPERATING SYSTEM AND PROGRAMS EASIER TO USE, WHICH IS ALSO
CALLED ‘USER-FRIENDLY’. ON TODAY’S PCS AND MACINTOSHES, GUIS
ARE USED TO CREATE THE DESKTOP THAT APPEARS AFTER THE
OPERATING SYSTEM FINISHES LOADING INTO MEMORY.
•
WE CAN EASILY DIFFERENTIATE THE INTERFACES BETWEEN MAC OS,
WINDOWS XP OR LINUX BY LOOKING AT THEIR DESKTOPS. GRAPHICAL
USER INTERFACE INTERACT WITH MENUS AND VISUAL IMAGES SUCH AS
BUTTONS, ICONS AND OTHER GRAPHICAL OBJECTS TO ISSUE
COMMANDS.
•
ON THE DESKTOP, WE CAN INITIATE MANY ACTIONS BY CLICKING ICONS
THAT REPRESENT COMPUTER RESOURCES SUCH AS FILES, PROGRAMS
AND NETWORK CONNECTIONS. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE IS
COMMONLY USED AND HAS BECOME A STANDARD.
•
MEMBOLEHKAN GRAFIK KOMPUTER BERFUNGSI MENJADIKAN OS DAN
PROGRAM LEBIH MUDAH DIGUNAKAN. IA DIGELAR “MESRA PENGGUNA”.
PC ZAMAN INI MENGGUNAKAN GUI UNTUK PAPARAN DESKTOP MEREKA
•
MUDAH UNTUK MEMBEZAKAN JENIS ANTARAMUKA ANTARA PELBAGAI
JENIS OS KERANA DENGAN HANYA ME;IHAT PAPARAN DESKTOP MEREKA
•
PADA DESKTOP, PENGGUNA BOLEH MELIHAT / MENGGUNA DENGAN KLIK
IKON YANG ADA DAN PELBAGAI TUGASAN AKAN DAPAT DIBUAT.
2.3.2 Application Software
2.3.2.1 State the types of application software (word processing,spreadsheet, presentation, graphic).
WORD PROCESSING
WORD PROCESSING AN OFFICE APPLICATION THAT ENABLES USER TO
CREATE, EDIT, FORMAT AND PRINT TEXTUAL DOCUMENT.
SPREADSHEET
A PROGRAM THAT PROCESSES INFORMATION IN THE FORM OF TABLES. TABLES CELLS
CAN HOLD VALUES OR MATHEMATICAL FORMULA.
PRESENTATION
AN APPLICATION SOFTWARE THAT ALLOWS A USER TO CREATE VISUAL AID FOR
PRESENTATION TO COMMUNICATE IDEAS, MESSAGES AND OTHER INFORMATION TO A
GROUP.
GRAPHICS EDITING
PROGRAM THAT CAN EDIT DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OR NON-TEXT INFORMATION SUCH
AS DRAWING, CHARTS AND PHOTOGRAPH.
PEMPROSESAN KATA
ADALAH APLIKASI PEJABAT YANG MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA, MENGUBAH,
MEMFORMAT DAN MENCETAK DOKUMEN
LEMBARAN
PROGRAM YANG MEMPROSES MAKLUMAT DALAM BENTUK “TABLE”. SEL TABLE INI AKAN
MEMEGANG NILAI SEPERTI FORMULA MATEMATIK
PERSEMBAHAN
ADALAH PERISIAN APLIKASI YANG MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA VISUAL UNTUK
PERSEMBAHAN BAGI TUJUAN BERKOMUNIKASI, MEMBERI MESEJ DAN MAKLUMAT KEPADA
KUMPULAN ATAU AUDIEN YANG RAMAI.
PENGGUBAH GRAFIK
PROGRAM YANG MEMBENARKAN PENGGUBAHAN KE ATAS MAKLUMAT BUKAN TEKS
SEPERTI LUKISAN, CARTA DAN GAMBAR
2.3.2 Application Software
2.3.2.2 Describe the uses of application software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphic).
•
WORD PROCESSING
- ALLOWS USERS TO CREATE AND MANIPULATE DOCUMENTS CONTAINING MOSTLY TEXT AND
SOMETIMES GRAPHICS
•
-PROVIDES THE ABILITY TO CREATE, CHECK SPELLING, EDIT AND FORMAT A DOCUMENT ON THE
SCREEN BEFORE PRINTING IT TO PAPER.
