Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
The American Dream
Immigrants
The Great Depression
Mortgage
Warm-up Questions
After Reading
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
The American Dream
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
Supplementary Reading
American Dream is the belief that everyone in
the United States has the chance to achieve success
and prosperity. For ordinary people, it means a
happy family, an ideal job, and a nice house. For
minorities and immigrants, it also includes freedom
and equal rights.
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Global Reading
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Immigrants
Introduction
First Immigrants
After Reading
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
Supplementary Reading
Introduction
Listen to the passage and fill in the blanks with the
missing words.
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Indians , all
Apart from “Native Americans” — ______
Americans have ancestors who were immigrants. The
become the home of immigrants from
United States has _______
all over the world. Some immigrants come to the United
States in
search of a place to practice their religion
__________
economic protection.
freely, while others seek political or ________
Still others arrive in hopes of building a better life for
themselves and their families.
__________
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First Immigrants
Supplementary Reading
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Global Reading
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Supplementary Reading
The first immigrants to America came almost
from western Europe. During the first decades of
the 17th century, settlers from England colonized
Virginia and New England. Immigration to New
England began in 1620 when English Puritans
established Plymouth Colony in present-day
Massachusetts. The values of these Puritan settlers
strongly influenced the culture of the American
colonies and later of the United States.
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The Great Depression
Supplementary Reading
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Supplementary Reading
The Great Depression is considered the most severe
economic crisis in the industrialized world. It began
when American stock market fell on Friday, Oct. 24,
1929, and continued the following Tuesday, known as
Black Tuesday, with a greater fall. The Depression struck
many other countries as well, particularly Germany,
Japan, and Britain. In the early 1930s millions of people
lost their jobs, and millions of businesses and banks
failed. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal
policies improved the situation, but the Great
Depression did not come to an end until World War II
when industrial production for the war increased.
Before Reading
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Mortgage
Mortgage
How to Get a Mortgage
After Reading
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
Global Reading
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Mortgage
After Reading
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
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After Reading
Supplementary Reading
Mortgage is an agreement to have money lent,
especially to buy a house or land, with the house or
land belonging to the lender until the money is repaid.
It enables a person to buy a house without having
enough money to pay for it completely. If the borrower
fails to repay the loan, the lender may force the sale
of the house to recover the amount of the loan.
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How to Get a Mortgage
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
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Supplementary Reading
A borrower can get a mortgage from a bank,
credit union, or other lender. Most lenders require
the borrower to have a certain amount of money to
use as a down payment. For example, if an
individual wants to buy a home priced at $50,000
and the lender requires a down payment of $2,000,
the individual will apply for a loan of $48,000 to
pay for the difference. Payments for the loan are
usually made monthly. The life of the mortgage can
be 15, 20, 30, or even 40 years.
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Warm-up Questions
1. What is the American Dream in your opinion?
2. In what ways can a person be considered as being
successful?
3. What is the key to success?
4. Tell a story of a successful person.
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Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
Supplementary Reading
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Part Division of the Text
Parts
1
2
Para(s)
1~29
30~33
Main Ideas
With determination and with help
from Mr. Crawford, Tony achieved
his dream of having his own farm.
Tony’s career set the author
thinking about why and to what
extent he had been successful.
Before Reading
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Further Understanding
For Part 1
Table Completion
Matching
Scanning
For Part 2
Questions and Answers
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
Supplementary Reading
Table Completion
How Tony Fulfilled His American Dream
Para(s)
Time Expressions
Tony’s Steps toward Success
1~10
one evening during
the Great Depression
Tony started to work as
a help at Mr. Crawford’s
house.
11~13
summer passed
into fall
Tony got a job clearing
snow at Mr. Crawford’s
factory.
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Para(s)
Time Expressions
Tony’s Steps toward Success
14~16
one day
Tony asked to be trained
as an apprentice, and
later learned to be a
skilled worker.
17~21
a year or two passed
Tony bought a house
with the help of Mr.
Crawford.
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Para(s)
Time Expressions
Tony’s Steps toward Success
22~27
after about two
years
Tony bought a farm and
sent for his family in
Italy.
28~33
during the war
Tony died, leaving his
family a prosperous
farm and his children
educated.
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Match the following three columns.
Tony’s request
The author’s feeling
Results
1. “I mow your lawn.”
A. Well, what do you do
with such determination
and hope?
I. … he had graduated as a skilled
grinder. … My wife and I felt it was
a satisfying end of the story.
2. “When winter come,
you give me job clearing
snow at the factory.”
B. I doubted whether Tony
had the capacity to read
blueprints and
micrometers or do
precision work.
II. My wife said he was very helpful
whenever there were any heavy
objects to lift or things to fix.
3. “I want to
be ’prentice.”
C. I went into my house
unhappy ... but how could
I turn away a person who
had come to me for help?
III. I asked the personnel
department for a report. They said
Tony was a very good worker.
1 — C — II 2 — A — III 3 — B — I
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Scanning
Scan the text to find out descriptions of Tony’s physical
appearance.
Para. 1
He was about five-foot-seven or eight,
and thin.
Para. 22
He seemed to stand a little straighter. He
was heavier. He had a look of confidence.
Para. 27
… neatly dressed
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Questions and Answers
1. What is the key to Tony’s success?
Tony worked very hard to create his American Dream.
Besides, he was determined, self-controlled, optimistic,
self-respected, honest and responsible. All these helped
him become successful.
2. Compare Tony with the greatest industrialists.
Both Tony and the greatest industrialists are successful
in pursuing their American Dreams. They reached their
success by working hard, and by the same values and
principles. The only difference was that they had
different financial achievements.
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Tony Trivisonno’s American Dream
Frederick C. Crawford
He came from a rocky farm in Italy, somewhere south
of Rome. How or when he got to America, I don’t know.
But one evening I found him standing in the driveway,
behind my garage. He was about five-foot-seven or eight,
and thin.
“I mow your lawn,” he said. It was hard to
comprehend his broken English.
I asked him his name. “Tony Trivisonno,” he replied.
“I mow your lawn.” I told Tony that I couldn’t afford a
gardener.
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“I mow your lawn,” he said again, then walked away. I
went into my house unhappy. Yes, these Depression days
were difficult, but how could I turn away a person who had
come to me for help?
