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Failure to focus on the client's business problems
and payoffs—the content sounds generic.
No persuasive structure—the proposal is an
"information dump."
No clear differentiation of this vendor compared to
others.
Failure to offer a compelling value proposition.
Key points are buried—no impact, no highlighting.
Difficult to read because they're full of jargon, too
long, or too technical.
Credibility killers—misspellings, grammar and
punctuation errors, use of the wrong client's name,
inconsistent formats, and similar mistakes
It's not a price quote. If all you tell the decision maker is the amount
he or she has to pay, you've reduced what you're selling down to
the level of a commodity. You've said, in effect, "All products or
services of this type are basically the same. We have nothing unique
to offer. Choose based on cost." Unless you are always the lowestpriced vendor, that's not a strong position to take.
 It's not a bill of materials, project plan, or scope of work. In technical
and engineering environments, people sometimes take the attitude
that if they just explain all the details of the proposed solution very
clearly and accurately, the customer will buy. Actually, giving
customers a detailed bill of materials or project plan may have
exactly the opposite effect. You've just given them a shopping list so
detailed they may decide to do the job without your help. Ouch!
 It's not the company history, either. Oddly enough, a sizable number
of the proposals we see start out that way. Why? From reading
dozens and dozens of these things, I can assure you most company
histories are not very interesting.
 Here's the bottom line: What is a proposal? It's a sales document.

Compare vendors, offers, or prices so he
or she can make an informed decision
 Clarify complex information
 Make the buying process more
"objective"
 Slow down the sales process
 Solicit creative ideas, become
educated, or get free consulting
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The obvious: helping you sell. The proposal's most important job is to help you sell something.
(In the nonprofit realm, it should help you obtain funding in support of your mission and
objectives.) To go a little further, though, a high-quality, carefully constructed proposal can
help you:
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Sell on value instead of price: Use your proposal to move the decision maker's focus away from price
and toward such measures of value as lower total cost of ownership, higher reliability, direct customer
support, documented technical superiority, or some other message that separates you from your
competitors.
Compete successfully without having personal contact with every member of the decision team: You
may never have the opportunity to meet every member of the team in person. A good proposal can
speak to each member of the team, helping make your case.
Demonstrate your competence and professionalism: It's probably not fair and it's definitely not logical,
but almost everybody does it: We judge a vendor's ability to deliver goods or services from the quality of
the proposal they submit. Our conscious, rational mind tells us that spelling and grammar have nothing
to do with the ability to provide help desk support for our PC users, yet we find those misspellings and
grammar mistakes raising doubt and uncertainty in our mind.
Offer a bundled solution: The customer may ask you for a proposal for basic bookkeeping services. In
your proposal, though, you can add a brief description of your ability to provide tax preparation, too, as
part of a total solution. That will increase the size of the deal, it may differentiate you from other
bookkeepers who submit a proposal, or it may just make the customer aware that you also do taxes. All
of these are good things.
Sell the "smarter" buyer: Smart buyers want to gain as much as possible while spending as little as
possible. If you don't show them what they gain by choosing your recommendations, they will inevitably
focus on the other half of the equation: spending very little.
Sell a complex, technical product to nontechnical buyers: Speaking the buyer's language is an
important part of winning his or her trust. A flexible proposal process can help you communicate
effectively even if the customer lacks in-depth knowledge of what you're offering.
The proposal as a marketing tool. Think about your company's image. What do your clients
think of you? What do prospects who have never worked with you assume about you?
Influencing clients. Good account management requires you to think about the future of your
business relationships, not merely the immediate opportunity. Reacting to a customer's
problems or needs when the customer brings them up is all right, but it's not nearly as
effective as working with the customer collaboratively to develop a business direction.
“Penunjukan Langsung” oleh Client
(pemberi kerja).
 Melalui Tender.

