Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. • Crusades (Holy Wars) Fight against Islam • • • • Battle of Tours Crushing Muslim ideas in Europe Re-conquering Spain Saving the Holy Land (Crusades) Crusades (Holy Wars) • Last 200 years (many different crusades) • Europeans have contact with outside world – emerge from isolationism Crusades (Holy Wars) • Jerusalem – under Muslim control since 700s • Battle of Tours in 732 – Treaty signed by Charles Martel and Muslims • Christians could pilgrimage to Holy Land Crusades (Holy Wars) • 1096 Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I) asked Pope (Urban II) for help fighting Muslims – Muslim Turks invaded Byzantine empire – took control of Holy Land – attacked Christian pilgrims • Pope agrees to help Crusades (Holy Wars) • Pope calls Christians to fight – “God wills it!” – promised remission of sins – wanted increased power – wanted knights to fight Muslims instead of each other Crusades (Holy Wars) • Thousands of Europeans respond – knights • hoped to win wealth and land • adventure Crusades (Holy Wars) • 1st Crusade (1096-1099) – Christians battled Muslims for control of lands in Middle East – only crusade close to achieving goal • long, bloody campaign – Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099 • then massacred Muslims & Jews Crusades (Holy Wars) • Crusader states – – – – Edessa 1098-1144 Antioch 1098-1268 Jerusalem 1099-1187 Tripoli 1100-1289 • Muslims kept attacking Crusades (Holy Wars) • 2nd Crusade – Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 • 3rd Crusade – Richard I and Europeans failed to recapture Jerusalem • Saladin reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims Crusades (Holy Wars) • 4th Crusade – crusaders raid Constantinople (Byzantine capital) • steal wealth • kill Muslims, Christians, and Jews (Christians fight Christians) Crusades (Holy Wars) • Later Crusaders – complete failures – military disasters • Muslims took control of last of crusader states – massacred defeated Christians Crusades (Holy Wars) • Consequences – 1. Languages in Europe altered – now have Islamic words – 2. New products enter Europe – silks and spices – Europeans interested in trade – 3. Center of commerce changed for all of Europe – Northern Italian cities won crusades – Venice, Genoa, Florence became wealthy and controlled trade Result of Crusades • Europeans get interested in trade with Muslims: Muslims are: – highly advanced in science and technology – maintained knowledge of Eastern Roman Empire – maintained trade with India in luxury goods Crusades (Holy Wars) • Consequences – 4. System of commerce changed – bills of credit, checking, banking – 5. Nobility of Europe is weakened – power of nobles declined – many died, including kings – manors left with no leaders or power authority – 6. King was great winner – power of king increased Crusades (Holy Wars) • Consequences – 7. Tremendous increase in knowledge and interest in geography – Western Europeans learned world was much larger than ever imagined – 8. Pope’s power increased, then weakened – late 1200s, heightened power of pope – weakened when Christian knights were defeated Reconquest in Spain • Muslims conquered most of Spain in 700s • Christian warriors battled Muslims for 500 years – campaign to drive Muslims out and recover Spain – “Reconquista” or “Reconquest” Reconquest in Spain • Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 • Their combined forces completed Reconquest of Spain in 1492 Spanish Inquisition • Religious toleration under Muslim rule • Queen Isabella wanted religious unity – ended policy of toleration • The Inquisition – Church court to convert or punish heretics • brutal crusade against Muslims and Jews (those refusing to convert often burned at stake) Result of Crusades • By 1400s, a desire to trade directly with China and India led Europeans to a new age of exploration.