When I got home from work the next evening, the lawn
had been mowed, the garden weeded, and the walks
swept. I asked my wife what had happened.
“A man got the lawn mower out of
the garage and worked on the yard,” she
answered. “I assumed you had hired him.”
I told her of my experience the night
before. We thought it strange that he had
not asked for pay.
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The next two days were busy, and I forgot about Tony.
We were trying to rebuild our business and bring some of
our workers back to the plants. But on Friday, returning
home a little early, I saw Tony again, behind the garage. I
complimented him on the work he had done.
“I mow your lawn,” he said.
I managed to work out some kind of small weekly pay,
and each day Tony cleaned up the yard and took care of
any little tasks. My wife said he was very helpful whenever
there were any heavy objects to lift or things to fix.
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Summer passed into fall, and winds blew cold. “Mr.
Craw, snow pretty soon,” Tony told me one evening.
“When winter come, you give me job clearing snow at the
factory.”
Well, what do you do with such determination and
hope? Of course, Tony got his job at the factory.
The months passed. I asked the personnel department
for a report. They said Tony was a very
good worker.
One day I found Tony at our
meeting place behind the garage. “I
want to be ’prentice,” he said.
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We had a pretty good apprentice
school that trained laborers. But I
doubted whether Tony had the capacity
to read blueprints and micrometers or
do precision work. Still, how could I turn
him down?
Tony took a cut in pay to become an apprentice.
Months later, I got a report that he had graduated as a
skilled grinder. He had learned to read the millionths of
an inch on the micrometer and to shape the grinding
wheel with an instrument set with a diamond. My wife
and I were delighted with what we felt was a satisfying
end of the story.
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A year or two passed, and again I found Tony in his usual
waiting place. We talked about his work, and I asked him
what he wanted.
“Mr. Craw,” he said, “I like a buy a house.” On the edge
of town, he had found a house for sale, a complete wreck.
I called on a banker friend. “Do you ever loan money on
character?” I asked. “No,” he said. “We can’t afford to. No
sale.”
“Now, wait a minute,” I replied. “Here is a hardworking man, a man of character, I can promise you that.
He’s got a good job. You’re not getting a damn thing from
your lot. It will stay there for years. At least he will pay
your interest.”
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Reluctantly, the banker wrote a mortgage for $2,000
and gave Tony the house with no down payment. Tony
was delighted.
From then on, it was interesting to see
that any discarded odds and ends around our place — a
broken screen, a bit of hardware, boards from packing —
Tony would gather and take home.
After about two years, I found Tony in our familiar
meeting spot. He seemed to stand a little straighter. He
was heavier. He had a look of confidence.
“Mr. Craw, I sell my house!” he said
with pride. “I got $8,000.”
I was amazed. “But, Tony, where are
you going to live without a house?”
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“Mr. Craw, I buy a farm.”
We sat down and talked. Tony told me that to own a
farm was his dream. He loved the tomatoes and peppers
and all the other vegetables important to his Italian diet.
He had sent for his wife and son and daughter back in
Italy.
He had hunted around the edge of town until he
found a small, abandoned piece of property with a house
and shed. Now he was moving his family to his farm.
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Sometime later, Tony arrived on a Sunday afternoon,
neatly dressed. He had another Italian man with him. He
told me that he had persuaded his childhood friend to
move to America. Tony was sponsoring him. With an
amused look in his eye, he told me that when they
approached the little farm he now operated, his friend
stood in amazement and said, “Tony, you are a
millionaire!”
Then, during the war, a message came from my
company. Tony had passed away.
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I asked our people to check on his family and see
that everything was properly handled. They found the
farm green with vegetables, the little house livable and
homey. There was a tractor and a good car in the yard.
The children were educated and working, and Tony
didn’t owe a cent.
After he passed away, I thought more and more
about Tony’s career.
He grew in stature in my mind. In
the end, I think he stood as tall, and as proud, as the
greatest American industrialists.
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They had all reached their success by the same route
and by the same values and principles: vision,
determination, self-control, optimism, self-respect and,
above all, integrity.
Tony did not begin on the bottom rung of the ladder.
He began in the basement. Tony’s affairs were tiny; the
greatest industrialists’ affairs were giant.
But, after
all, the balance sheets were exactly the same. The only
difference was where you put the decimal point.
Tony Trivisonno came to America seeking the
American Dream. But he didn’t find it — he created it for
himself. All he had were 24 precious hours a day, and he
wasted none of them.
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“I mow your lawn,” he said.
How many times is the sentence — “I mow your lawn.” —
repeated in the text? Why is it repeated?
The sentence is repeated four times. That’s because
it shows Tony’s determination in finding a job, and
his optimistic view that people would help a man
who needed a job.
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Well, what do you do with such determination and hope?
Paraphrase the sentence.
It is hard to refuse a person who is determined and
hopeful to get a job.
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My wife and I were delighted with what we felt was a
satisfying end of the story.
1. Paraphrase the sentence.
My wife and I were happy with what Tony had
achieved, and thought that the whole thing had thus
been settled.
2. Was Tony satisfied with this end?
Tony was not satisfied. He kept on working hard until
he fulfilled his better dreams.
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From then on, it was interesting to see that any discarded
odds and ends around our place — a broken screen, a bit
of hardware, boards from packing — Tony would gather
and take home.
1. Why did Tony take home the discarded odds and ends?
Tony bought a house, which was a complete wreck. To
fix and decorate it, and, above all, to save money, he
took home the discarded odds and ends.
2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
从那以后,只要我家附近有什么被人扔弃的零星杂物,
坏了的屏风啦,五金器具啦,包装纸板啦,托尼都要收
起来拿回家,看他这个样子真是有意思。
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He had hunted around the edge of town until he found a
small, abandoned piece of property with a house and shed.
1. What does “property” refer to?
“Property” refers to the farm he wanted to buy.
2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
他在小镇周边到处找,终于找到一处没人要的一小块
地产,有一幢房,还有间小棚。
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He grew in stature in my mind.
1. Paraphrase the sentence.
He grew taller and greater in my mind. His social
status greatly improved in my mind.
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2. Describe the change of Tony’s social status in Mr.
