Europe: High Middle Ages By David, Natalie and Terry Magna Carta Imaginary portrait of King John First introduced in England in 1215 John Lackland, son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane, became King John in 1199 John’s rule was considered unsuccessful: Lost territory to the French and tried unsuccessfully to regain it Involved in a conflict with the Roman Catholic Church and was excommunicated (banned from participating in the Church) Overtaxed his barons to fund his failing military campaigns Magna Carta In 1215, angry nobles stormed London and forced King John to sign and place his seal on the Great Charter, or Magna Carta It first limited the power of the king – he had to abide to the same laws as his subjects Stated that all free men were to be judged by their peers – foundations of trial by jury Was declared as law of England and its colonies in 1297 by King Edward I One of the most important documents in English law – formed the basis of English constitution and law for years to come Magna Carta Magna Carta King John signing the Magna Carta Additionally, the Charter promised equal justice, no unreasonable imprisonment and no taxation without representation The Magna Carta is part of the Canadian Constitution and inspired the United States Constitution The Crusades Christian Crusades lasted from 1095 to 1291 In 1100 AD, the conquering urges of Germanic and Viking warriors were unleashed on Islam with Christian moral authorization Crusaders pillaged the East, bringing back wealth to Western Europe Shippers became wealthy transporting Crusaders back and forth Since Constantine I, Christians went on pilgrimages to the Holy Land of Palestine, where Jesus came from Although Jerusalem was ruled by the Muslims since 638, Christians were allowed to visit until the 11th century – the Seljuk Turks took over and pilgrimages Fighting during the Crusades were banned The Crusades Pope Urban II The First Crusade was authorized by Pope Urban II (1088 – 1099) He helped Byzantine Emperor Alexus I in launching the first Crusade In his 1095 speech to the Council of Clermont in France, Pope Urban II urged Christian princes to embark on a crusade to save the Holy Land from the Turks. He combined the ideas of pilgrimage with waging a holy war against infidels (non believers) He granted Crusaders indulgence – a special religious pardon where Crusaders would be forgiven for their sins for fighting the Holy War, and would go directly to heaven for dying in battle The Crusades The first group of Crusaders were peasant, and attacked Jews and other Christians as well as infidels. They were killed by the Turks when they reached the Holy Land 5000 priests, workers, knights, prostitutes and lords dressed as Crusaders and seized the cities of Antioch and Jerusalem, setting up three kingdoms: the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the Kingdom of Jerusalem 7 more Crusades followed, but were unsuccessful In 1291, the Crusaders surrendered and returned home Siege of Antioch The Crusades Led to the creation of powerful groups of knights such as the Knights Templar and the Teutonic Knights Europeans adapted parts of Muslim civilization: Learned to bathe regularly Acquired tastes for other foods Began to learn Arabic language and Muslim ideas Replaced the Roman numerals with the Arabic numerals, making math simpler and easier to learn Sources Britannia.com, LLC. Monarchs of Britian: John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon28.html>. Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001. The Baronial Order of Magna Charta. Magna Carta. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.magnacharta.com/articles/magna.htm>. The British Library. Magna Carta - the Basics. 18 Dec. 2006 <http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/basics.html>. The British Monarchy. The Angevins - John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006 <http://www.qmmemorial.gov.uk/output/Page64.asp>. Unknown Author. The Christian Crusades. 18 Dec. 2006 <http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/bible/crusades.stm>.