•
- PRODUCE DOCUMENTS SUCH AS LETTERS, MEMOS, REPORTS, FAX COVER SHEETS, MAILING
LABELS, NEWSLETTERS, AND WEB PAGES
•
SPREADSHEET
- ALLOWS USERS TO ORGANISE AND MANIPULATE DATA IN ROWS AND COLUMNS.
- PRODUCES WORKSHEETS THAT REQUIRE REPETITIVE CALCULATIONS – BUDGETING,
MAINTAINING A GRADE BOOK, BALANCING ACCOUNTS, TRACKING INVESTMENT, CALCULATING
LOAN PAYMENTS, ESTIMATING PROJECT COSTS AND PREPARING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.
PRESENTATION
- ALLOWS USERS TO CREATE VISUAL AIDS FOR PRESENTATIONS TO COMMUNICATE
IDEAS, MESSAGES AND OTHER INFORMATION TO AN AUDIENCE
•
GRAPHIC EDITING
- ALLOWS USERS TO WORK WITH DRAWINGS, PHOTOS AND PICTURES. IT PROVIDES THE USERS
THE ABILITY OF CREATING, MANIPULATING AND PRINTING GRAPHICS
2.3.2 Application Software
2.3.2.2 Describe the uses of application software (word processing, spreadsheet,
presentation, graphic).
PEMPROSESAN KATA
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA DAN MEMANIPULASI DOKUMEN YANG
BERBENTUK TEKS DAN KADANGKALA BERGRAFIK
-MENGANDUNGI KEBOLEHAN UNTUK MEREKA, MENYEMAK EJAAN, MENGEDIT DAN
MEMFORMAT DOKUMEN PADA SKRIN SEBELUM MENCETAKNYA.
-MEMBUAT DOKUMEN-DOKUMEN YANG BERBENTUK SURAT, MEMO, LAPORAN,
LAMPIRAN MUKA DEPAN FAKS, LABEL, SURAT KHABAR DAN MUKA LAMAN WEB.
LEMBARAN
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MENGORGANISASI DAN MEMANIPULASI DATA
DALAM BENTUK BARIS DAN LAJUR.
- MEMBUAT LEMBARAN YANG MENGANDUNGI PENGIRAAN SEPERTI BAGET, GRED,
PENGIRAAN PELABURAN, GAJI PEKERJA, BAGET PROJEK, KEWANGAN DAN SEBAGAINYA.
PERSEMBAHAN
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA PAPARAN VISUAL UNTUK PERSEMBAHAN
BAGI BERKOMUNIKASI, MENYAMPAIAN MESEJ DENGAN AUDIEN YANG RAMAI.
MENGEDIT GRAFIK
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA BEKERJA BAGI MEMBUAT LUKISAN, GAMBAR,
FOTO. IA MEMERLUKAN PENGGUNA MEMPUNYAI KEBOLEHAN MEREKACIPTA,
MEMANIPULASI DAN MENCETAK GRAFIK.
2.3.3 Utility Program
2.3.3.1 Differentiate between the types and usage of utility
programmes (file management, diagnostic, and file compression)
FILE MANAGEMENT
- USED TO MANAGE FILES ON A DISK. IT PROVIDES FUNCTIONS TO DELETE, COPY. MOVE,
RENAME AND VIEW FILES AS WELL AS CREATE AND MANAGE FOLDERS (DIRECTORIES).
- PERFORMS TASKS OF FORMATTING AND COPYING DISKS, DISPLAYING A LIST OF FILES
ON A STORAGE MEDIUM, CHECKING THE AMOUNT OF USED OR FREE SPACE ON A
STORAGE MEDIUM, ORGANISING, COPYING, RENAMING, DELETING, MOVING AND
SORTING FILES AND ALSO CREATING SHORTCUTS.
DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY
COMPILES TECHNICAL INFORMATION ABOUT A COMPUTER'S HARDWARE AND CERTAIN
SYSTEM SOFTWARE PROGRAMS AND THEN PREPARES A REPORT OUTLINING ANY
IDENTIFIED PROBLEMS.INFORMATION IN THE REPORT ASSISTS TECHNICAL SUPPORT
STAFF IN REMEDYING ANY PROBLEMS.
FILE COMPRESSION
-THAT REMOVES REDUNDANT ELEMENTS, GAPS AND UNNECESSARY DATA FROM A
COMPUTER’S STORAGE SPACE SO THAT LESS SPACE IS REQUIRED TO STORE OR
TRANSMIT DATA.
- REDUCE THE TIME REQUIRED TO TRANSMIT SUCH LARGE FILES OVER A NETWORK.
- COMPRESSED FILES ARE SOMETIMES CALLED ZIPPED FILES BECAUSE THEY USUALLY
HAVE A .ZIP EXTENSION.
- A COMPRESSED FILE MUST BE UNZIPPED OR RESTORED TO ITS ORIGINAL FORM BEFORE
BEING USED. TWO POPULAR FILE COMPRESSION UTILITIES ARE PKZIP AND WINZIP
2.3.3 Utility Program
2.3.3.1 Differentiate between the types and usage of utility
programmes (file management, diagnostic, and file compression)
PENGURUSAN FAIL
DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MENGURUS FAIL PADA CAKERA.IA MEMBEKALKAN FUNGSI UNTUK
MEMADAM, MENYALIN, MEMINDAH, MENAMAKAN SEMULA DAN MEMAPARKAN FAIL
SEPERTI MEREKA DAN MENGURUS FOLDER (DIREKTORI)
MELAKSANAKAN TUGAS SEPERTI MEMFORMAT DAN MENYALIN CAKERA. MEMAPARKAN
SENARAI FAIL DALAM MEDIUM STORAN, MENYEMAK AMAUN STORAN YANG
DIGUNAKAN, MENGORGANISASI, MENYALIN, MENAMAKAN SEMULA FAIL, MEMADAM,
MEMINDAH DAN MENYENARAI PENDEK FAIL DAN JUGA MEREKA JALAN PINTAS.
UTILITI DIAGNOSTIK
MENGUMPUL MAKLUMAT TEKNIKAL SEPERTI PERKAKASAN PC DAN PROGRAM SISTEM
PERISIAN DAN KEMUDIAN MENYEDIAKAN LAPORAN LUARAN UNTUK MENGENALPASTI
APA JUA MASALAH YANG TIMBUL. MAKLUMAT YANG ADA KEMUDIAN AKAN DIURUSKAN
OLEH STAFF TEKNIKAL BAGI PEMBAIKULIH.
PENGECILAN FAIL
TUGAS BAGI MENGELUARKAN ELEMEN, HALANGAN DAN DATA YANG TIDAK PERLU
DARIPADA STORAN PC. DENGAN INI DAPAT MENJIMATKAN RUANG DALAM STORAN.
MENGECILKAN MASA BAGI MENNCARI DATA YANG BESAR DALAM RANGKAIAN.
MENGECILKAN FAIL DAN KADANGKALA IA DIGELAR “FAIL ZIP” SEBAB BIASANYA IA
TELAH MEMPUNYAI SAMBUNGAN ZIP.