Crawford’s mind.
When Mr. Crawford first met Tony, Tony was “about
five-foot-seven or eight, and thin”, and his English was
broken. He remained standing when he talked to Mr.
Crawford. He did not have high social status. After he
bought his farm several years later, he “seemed to
stand a little straighter”, and he “had a look of
confidence”. He and Mr. Crawford “sat down and
talked”. His social status improved enough to allow him
to sit down with Mr. Crawford. After he passed away, Mr.
Crawford thought “he stood as tall, and as proud, as
the greatest American industrialists.”
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Tony did not begin on the bottom rung of the ladder. He
began in the basement.
1. What does “ladder” refer to? And what does
“basement” refer to?
“Ladder” refers to the way to success. “Basement”
refers to Tony’s starting point. He was worse than
ordinary people. He had nothing to help him seek his
American Dream.
2. What can you infer from the sentence?
Tony had nothing when he arrived in the United
States, and he built up from nothing.
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But, after all, the balance sheets were exactly the same.
The only difference was where you put the decimal point.
1. What do balance sheets refer to? And what does
decimal point refer to?
Balance sheets are used to show whether a person
or a company is financially successful. Here they are
used to judge a person’s life achievements. If the
decimal point is moved, a number will become
either smaller or bigger. Here it shows the
difference in the amount of money Tony and the
greatest industrialists had made.
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2. What can you infer from the sentences?
What Tony and the greatest industrialists achieved
was exactly the same. The only difference was that
they had different financial success.
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turn away:
refuse to help (sb.) or allow (sb.) to enter a place
他拒绝了所有的应征者。
He turned all the applicants away.
He turned away several people who didn’t have the
tickets.
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Collocation:
turn down
拒绝;调低
turn in
交还,上交
turn into
使变成
turn off
关;拐弯
turn out
生产,制造;证明,结果
turn over
仔细考虑
turn up
出现,来到;开大,调大
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work out:
plan; solve; calculate
他们已经设计出把宇宙飞船送上太空的方法。
They’ve worked out a method of sending
a spacecraft to the space.
The accountant has worked out your share of the
expense at 1,000 yuan.
会计已算出你的那份花费为1,000元。
Collocation:
work at
从事于,致力于
work up
引起,激起,逐渐上升
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weekly:
1. adj. happening once a week or every week
He thinks his weekly wage of 400 yuan is enough.
2. adv. once a week; every week; by the week
《21世纪报》每周出版一次。
21st Century is published weekly.
3. n. a publication issued once a week
Business Weekly
《商业周刊》
Publishers’ Weekly (美)《出版商周刊》
a twice weekly
半周刊
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do with:
1) (used in questions with “what”) deal with
Tell me what you did with yourself this week.
The child didn’t know what to do with
himself for excitement.
2) tolerate
我不能忍受他和他的无礼。
I can’t do with him and his impoliteness.
3) (often with “could”, “can”) desire
I could do with a cup of tea.
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Collocation:
do without
没有…也行,将就
do away with
废除,去掉
do for
代替,适合…
do good (to)
对…有益
do over
重复
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determination: n.
the ability to continue trying to achieve what you have
decided to do even when this is difficult
He has great determination to learn English well.
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personnel: n.
1) the department in a large organization that deals with
employees; human resources (uncountable noun, used
with a singular or plural verb).
personnel administration 人事管理
personnel department
人事部/处/科
personnel director
人事部长/处长/科长
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2) all the persons working in an organization, in the
army, etc. (often used with a plural verb)
The personnel of the company has been increased.
全体员工都允许参加晚会。
All personnel were allowed to take part in the party.
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NB: 此外注意与 personal 的区别。
personal: 个人的,私人的,亲自的,秘密的
Like their personal lives, women’s history is fragmented,
interrupted.
如同她们的个人生活一样,妇女的历史是支离破碎且断
断续续的。
Translate the following into Chinese.
a personal appearance
亲自出面
I have something personal to tell you.
我有私人的事要告诉你。
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capacity: n.
1) the ability to understand or do sth.
His capacity for remembering things is interesting.
2) the ability to hold or contain sth.
the maximum amount that can be contained
The trunk is filled to capacity.
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CF: capacity, ability, capability & proficiency
这些词都可以表示“能力”的意思。
capacity 用于物时,指容纳接受的能力,如容积、容量、
生产能力;用于人时,指潜在的能力,多用于才智、道德,
尤指接受能力、领悟性、敏感性等。
ability 既指天赋的能力,也指培养造就而获得的本领;
主要用于人,指已经表现出来的实际能力,尤指人的思维
能力。
capability 较多用于人,指胜任某项工作的能力、本领。
proficiency 正式用语,带有技术性,指对业务的精通和
熟练。
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CF: capacity, ability, capability & proficiency
Fill in the blanks with the words given above.
1. Her mental ability
______ is very great.
capacity of the children.
2. The film is beyond the ________
Proficiency in several foreign languages is needed for
3. __________
work as a traveler’s guide.
4. He has the capability
_________ of solving practical problems.
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skilled: adj.
1) having skill; trained; experienced
a skilled worker
2) needing skill
skilled work
技术熟练的工人
技术性工作
CF: skilled & skillful
skilled, skillful 表示“有技术的,熟练的”时可以互
换。
skilled 通常是指受过正规训练,有多年实践经验而
掌握某项专门技术。
skillful 是指人聪明,做事很灵巧,尤指手的灵巧。
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He is a skilled / skillful surgeon.
罗斯的父亲是个熟练的机械师,因而她也很会修理自行车。
Rose’s father is a skilled mechanic so she has become
skillful at repairing bicycles too.
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for sale:
available to be bought 待售,供出售
The company will put the houses for sale.
Not for Sale.
非卖品。
Collocation:
on sale
上市,出售;减价,贱卖
a sale on credit
赊购
on sale or return
包退包换的,无法销售可以退货的
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call on:
1) visit sb. for a short time
I’ll call on him tomorrow.
2) summon; appeal
他们号召全市工人支持这次罢工。
They called on the workers of the city to support the
strike.
3) invite; require
The host of the party called on the Chairman to speak.
