REVIEW Byzantine empire Who was Constantine in regards to the Byzantine empire? Who was Justinian and what did he do that was significant? (ch.3.1) Who was Cyril and Methodius? Today Open your textbook to page 136-137 Read the Storyteller– at look at the fresco on page 137. Crusade PPT notes Read “A New Europe” and take notes on work sheet. CRUSADES Chapter 4 section 2 Pages 144-146 The Crusades The Crusades -series of eight Christian military expeditions from Europe. Dates: 1096- 1270 Crusader: To take up the cross Motivation: to recapture the Holy land from the Muslims Palestine (the Holy Land): ancient region of southwest Asia, on east coast of the Mediterranean Why the Holy Land is important… Christians- site of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection. Home to original cross and stone of Christ’s tomb. Site of sacred Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Holds variety of Christian shrines. Jews- Torah establishes claim to Holy Land. Believe Holy land gift from God to Abraham and lot. King David brought ark containing original Torah here. Site of King Solomon’s temple Muslims-Qur’an establishes claim that both Jews and Arabs are people of Abraham. Believe God’s gift of Holy land to Abraham meant for Arabs (first Muslims), too. Site of Muhammad’s ascension into heaven. First Crusade-A.D.1096 Three armies of Crusader Knights and volunteers traveled from western Europe to the eastern Mediterranean. Many killed Jews and sometimes massacred entire Jewish communities. This marked the long period of Christian persecution of Jews. First Crusade The three armies met in Constantinople in A.D. 1097. In A.D. 1099, the 3 armies finally made it to the holy city, after a rough trek through the desert. After a two month siege, Jerusalem finally fell. Crusaders killed most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. Some stayed to set up feudal states in Palestine, but many knights returned home. Tuesday 10/22/13 RAP Explain the Crusades. (think about your first part of your notes from yesterday on Crusades) Today: 1. Finish Crusades 2. Begin reading the rest of Ch.4.2: pages 147-153 and complete the questions on your hand out. 1. 2. Complete up to Joan of Arc by Wednesday class! Ch. 4.2 needs to be completed by Thursday! Note check on Friday!!! Third Crusade Muslim forces- were united and took Jerusalem in A.D. 1187. So King Richard of England and crusaders went back to Jerusalem. This crusade lasted from 1189-1192, and was not successful. Although King Richard, of England, was able to win many battles, he was never able to regain Jerusalem. Results Peace treaty of 1192 Crusaders were to keep control of cities north of Jaffa. Pilgrims were free to visit holy places of Jerusalem. Fourth Crusade: A.D. 1204 Despite Pope’s opposition, crusaders attacked Zara, a Catholic Hungarian city. Crusaders then sacked the Byzantine city of Constantinople. Muslim quarter and Christians were attacked. Results: When Greeks regained the city of Constantinople in A.D. 1261, it was in ruins. Permanent split between Latin and Greek Christian churches. Children’s Crusade Children and shepherds, laborers, wanderers, and adults felt they could do something to help. All believed divine would help them defeat the Muslims. Philip II of France demanded children return home. Results: Crusade fell apart when children reached Genoa, Italy Some children died while attempting to sail to the Holy Land Many children were sold to Muslim slave markets Church claimed tragic fate of children crusaders was work of the devil. Impact of the Crusades Christians exposure to Muslim culture. Feudal structure weakened. Increased use of money Kept control of the Mediterranean Greek and Latin churches permanently split Failure of crusades produced bitter feelings towards Muslims. Exchange of Goods Exchange of languages Chess traveled to Europe through Muslims Paper introduced to Europe through Muslims Muslim arch used in European cathedrals Textile industries adapted by Muslims Impact of Crusades On Exchange of Ideas Muslims adapted European military tactics Muslim scholarship (academic works) circulated throughout European universities as Arabic works were translated into Latin. On Muslims Controlled most of Asia Minor but lost Spain. Political fragmentation of Muslim world after Saladin’s death Generally respected Christians as “People of the Book.” “A New Europe” Please begin reading “European Revival” on page 147. As you read please take notes and answer the questions on your handout. Complete the whole section—it is DUE Thursday! No time on Wednesday to work on it in class!