Konsultan (tim pengembang) melakukan
survei di perusahaan Client
(wawancara, mengumpulkan dokumen,
observasi sistem dan prosedur kerja).
 Konsultan menyusun proposal (bisa
dengan berkonsultasi dengan Client).
 Negosiasi antara Konsultan dan Client.
 Penanda-tanganan dokumen kontrak
oleh Konsultan dan Client.
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Singkat tapi jelas (minimal).
 Kisi-kisi materi disusun atas kesepakatan
Client – Konsultan.
 Bisa hanya terdiri dari satu dokumen, isi
utama: spesifikasi teknis sistem / PL yang
akan dibangun, rencana kerja,
anggaran yang diusulkan (atau hanya
nilai total proyek yang diminta).
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Client menyusun TOR (KAK).
Pengumuman lelang / tender proyek melalui
media publikasi atau pengiriman undangan
tender kpd Konsultan2 yang dipilih.
Pendaftaran peserta tender (= Konsultan).
Pemasukan proposal tender oleh peserta.
Penilaian dan seleksi proposal pemenang.
Pengumuman pemenang.
Penanda-tanganan dok kontrak dan
penerbitan SPK (Surat Perintah Kerja) oleh
Client.
Setelah membaca TOR/KAK:
To BID or NOT bid (ikut tender
/ tidak)?
Biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk
penyusunan proposal (untuk gaji tim
penyusun, survei awal, peralatan): ~ 10%
dari nilai proyek.
 Waktu penyusunan proposal: dapat
dipenuhi?
 Mampu melaksanakan TOR atau tidak?
(Pertimbangan: keahlian personil yang
ada, peralatan yang dimiliki Konsultan,
waktu yang ditetapkan pada TOR.)
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Proposal Administrasi: Profil Perusahaan
(struktur organisasi, manajemen, “kondisi
keuangan”), pengalaman (proyek2 yg
sdh dikerjakan).
 Proposal Teknis
 Proposal Biaya
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Penampilan menarik (perhatikan: cover,
struktur isi buku, font, gambar berwarna).
 Jelas (disertai dg visualisasi – gambar,
tabel, grafik).
 Isi meyakinkan: konsisten, “menjawab”
semua butir-butir TOR dg baik.
 Keahlian tim pelaksana proyek
dipresentasikan dengan meyakinkan
(perhatikan: pendidikan, pengalaman).