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Collocation:
call for
邀约;要求;需要
call off
取消
call up
打电话;召集;使人想起
call in
顺路到某处;收回
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loan:
1. vt. lend
The bank loaned me some money.
The artist loaned her pictures to the museum.
2. n.
1) sth. lent, esp. a sum of money
The dictionary is a loan, not a gift.
Does the loan carry any interest?
2) lending
我可以借你的打字机用一下吗?
May I have the loan of your typewriter?
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Collocation:
ask for the loan of
have the loan of …
on loan
a domestic (foreign) loan
a public / government loan
a loan for consumption
a loan on security
a gift (interest-free) loan
a long-term loan
a mortgage loan
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请求借用…
借…
出借的
内(外)债
公债, 国库券
消费贷款
担保贷款
无息贷款
长期贷款
抵押贷款, 抵押借款
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character: n.
1) the particular collection of qualities that make sb. /
sth. different from others
He has a strong but gentle character.
品质的培养应是教育的重点。
Character building should be the main point of
education.
The new buildings have
changed the character of the
village.
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2) person in a play, movie, etc.
I find all the characters in his new play very real.
3) letter, sign or mark used in a system of writing or
printing
a Chinese character
一个汉字
汉字看起来像是一幅幅小图画。
The characters in Chinese
writing look like small pictures.
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CF: character, characteristic, feature & personality
这些词都是名词,都有“性格”、“品质”、“特征”
的意思。
character 指成年人已经充分发展的生活方式,而且往
往与品格有关。
characteristic 指某物的任何方面,不涉及全局的重要
性,但常指有代表性的一个侧面,常用于科技领域。
feature 通常指外貌的特征或特别的、附加的、有吸引
力的东西。
personality 偏重指一个人表现出来的无法明确阐述的
整个情绪方面的特点,不与形容词连用时表示情感上的
吸引力。
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CF: character, characteristic, feature & personality
Fill in the blanks with the words given above and
translate the sentences into Chinese.
feature .
1. An aquiline nose was her best _______
鹰钩鼻是她最明显的特征。
character at the first glance.
2. He can read a guy’s ________
他一眼就可以看出一个人的品质。
personality .
3. He has character but no __________
他有性格但没有个性。
characteristic
4. A psychological report lists every possible ____________
of the person being studied.
一份心理学报告列举了研究对象所有可能有的特性。
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confidence: n.
the quality of being certain of one’s abilities or of
trusting other people
I took them into my confidence.
I have every confidence in your ability to succeed.
我告诉你这件事是因为绝对相信你会保守秘密的。
I am telling you this in strict confidence.
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send for:
ask for the arrival of
I was seriously ill and my father had to send for a
doctor.
Do you want to send for the police?
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hunt: v.
1) search thoroughly (for)
警察在山中搜索逃犯。
The police are hunting for the escaped criminal in the
mountain.
They were hunting the area for a new apartment.
2) go after (wild animals) for food or sport
We often go out hunting in the holiday.
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abandon: v.
give up completely and forever
The cruel father abandoned his newborn daughter.
One of my classmates had to abandon the trip
because of his father’s illness.
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property: n.
1) land, buildings or both together
Little property was left in the small country after the war.
2) The thing or things that sb. owns
The factory is my uncle’s private property.
public property
公共财产
personal property
动产
real property
不动产
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sometime: adv.
at a time that is unknown or has not yet been fixed
CF: sometime, sometimes & some time
sometime 在某时候, 曾经
sometimes 有时,不时,间或
some time 一段时间
我希望明年某个时候你再来。
I hope you will come again sometime next year.
我有时会收到他的信。
I sometimes hear from him.
我已经等了你一些时候了。
I have been waiting for you for some time.
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sponsor:
1. v. support by giving money, encouragement or other help
The exhibition was sponsored by
the Society of Culture.
一些大公司赞助了这次的时装表演。
Some large companies sponsored this fashion show.
2) n. one who puts forward or guarantees a proposal
a sponsor country 主办国
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approach:
1. v. come near or nearer to
The boys had approached the tunnel when they played
the game.
性能近乎完美。
The performance approaches perfection.
The young teacher is easy to approach and all the students
like to answer her questions.
2. n. way
每个人的学习方法都不一样。
Everyone has his own approach to study.
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pass away:
die
He passed away peacefully.
Collocation:
pass by
不注意,忽视
pass down
使传下来
pass over
对…不加考虑
pass out
失去知觉,昏倒
pass off
终止,停止
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handle:
1. v.
1) manage; control
How to handle the contradiction correctly among the
people is important to steady development.
正确处理人们内部的矛盾对稳定发展很重要。
2) touch, lift, or hold with the hands
Wash your hands before you handle the white paper.
2. n. a part that is designed to be held or operated with
the hand
The handle is not well fixed.
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above all:
most important of all
He was concerned above all with the truth of the
accident.
Collocation:
after all
at all
first of all
in all
all but
all in all
毕竟, 终究, 归根结底
完全, 全然
首先
总计;总的说来
几乎, 差一点;除…外全部
总之
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balance: 1. n.
1) the difference between the credit and the debit side;
a remainder
a bank balance
银行余额
剩下来的工资全用来购买花卉栽培的新书上了。
The balance of the wages was devoted to new books
on flower culture.
You may keep the balance.
2) a weighing device
The balance is an apparatus for weighing, not for you to
play.
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3) a state of equilibrium
孩子骑在他的新自行车上用双腿保持平衡。
The child could keep his balance with his
legs on his new bicycle.
2. v.
1) keep or put sth. in a steady position
I’m trying to balance on the ball on one foot in order to
win the prize.
2) show equal totals of debits and credits
My accounts balance for the first time this year!
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Useful Expressions
Sentence Translation
Summary Writing
Discussion
Writing Practice
Make Up a Story
Proverbs and Quotations
Supplementary Reading
Before Reading
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Detailed Reading
Writing Practice
A Brief Introduction
A Sample Essay
Homework
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Supplementary Reading
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Useful Expressions
1. 结结巴巴的英语
broken English
2. 大萧条时期
the Depression days
3. 上门求助
come to sb. for help
4. 重整业务
rebuild one’s business
5. 夏去秋来
Summer passes into fall.