3 FAIL POPULAR BAGI MENGECILKAN FAIL ADALAH PKZIP,WINZIP DAN WINRAR.
2.3.4 Proprietary and Open
Source Software
2.3.4.1 Differentiate between proprietary
(PERISIAN TERTUTUP)and open source
software (PERISIAN SUMBER TERBUKA)
2.3.4 Proprietary and Open
Source Software
2.3.4.1 Differentiate between proprietary (PERISIAN TERTUTUP)
and open source software (PERISIAN SUMBER TERBUKA)
WINDOW XP (PROPRIETARY
SOFTWARE)
LINUX (OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE)
MAC OS X (PROPRIETARY
SOFTWARE)
KELEBIHAN
- PELBAGAI JENIS PERKAKASAN
BOLEH MENGGUNAKANNYA
- ADA PASARAN BESAR
- TELAH ADA UTILITI YANG
TERBINA DI DALAMNYA
KELEBIHAN
-PELBAGAI JENIS PERKAKASAN BOLEH
MENGGUNAKANNYA
-RAMAI PENGGUNA KERANA
ANTARAMUKA PUNGGUNANYA
-BOLEH MENJADI PC SERVER
KELEBIHAN
-MUDAH DI INSTALL
-ANTARAMUKA TERBAIK(GUI)
-SELAMAT DAN STABIL
KEKURANGAN
-MASALAH KESELAMATAN
-TIDAK STABIL SBG SERVER
-APABILA KONFIGURASI DIUBAH
IA PERLU DI “RESTART”
KEKURANGAN
-TIDAK MENYOKONG BANYAK JENIS
PERMAINAN DAN APLIKASI
- SUKAR DIPELAJARI
KEKURANGAN
-HANYA MENYOKONG PC
APPLE
-KURANG UTILITI DAN
PERMAINAN BERBANDING
WINDOWS.
--BANYAK APLIKASI YNG
PERLU DI
“UPDATE” BAGI
MENJALANKANNYA.
Topic 2.4 –
Installation
2.4.1 Personal Computer (PC)
Assembling
2.4.1.1.Assemble the components of a PC.(Step)
•
FIXING THE PROCESSOR
•
INSTALLING THE RAM
•
INSTALLING THE POWER SUPPLY
•
INSTALLING THE OPTICAL DRIVE (DVD OR CD)
•
ATTACHING THE VIDEO CARD & CONNECTING THE CABLES
•
INSTALLING THE FLOPPY DRIVE
•
INSTALLING THE HARD DISK
•
CONNECTING OTHER PERIPHERALS
•
POWERING THE SYSTEM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MEMASANG UNIT PEMPROSESAN PUSAT
MEMASANG RAM
MEMASANG BEKALAN KUASA
MEMASANG PEMACU OPTIKAL (CD ATAU DVD)
MEMASANG KAD VIDEO DAN KABELNYA
MEMASANG PEMACU FLOPPY
MEMASANG CAKERA KERAS
MENGHUBUNGKAN LAIN2 SAMBUNGAN
MEMBEKALKAN KUASA KEPADA SISTEM
2.4.1 Personal Computer (PC)
Assembling
2.4.1.2 LIST COMPONENT FOR ASSEMBLING A PC
• CASING
• PROCESSOR
• MOTHERBOARD
• MEMORY (RAM)
• HARD DISK
• OPTICAL DRIVE
• FLOPPY DISK DRIVE
• MOUSE
• VIDEO CARD
• MONITOR
• SOUND CARD
• CABLES
• SPEAKER
• SCREWDRIVER
(ASSESSMENT S03.1)
2.4.2 Hard Disk Partitioning and
Formatting
2.4.2.1 Format and partition the hard disk.
Why partitioning the hard disk :
• Limits Accidental Or Deliberate Damage Of Your Data
• Increases Security
• Making The Computer Faster
• Organises Information
• Increases Productivity
Creating a partition on hard disk
• Step by step partitions the hard disk
Formatting hard disk
• Step by step formatting the hard disk
2.4.3 Software Installation
2.4.3.1 Install operating system, application software and
utility programs
INSTALLING THE OPERATING SYSTEM
• INSTALL WINDOWS
INSTALLING AN APPLICATION SOFTWARE
• INSTALLING MS OFFICE
INSTALLING A UTILITY PROGRAM
• AVG ANTIVIRUS
• SYBOT DOCTOR (ANTI SPYWARE)
(ASSESSMENT S04.1)
2.5 CURRENT AND FUTURE
TECHNOLOGIES
• 2.5.1 LATEST OPEN SOURCE
SOFTWARE
(ASSESSMENT S05.1)
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LEARNING AREA 2 – COMPUTER SYSTEMS