Bab 1: Pendahuluan (biasanya isi TOR).
 Bab 2: Tanggapan thd TOR
 Bab 3: Bahasan sistem (PL) yg diusulkan
(dpt > 1 bab, jika perlu).
 Bab 4: Metodologi Pelaksanaan
Pekerjaan.
 Bab 5: Kesimpulan.
 Lampiran: CV para tenaga ahli.
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Executive Summary: a short statement of your case and summary
of the entire proposal; typically 1 to 2 pages.
Statement of Need: why this project is necessary; 1 to 3 pages
Project Description: nuts and bolts of how the project will be
implemented; 2 to 5 pages
Bid Amount/Budget: financial description of the project plus
explanatory notes; 1 to 2 pages
Organization Information: history and structure of the company; its
primary activities, clientele, and services; 1 to 2 pages
Conclusion: summary of the proposal's main points; one-page.
The first page of the proposal is the most important
section of the entire document. Here you will provide
the reader with a snapshot of what is to follow. It
summarizes all of the key information and is a sales
document designed to convince the reader that this
proposal should be considered. Be certain to
include:
Problem: A brief statement of the problem or need your
company has recognized and is prepared to address
(one or two paragraphs);
Solution: A short description of the project, including
what will take place and the benefits, how it will
operate, how long it will take, and how it will be
staffed (one or two paragraphs);
The organization and its expertise: a brief statement of
the name, history, purpose, and activities of your
company, emphasizing its capacity to carry out this
proposal (one paragraph).
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Write your proposal like a sales
documents.
The statement of need will enable the
evaluator to learn more about the issues
and to understand the problem that the
project will remedy.
It presents the facts and evidence that
support the need for the project and
establishes that your company
understands the problems and therefore
can reasonably address them.
You want the need section to be logical,
yet persuasive. Like a good debater, you
must assemble all the arguments. Then
present them in a logical sequence that will
readily convince the reader of their
importance. As you marshal your
arguments, consider the following points.
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Demonstrate complete understanding of
the stated requirement or problem.
Be specific and direct, being vague only
demonstrates that you do not understand
the requirements and will create
questions in the mind of the evaluator.
Be sure the data you present are
accurate. There is nothing more
embarrassing than to find out your
information is out of date or incorrect.
Decide which facts or statistics best
support the project and substantiate your
promises with facts and details.
Information that does not relate to the
project you are presenting will cause the
reader to question the entire proposal.
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Objectives are the
measurable outcomes of
the project.
This section of your
proposal should have four
subsections:
Objectives,
Methods,
Staffing/administration, and
Evaluation.
Together, objectives and
methods will dictate your
staffing and administrative
requirements.
Methods
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This means that you demonstrate your
ability to solve or meet the challenge.
The methods section describes the
specific activities that will take place to
achieve the objectives. It might be helpful
to divide your discussion of methods into
the following:
what, how, when, and why.
Your proposal should clearly
communicate your ability to successfully
perform the contract.
Documentation of successful fulfillment of
other contracts will help prove your point.
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How: This is the detailed description
of what will occur from the time the
project begins until it is completed.
Your methods should match the
previously stated objectives.
When: The methods section should
present the order and timing for the
tasks. It might make sense to
provide a timetable so that the
reader does not have to map out the
sequencing on their own.
The timetable tells the reader
"when" and provides another
summary of the project that
supports the rest of the methods
section.
Why: You may need to defend your
chosen methods, especially if they
are a new approach. Why will the
planned work lead to the outcomes
you anticipate?
 You can answer this question in a
number of ways, including using the
valuation of an expert and
examples of another projects that
worked.
 The methods section helps the
reader to visualize the
implementation of the project. It
should convince the reader that
your company knows what it is
doing, thereby again establishing
credibility.
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In describing the methods, you will
have mentioned staffing for the
project. You now need to devote a
few sentences to discussing the
number of staff, their qualifications,
and specific assignments.
 Details about individual staff
members involved in the project can
be included either as part of this
section or in the appendix, depending
on the length and importance of this
information
 How will you free up the time of an
already fully deployed individual?
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As you prepare to assemble the pricing, go
back through the proposal narrative and
make a list of all personnel and contractors
related to the operation of the project.
Be sure that you list not only new costs to
complete the project but also any ongoing
expenses for items that will be allocated to
the project.
Verify or get the relevant costs from the
person in your agency who is responsible
for keeping the books.
You may need to estimate the proportions of
your company’s ongoing expenses that
should be charged to the project and any
new costs, such as salaries for project
personnel not yet hired. Put the costs you
have identified next to each item on your list.
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Your list of pricing items and the calculations
you have done to arrive at a dollar figure for
each item should be summarized on
worksheets.
You should keep these to remind yourself
how the numbers were developed.
These worksheets can be useful as you
continue to develop the proposal and discuss
it with the evaluator; they are also a valuable
tool for monitoring the project once it is under
way and for reporting after completion.
Some proposals require you to provide
adequate management and cost information.
In this case, you need to demonstrate your
ability to account for all of the costs involved
in performing the contract.
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Every proposal should have a
concluding paragraph or two.
This is a good place to call
attention to the future, after the
project is completed.
If appropriate, you should
outline some of the follow-up
activities that might be
undertaken.
This section is also the place to
make a final appeal for your
company’s consideration.
Briefly summarize what your
company wants to do and why it
is important.
Packaging
 Cover design
 Cover letter
 Spell check
 Gather appendix
materials
 Prepare table of
contents, section
dividers, etc.
Production
 Where and by whom
will the document be
produced?
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Thoroughly reviewed the RFP
Prepared any questions concerning the RFP
and submitted to the contracting officer
Obtained and reviewed background
documentation for the project
Evaluated your company’s strengths and
weaknesses
Evaluated your company’s competition
Developed a strategy to differentiate your
company
Prepared document in the appropriate format
Included commitment letters from potential
employees, suppliers and funding sources
If appropriate, past performance references
Purchased a sufficient number of packaging
materials? Binder rings, tabs, notebooks, etc.
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Deliver on time.
Label the original
documents and required
number of copies.
Seal the original and copies
in a package and label
appropriately.
If mailing, don’t forget to
check delivery schedules.
If hand carrying, provide a
signature receipt for the
delivery person.
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Sistem kini (prosedur bisnis).
Prosedur bisnis usulan (dan usulan
perubahan organisasi, jika perlu).
Deskripsi Umum + arsitektur sistem usulan
(termasuk modul-modul).
Diag Use case + skenario.
Rancangan antar-muka pengguna.
Analisis/perancangan basisdata (ER).
Penjelasan umum tentang bagaiman
sistem akan dibangun (langkah2 RPL).
 WBS + work package.
 Diagram PERT / CPM.
 Jadwal Proyek (gant-chart) (termasuk
survei, demo, penyusunan laporan).
 Penjadwalan Personil
 Penjadwalan Penggunaan Alat
 Deskripsi isi laporan2.

Terapkan asas kehati-hatian yang tinggi
(jangan sampai salah estimasi lalu
Konsultan rugi).
 Tidak “over-priced” (supaya berpeluang
menang).
 Konsisten dengan isi Proposal Teknis
(perhatikan isinya yang akan menjadi
“komponen biaya”).

Ringkasan biaya gaji personil, alat,
komunikasi, survei/perjalanan,
dokumen/penggandaan materi,
pelatihan, instalasi dan TOTAL.
 Rincian biaya untuk setiap pos
pengeluaran di atas.

 Penyusunan
Proposal Teknik dan
Biaya untuk menjawab TOR yang
sudah disusun Dikumpulkan 2 minggu
lagi.
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Cover
Table of Content
Cover letter (ditujukan ke elisati h)
Executive Summary
Pendahuluan
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Our Understanding (Statement of Need): pemahaman konsultan ttng
permasalahan yang di-ceritakan di TOR
Tanggapan (proposed solution)
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Bahasan sistem…(detil)
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Tahapan pengerjaan
Scheduling
WBS
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Estimasi biaya proyek (personil: mandays)
Metodologi Pelaksanaan (Implementasi+Project Management)
Biaya
Kesimpulan
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Peyusunan Proposal Proyek