6. 人事部门
personnel department
7. 培训工人
train laborers
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8. 徒工学校
an apprentice school
9. 精密加工工作
precision work
10. 减薪水
take a cut in pay
11. 人品贷款
loan money on character
12. 没门
no sale
13. 人品端正
a man of character
14. 首付
down payment
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15. 从那以后
from then on
16. 零星杂物
odds and ends
17. 样子自信
have a look of confidence
18. 穿戴整齐
be neatly dressed
19. 儿时的伙伴
childhood friends
20. 最后
in the end
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Sentence Translation
1. He had learned to read the millionths of an inch on the
micrometer and to shape the grinding wheel with an
instrument set with a diamond.
他学会了在千分尺上辨识一百万分之一英寸,会用镶
嵌着金刚石的工具制作砂轮。
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2. But, after all, the balance sheets were exactly the same.
The only difference was where you put the decimal point.
但究其实,两者的资产负债表完全一样。唯一的不同
是你把小数点点在什么地方。
3. He moved to a low-rent district in Oakland, getting by on
a combination of scholarships, loans, a small grant and,
as always, work.
他搬到奥克兰一个房租低廉的地区,靠奖学金、贷款、
少量的补助金以及一如既往地打工勉强度日。
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4. 对于他们,美国梦的含义就是才能与勤劳能让你从小木屋
走向白宫。
For them, the dream is that talent and hard work
can take you from log cabin to White House.
5. 我设法凑了一小笔微薄的周薪,就这样托尼每天清扫院子,
有什么零活,他都干了。
I managed to work out some kind of small weekly
pay, and each day Tony cleaned up the yard and
took care of any little tasks.
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6. 最后,我觉得他就和美国那些最伟大的实业家一样高大、
自豪。
In the end, I think he stood as tall, and as proud, as
the greatest American industrialists.
7. 此刻,在手术室,看着这同样的颜色——使大脑充满营养
和奇迹的鲜红颜色,我仿佛回到了田间,正在那儿劳作。
Now I am here, looking at the same color — that
bright red that just fills the brain with nutrition and
wonder. I’m right there in the field, and I’m just
doing it.
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Summary Writing
From the start, Tony showed __________________
his determination to
achieve his dream (实现梦想的决心). When he _______
came to
________________
Mr. Crawford for help (找Crawford先生帮忙) for the first
___________________
time, Mr. Crawford _______________
turned him down (拒绝了他), but he
didn’t give up. Later, Mr. Crawford offered him a job in
the factory, he worked hard, and learned
to be a skilled
___________________
worker (通过学习成为技术工人). Then with Mr. Crawford’s
_______
help, he managed to get
a loan on character (以人品担保
____________________
得到贷款) for a house. Finally he bought a farm, and he
send for his family (把家人接来). His dream
was able to ________________
came true.
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Discussion
1. What is the author’s interpretation of the American
Dream as illustrated in the story of Tony?
2. Do you think integrity, determination and hard work
can take everyone from log cabin to White House?
Why or why not?
3. Do you have a dream? If you have, how do you try to
fulfill it?
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A Brief Guide to Writing Narrative Essays
A Brief Introduction
Narrative writing tells a story. In essays the narrative
writing could also be considered reflection or an
exploration of the author’s values told as a story. The
important aspect to remember is that you should have a
story. In a successful narrative essay, the author usually
makes a point.
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Features
1) The story should have an introduction that clearly
indicates what kind of narrative essay it is (an event or
recurring activity, a personal experience, or an
observation), and it should have a conclusion that makes a
point.
2) The essay should include anecdotes. The author should
describe the person, the scene, or the event in some detail.
It’s okay to include dialogue as long as you know how to
punctuate it correctly and as long as you avoid using too
much.
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3) The occasion or person described must be suggestive in
that your description and thoughts lead the reader to
reflect on the human experience.
4) The point of view in narrative essays is usually first
person. The use of “I” invites your readers into an
intimate discussion.
5) The writing in your essay should be lively and show
some style. Try to describe ideas and events in new and
different ways. Avoid using clichés. Again, get the basic
story down, get it organized, and in your final editing
process, work on word choice.
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A Sample Essay
Henry’s Big Break
My great-grandfather, Henry A. Benson, is the most
famous person in our family. He rose from delivering
newspapers in his small hometown of Cross Plains, Texas, to
becoming the editor in chief of one of the biggest papers in
the state. He tells many stories about his days as a reporter,
but his favorite one takes place on a late spring afternoon
in 1941. That’s the day great-granddad got his big break.
Inside the offices of the Center State Chronicle, 15year-old Henry took a deep breath. He stuffed his hands
into the pockets of his worn-out jeans so that the paper’s
editor, Mr. Walsh, wouldn’t see how nervous he felt.
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“Mr. Walsh,” Henry said, “I’ve delivered your paper for
three years now. I’ve never missed one day. If you make me
a reporter, I won’t let you down.”
“Henry,” Mr. Walsh replied, “there’s a big difference
between being a delivery boy and being a reporter. Maybe
after you’ve finished school.”
Trying not to let his disappointment show, Henry left
the newspaper office. What was he going to do? He got his
battered bicycle and pedaled across town toward home.
Near an old bridge, Henry saw skid marks on the pavement.
Tire tracks showed where a car had recently left the road.
Henry spotted a sedan lying at the bottom of the ravine.
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Henry flagged down a passing car to fetch an
ambulance. Then he scrambled down the ravine. The car’s
right front tire was shredded, which must have been why
the car ran off the road. The driver lay slumped over the
steering wheel. He was a middle-aged man wearing a
rumpled brown suit.
“Are you all right?” Henry asked the man.
“… Can’t move my right arm,” the driver mumbled.
Henry tried to talk to the injured man to keep him
awake, but the man passed out anyway. Henry understood
the seriousness of the situation and stayed with the man
until an ambulance came. Only when the man was safely
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on his way to the hospital did it occur to Henry that the
accident was newsworthy. Maybe this was the story that
could make him a real reporter!
He raced home and typed up an account of the accident.
Then he pedaled as fast as he could back to the Chronicle
offices. Editor Walsh ran the story and began to realize that
Henry had the right stuff to become a reporter.
