Europe: High Middle Ages
By David, Natalie and Terry
Magna Carta
Imaginary portrait of King John
First introduced in England in 1215
John Lackland, son of King Henry II
and Eleanor of Aquitane, became
King John in 1199
John’s rule was considered
unsuccessful:
Lost territory to the French and
tried unsuccessfully to regain it
Involved in a conflict with the
Roman Catholic Church and
was excommunicated (banned
from participating in the Church)
Overtaxed his barons to fund
his failing military campaigns
Magna Carta
In 1215, angry nobles stormed London
and forced King John to sign and place
his seal on the Great Charter, or Magna
Carta
It first limited the power of the king – he
had to abide to the same laws as his
subjects
Stated that all free men were to be judged
by their peers – foundations of trial by
jury
Was declared as law of England and its
colonies in 1297 by King Edward I
One of the most important documents in
English law – formed the basis of English
constitution and law for years to come
Magna Carta
Magna Carta
King John signing the Magna Carta
Additionally, the
Charter promised
equal justice, no
unreasonable
imprisonment and
no taxation without
representation
The Magna Carta is
part of the
Canadian
Constitution and
inspired the United
States Constitution
The Crusades
Christian Crusades lasted from 1095 to
1291
In 1100 AD, the conquering urges of
Germanic and Viking warriors were
unleashed on Islam with Christian moral
authorization
Crusaders pillaged the East, bringing
back wealth to Western Europe
Shippers became wealthy transporting
Crusaders back and forth
Since Constantine I, Christians went on
pilgrimages to the Holy Land of Palestine,
where Jesus came from
Although Jerusalem was ruled by the
Muslims since 638, Christians were
allowed to visit until the 11th century – the
Seljuk Turks took over and pilgrimages
Fighting during the Crusades
were banned
The Crusades
Pope Urban II
The First Crusade was authorized
by Pope Urban II (1088 – 1099)
He helped Byzantine Emperor
Alexus I in launching the first
Crusade
In his 1095 speech to the Council
of Clermont in France, Pope Urban
II urged Christian princes to
embark on a crusade to save the
Holy Land from the Turks. He
combined the ideas of pilgrimage
with waging a holy war against
infidels (non believers)
He granted Crusaders indulgence
– a special religious pardon where
Crusaders would be forgiven for
their sins for fighting the Holy War,
and would go directly to heaven for
dying in battle
The Crusades
The first group of Crusaders were peasant,
and attacked Jews and other Christians as
well as infidels. They were killed by the
Turks when they reached the Holy Land
5000 priests, workers, knights, prostitutes
and lords dressed as Crusaders and seized
the cities of Antioch and Jerusalem, setting
up three kingdoms: the Principality of
Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the
Kingdom of Jerusalem
7 more Crusades followed, but were
unsuccessful
In 1291, the Crusaders surrendered and
returned home
Siege of
Antioch
The Crusades
Led to the creation of powerful groups
of knights such as the Knights
Templar and the Teutonic Knights
Europeans adapted parts of Muslim
civilization:
Learned to bathe regularly
Acquired tastes for other foods
Began to learn Arabic language
and Muslim ideas
Replaced the Roman numerals
with the Arabic numerals, making
math simpler and easier to learn
Sources
Britannia.com, LLC. Monarchs of Britian: John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006
<http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon28.html>.
Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century.
Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001.
The Baronial Order of Magna Charta. Magna Carta. 19 Dec. 2006
<http://www.magnacharta.com/articles/magna.htm>.
The British Library. Magna Carta - the Basics. 18 Dec. 2006
<http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/basics.html>.
The British Monarchy. The Angevins - John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006
<http://www.qmmemorial.gov.uk/output/Page64.asp>.
Unknown Author. The Christian Crusades. 18 Dec. 2006
<http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/bible/crusades.stm>.
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