In the years that followed, my great-grandfather learned
to be a great reporter. Later, he became one of the most
respected newspaper editors in Texas. No matter how
famous he became, though, he always loved to tell about
the day he got his big break. His story still inspires me
whenever I think about what kind of job I would really love.
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Homework
Narrative Paragraph Writing
A narrative paragraph tells a story or a part of a
story. It can be based on fact, on imagination, or on a
combination. The purpose of a narrative paragraph is to
tell about something that happened. It may be a
personal account of something the writer has
experienced. In a narrative paragraph, the writer
(narrator) tells a story by sharing the details of that
experience.
Like all types of paragraphs, a narrative paragraph
must have a topic sentence, details about the event, and
time order.
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Assignment:
Write a narrative paragraph of at least 8 sentences, of
something you have seen or had happened to you or
someone you know lately, that others would find
interesting. It can be fiction if you choose, but must be
written in a narrative style.
Helpful Hint — To make sure you have included all the
important details in your narrative paragraph, ask the
following questions: Who? What? When? Where?
Why? How?
Example:
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In an instant he had fallen into the rushing water. The
current sucked at his trembling legs and he lost his balance
as he reached for the canoe. One hand clutched the
broken gunwale of the vessel, and he dragged himself up
to it. From then on it was a struggle of sheer will power
against the brute power of the river. In a daze he fought,
inch by inch, toward the shore while the water-logged
canoe tugged and hauled away from him. Several times he
lost his foothold and both he and the canoe swung back
toward the fatal journey. Each time he managed to arrest
the progress in the nick of time. At last, he felt the canoe
grate against the shore. Dizziness overwhelmed him. He
stumbled forward on his knees, thinking how glad he was
to be alive and then fainted dead away.
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Make Up a Story
Suppose you were Tony Trivisonno. You told your life
story to your grandchildren according to the pictures
given. Some key words are given to you.
mow the lawn, clean up the yard, clear snow,
an apprentice, skilled, buy a house, a wreck,
buy a farm
Click here to see the pictures!
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Proverbs and Quotations
1. Slow and steady wins the race.
不怕缓慢,只要意志坚定就能赢得胜利。
2. When the going gets tough, the tough gets going.
艰难之路,唯勇者行。
3. Adversity reveals genius; fortune conceals it.
苦难显才华,好运隐天资。
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4. Diligence is the mother of good luck.
勤奋是幸运之母。
5. Confidence in yourself is the first step on the road to
success.
自信是走向成功之路的第一步。
6. A man is valued as he makes himself valuable.
一个人价值的高低,全在他自己的所为。
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7. Work banishes those three great evils: boredom, vice
and poverty.
— Voltaire, French writer
工作撵跑三个魔鬼:厌烦、堕落和贫穷。
—— 法国作家
伏尔泰
8. Nothing is more dangerous than discontinued labor.
— Victor Hugo, French writer
没有什么比停止劳动更危险的了。
—— 法国作家 V. 雨果
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Culture Notes
Reading
Comprehension Task
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Culture Notes
Illegal Immigration to the United States
Medical Education in the United States
Harvard Medical School
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Comprehension Task
Retell the Story
Group Discussion
Talk about the Pictures
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Illegal Immigration to the United States
Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the
act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the
United States in violation of U.S. immigration and
nationality law.
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Medical Education in the United States
Medical education in the United States includes
educational activities involved in the education and
training of medical doctors (D.O. or M.D.), from entrylevel training through to continuing education of qualified
specialists.
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A typical outline of the medical education pathway is
presented as medical school, internship, residency,
fellowship, and board certification; however, medicine is
a diverse profession with many options available. For
example, some doctors work in pharmaceutical (制药的)
research, occupational medicine (within a company),
public health medicine (working for the general health
of a population in an area), or join the armed forces.
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Harvard Medical School (HMS)
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate
schools of Harvard University and currently the No.1
medical school in America, as ranked by U.S. News and
World Report.
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Located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission
Hill neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, HMS is home
to 616 students (as of Fall 2006) in the M.D. program, 435
in the Ph.D. program, and 155 in the M.D.-Ph.D program.
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The school has a large and distinguished faculty to
support its missions of education, research, and clinical
care. This faculty hold appointments in the basic science
departments on the HMS Quadrangle, and in the clinical
departments located in multiple Harvard-affiliated
hospitals and institutions in Boston. There are
approximately 2,900 full- and part-time voting faculty
members consisting of assistants,
associates, and full professors, and
over 5,000 full- or part-time nonvoting instructors.
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With His Own Two Hands
Max Alexander
The hot sun burned his skin as Alfredo QuiñonesHinojosa bent in the field to pick tomatoes. It was work
few Americans would do for just $155 a week, and most of
his co-workers on this 10,000-acre farm in central
California were, like Quiñones, illegal Mexican immigrants.
It had been a year since Quiñones jumped the fence in
the border city of Calexico, California, with the help of his
cousin on January 2, 1987, Quiñones’s 19th birthday.
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The oldest of five children, Alfredo began work at
age five, pumping gas at his father’s filling station.
When he grew older, he helped bring in extra money by
working at a taco stand.
Still, he kept up with school. “My father kept telling
me, ‘You want to be like me? Just never go to school.’
And I was not going to follow the same path.” At age 14,
Quiñones qualified for an accelerated program in
Mexicali that prepared students for jobs as elementary
school teachers.
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He graduated near the top of his class. But because
his family had no political connections, he was assigned
a teaching job at a remote school. “I wasn’t willing to
put up with that injustice,” he says.
Shortly after, he decided to leave Mexico in search
of better options. He had been to America twice before,
doing summer labor. So on his arrival, Quiñones headed
with his cousin for the San Joaquin Valley to work in the
fields. “I picked tomatoes, cauliflower, broccoli, corn,
grapes.”
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When Quiñones looked up from the dirt, the best
job he could see was driving the big tractors. The drivers
were skilled, and they supervised crews. He was told it
took ten years of fieldwork to land such a promotion, but
Quiñones was soon behind the wheel of sophisticated
plows and ditchdiggers. He learned how to service the
engines and qualified for a temporary work permit.
A few months later, Quiñones told his cousin he was
going to leave the farm. His response was, “What are
you talking about? If you keep working here, one day
you’ll be the foreman!”
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“Sometimes you have to be willing to risk,” Quiñones
said.
He moved to Stockton and took a job in a rail yard so
he could attend night school at San Joaquin Delta College,
learning English. His first job, shoveling sulfur, was the
worst of his life — smelly and filthy. Once again, he
scrambled to acquire new skills, this time as a welder
repairing valves on tank cars. Within a year, he’d become
a foreman.
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With his English improving, Quiñones switched to
the night shift and began full-time studies in science
and math. To make ends meet, he also tutored other
students.
After graduating with an associate’s degree in 1991,
Quiñones was accepted to the University of California,
Berkeley. He moved to a low-rent district in Oakland,
getting by on a combination of scholarships, loans, a
small grant and, as always, work.
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Quiñones excelled in the competitive environment of
Berkeley, getting straight A’s in advanced classes, writing
his honors thesis on the role of drug receptors in the
brain and teaching calculus on the side. In the spring of
1993, his mentor looked over his transcripts and told him
he stood a good chance of getting into Harvard Medical
School. Quiñones decided to give it a try.
Harvard accepted him, and Quiñones moved East in
the fall of 1994. Three years later, Quiñones became a
U.S. citizen. “I’m sitting there, ten years after hopping
the fence, and it hits me how fast I came up.”
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Quinones gave the commencement address when he
graduated from Harvard Medical School and continued
his training, in neurosurgery, at the University of
California, San Francisco. It was an exciting but
daunting prospect. Could an illegal Mexican fieldworker
become a brain surgeon? It didn’t seem possible.
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Residency turned out to be a low point in Quiñones’
American journey. “Neurosurgery has been reserved for
people who come from a long pedigree of medicine,” he
says carefully. “It’s rare that you have someone like me
go into this highly demanding field, where lots of
patients die.” He’d experienced prejudice before — the
farm owner’s son who looked right through him, a
former girlfriend whose mother disdained him for his
nationality. “They just ignited my fire even more,” he
says.
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He admits there were times, working 130 hours a week
for $30,000 a year, when he considered quitting. “I felt
what my father felt, not being able to put food on the table
for my family,” he says. “But I had a dream.”
Dr. Quiñones, the noted brain surgeon, now 40, sits on
the edge of a patient’s bed. It’s a Friday morning at Johns
Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore, and this will
be his second brain surgery patient of the day. The woman,
who’s in her 60s, has two tumors; one is in the highly
sensitive part of the cortex that controls motor movements.
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Quiñones holds her hand and looks into her eyes. “I
walk a fine line every day between good and bad
outcomes, and bad outcomes can mean life or death,”
he tells her frankly. She nods. Dr. Q, as everyone calls
him, believes patients deserve both compassion and
honesty. “That is the risk,” he concludes. “So we’re set.
You and I have a date.”
The four-and-a-half-hour procedure goes well — the
patient comes to with no loss of motor function — and Dr.
Q is ecstatic.
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Although Dr. Quiñones is a relatively young doctor,
his colleagues are already impressed. “Not only is he a
talented and conscientious surgeon, but he’s very
sensitive to the needs of patients,” says Dr. Henry Brem,
director of neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins. “And he’s a
joyous person — full of enthusiasm and the mission to do
good for the world.”
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It’s now after seven, and Dr. Q has been working for
12 hours. Other surgeons are going home for the
weekend, but he is headed for his research laboratory in
downtown Baltimore.
The lab is an extension of his
operating room: Cancerous tissue that he removes in
surgery is studied with the goal of finding new therapies.
“One hope is that we can make brain cancer a bit more
chronic, like diabetes, instead of a devastating lethal
disease,” he explains.
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The following afternoon, many of the med students
show up at Dr. Q’s home for a Tex-Mex cookout. While
flipping tortillas on the grill on the back porch, Dr. Q
says, “I think my background allows me to interact with
my patients in a more humanistic way. When they’re
scared, I’m one of them. I’m just lucky that patients
allow me to touch their brains, their lives. When I go in,
I see these incredible blood vessels. And it always brings
me back to the time I used to pick those huge, beautiful
tomatoes with my own hands. Now I am here, looking at
the same color — that bright red that just fills the brain
with nutrition and wonder. I’m right there in the field,
and I’m just doing it.”
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illegal: adj.
against the law; not legal
It is illegal to drive a car that is not taxed and insured.
把烟草卖给16岁以下的人是犯法的。
It is illegal to sell tobacco to someone under 16.
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immigrant: n.
someone who enters another country to live there
permanently
Illegal immigrants are sent back across the border if
they are caught.
新移民主要来自于亚洲和拉丁美洲。
The new immigrants come mainly from Asia and Latin
America.
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put up with:
tolerate or bear
Mary could no longer put up with her husband’s violent
temper.
多年来工人们不得不忍受低工资和恶劣的工作环境。
For years the workers have had to put up with low
wages and terrible working conditions.
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in search of:
searching for
Many of its best-educated residents have been driven to
neighboring counties in search of better jobs.
我们在找地方吃饭。
We are in search of somewhere to eat.
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supervise: vt.
watch and direct
The UN is supervising the distribution of aid by local
agencies in the disaster area.
所有志愿者都由一位有资质的护士来监管。
All volunteers are supervised by a qualified nurse.
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temporary: adj.
lasting for a limited time only; not permanent
Temporary shelters were hastily constructed shortly
after the earthquake.
停战只是危机的临时解决办法。
The ceasefire will only provide a temporary solution
to the crisis.
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response: n.
answer; reaction (followed by to)
In response to local demand, we will be opening this
store from nine till seven on Sundays.
把你对这些问题的答案写在纸的反面。
Write your responses to the questions on the back of
the sheet.
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risk:
1. vt. take the chance of; place in danger (used in the
pattern: risk sth.; risk doing sth.)
When children start smoking, they don’t realize that
they’re risking their health.
当他的公司破产时,他冒着失去房子的风险。
He risked losing his house when his company went
bankrupt.
2. n. the possibility of suffering harm or loss; danger
Some drivers often break the speed limit, and they
think there’s little risk of getting caught.
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There is a high risk of injury in contact sports such as
rugby.
If you tell him the truth, you run the risk of hurting his
feelings.
我们必须停止这些谣言,公司的名声正受到威胁。
We must stop these rumours; the firm’s reputation is
at risk.
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acquire: vt.
gain by one’s own ability, efforts, etc.
The college acquired a reputation for very high standards.
研究使我们对疾病的原因有了新的深刻了解。
Research helps us acquire new insight into the causes
of diseases.
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make (both) ends meet:
earn enough money to live without getting into debt;
balance one’s income and expenditure
When my father lost his job, we could barely make ends
meet.
自从我妈妈被解雇后,我们就很难收支相抵。
It’s been hard to make ends meet since my mom was
laid off.
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environment: n.
conditions, circumstances, etc. affecting people’s lives
As a parent you try to create a stable home
environment for your children to grow up in.
我们已经努力创造一个能让每个人发挥技能的工作环境。
We have tried to create a working environment in
which everyone can develop their skills.
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stand a chance of:
be likely to be able to do sth. or to succeed
Being very good at science subjects, I stood a good
chance of gaining high grades in the final exams.
我认为我没有可能赢得金牌。
I don’t think I stand a chance of winning a gold medal.
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prospect: n.
a mental picture of a future event
There seems little prospect of an end to the dispute.
想到将要见到我的偶像,我激动不已。
I felt very excited at the prospect of meeting my idol.
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reserve: vt.
keep for a special purpose; arrange in advance to have
(sth.) (used in the pattern: reserve sth. for sb.)
These seats are reserved for the elderly and women
with babies.
我想预定两个人的桌子。
I’d like to reserve a table for two.
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rare: adj.
not often happening or seen, etc.; unusual
A new law to prevent the export of rare birds is to be
introduced.
很难得她上学缺勤一天。
It is very rare for her to miss a day at school.
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former: adj.
happening, existing, or true in the past, but not now
Canada is a former British colony.
他前夫现住在休斯敦。
Her former husband now lives in Houston.
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quit: vt.
stop (doing sth.) and leave (used in the patterns: quit
sth.; quit doing sth.)
Would you quit your job if you inherited lots of money?
我希望他停止打扰我。
I wish he’d quit bothering me.
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deserve: vt.
do sth. or have qualities worthy of (a reward, special
treatment, etc.) (used in the patterns: deserve sth.;
deserve to do sth.)
You deserve more than a medal.
说实话,我们确实不应该赢的。
To be honest, we didn’t really deserve to win.
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impress: vt.
have a favorable effect on (sb.); make (sb.) feel
admiration and respect
One candidate in particular impressed us with her
knowledge.
Steve borrowed his dad’s sports car to impress his
girlfriend.
We were very impressed by the standard of work.
这男孩的勇敢和坚定给医生留下印象。
The boy has impressed his doctors with his courage and
determination.
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show up:
arrive; appear
I invited him for eight o’clock, but he didn’t show up
until nine-thirty.
麦克出现了,为迟到而道歉。
Mike showed up, apologizing for being late.
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Quiñones holds her hand and looks into her eyes. “I
walk a fine line every day between good and bad
outcomes, and bad outcomes can mean life or death,”
he tells her frankly.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
金尼奥内斯握住她的手,看着她的双眼,“手术结
果的好坏,使我每天提心吊胆。坏的结果可能意味
着生死存亡。”他坦率地对她说。
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The lab is an extension of his operating room:
Cancerous tissue that he removes in surgery is studied
with the goal of finding new therapies.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
实验室是他手术室的延伸:他在那里研究手术中摘
除的癌组织,借以找到新的治疗方法。
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Retell the Story
Choose one of the following three stories and retell it
to your partners.
Text A Tony Trivisonno’s American Dream
Text B With His Own Two Hands
Henry’s Big Break
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Group Discussion
Discuss with your partners on the topic: The Key to
Success. What have you learned from the three
stories or other such kind of anecdotes?
Tips: curiosity, special gift, intelligence, genius,
patience, determination, persistence, hard work
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Henry’s Big Break
My great-grandfather, Henry A. Benson, is the most
famous person in our family. He rose from delivering
newspapers in his small hometown of Cross Plains, Texas, to
becoming the editor in chief of one of the biggest papers in
the state. He tells many stories about his days as a reporter,
but his favorite one takes place on a late spring afternoon
in 1941. That’s the day great-granddad got his big break.
Inside the offices of the Center State Chronicle, 15year-old Henry took a deep breath. He stuffed his hands
into the pockets of his worn-out jeans so that the paper’s
editor, Mr. Walsh, wouldn’t see how nervous he felt.
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“Mr. Walsh,” Henry said, “I’ve delivered your paper for
three years now. I’ve never missed one day. If you make me
a reporter, I won’t let you down.”
“Henry,” Mr. Walsh replied, “there’s a big difference
between being a delivery boy and being a reporter. Maybe
after you’ve finished school.”
Trying not to let his disappointment show, Henry left
the newspaper office. What was he going to do? He got his
battered bicycle and pedaled across town toward home.
Near an old bridge, Henry saw skid marks on the pavement.
Tire tracks showed where a car had recently left the road.
Henry spotted a sedan lying at the bottom of the ravine.
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Henry flagged down a passing car to fetch an
ambulance. Then he scrambled down the ravine. The car’s
right front tire was shredded, which must have been why
the car ran off the road. The driver lay slumped over the
steering wheel. He was a middle-aged man wearing a
rumpled brown suit.
“Are you all right?” Henry asked the man.
“ . . . Can’t move my right arm,” the driver mumbled.
Henry tried to talk to the injured man to keep him
awake, but the man passed out anyway. Henry understood
the seriousness of the situation and stayed with the man
until an ambulance came. Only when the man was safely
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on his way to the hospital did it occur to Henry that the
accident was newsworthy. Maybe this was the story that
could make him a real reporter!
He raced home and typed up an account of the accident.
Then he pedaled as fast as he could back to the Chronicle
offices. Editor Walsh ran the story and began to realize that
Henry had the right stuff to become a reporter.
In the years that followed, my great-grandfather learned
to be a great reporter. Later, he became one of the most
respected newspaper editors in Texas. No matter how
famous he became, though, he always loved to tell about
the day he got his big break. His story still inspires me
whenever I think about what kind of job I would really love.
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