SOCIAL JUSTICE OR INJUSTICE IN EDUCATION SYSTEM IN 6 DIFFERENTS COUNTRIES, Access and quality Luis Fernando Aranguren Why education? 1. “Everybody has right to education 2. Education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms 3. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace” (art.26 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights) BUT? ACCESS & QUALITY Access: – Gender issues – School available, – Free education – Public & private education – Library – Internet and other media – Availability of all possible majors Quality: – Not only literacy and numeracy – Making the teacher training consistent – Traditional system methods – Improve new methodologies – Comparison of different teaching system – Degree comparables with foreign universities Colombia Colombia • • Gender Issues: (Since +/- 30 years ago. The same right School available: – Basic and middle school: • Public: free • Private: expensive 70%* 30%* – Superior education • Public: cheap, • Private: Expensive • * ** 30% public universities * 70% private universities * Literacy rate • Women: • Men: • good quality good quality 92%** 91%** Library and Internet: Main cities: small cities or villages: free access. Not access. Source: Ministry of education. www.mineducacion.gov.co Source: CIA www.cia.gov Colombia Basic and media education students Coverage rates National coverage Year students Coverage rate Source: Colombian education minister Colombia Superior education students Coverage rates National coverage Year students Coverage rate Source: Colombian education ministry Social Justice in Thailand: Educational Access and Quality Wasan Chantong DVM, MSc (PhD student) The Structure of the Thai Education System Pre-primary education (Three years) Primary education (Six years) Lower-secondary education (Three years) Upper-secondary education (Three years) Higher education (Four years for Bachelor’s degree) Educational System and Network Central: Ministry of Education Network: public and private institutions Neighboring countries: Lao PDR and Cambodia School atmosphere Access 1: Educational Opportunity • Gender issues – both Thai male and female are provided equal opportunity to access to life-long education and training • Disabilities – Provide public education to the disabled, the handicapped and the under-privileged. Girl-guides and crippled boy scouts stand hand in hand during their gathering. Access 2: Education Technology System and Information Network •H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn has always paid special attention to education for young people. • Increase and disperse the opportunities for education for all Thais in both urban and rural areas. – Tele-education (Thai-com satellite) – Television set – Computer and internet Access 3: Availability • Universities and Community Colleges – 65 public and private universities and colleges – 17 institutions are community colleges • 150 other educational institutions – offering various vocational degrees •Classroom atmosphere Quality1: Literacy • Currently according to UNDP, the literacy rate in Thailand is 92.6 per cent – male: 94.9% – female: 90.5% (www.cia.gov, retrieved July 26, 2006) • Need to develop more Quality 2: Teachers • High-quality teachers and educators – basic ethical requirements – 5-year-course Bachelor’s degree in Education – Professional certificate – High salary • Inadequate number of quality teachers and financial supports Quality 3: Tradition and new methodology • Traditional system methods – the integration of education, religion, culture and sports into the educational and training curriculum • Improvement of new methodology – the integrative learning process – the "learner-centered approach“ – self-education and life-long education Quality 4: knowledge-based society • On-going access; need time to measure the quality – Power of creativity – A love of reading – Sufficient community-based libraries, learning centers and educational media Jorge Pintor General Background Primary and Secondary School University The Gitano Case Primary and Secondary School Most government-funded/Private institutions Usually good (though not excellent) University Fees (Usually Low) Good students with good marks don’t pay if they apply for government grants The Gitano Case (i) 650.000 gitanos 1.6% of the population According to Alfagueme y Martínez, (2004): 650 550 450 Total NO. of Students Primary School 350 250 150 Secondary School 50 -50 20002001 The Gitano Case (ii) Idiosyncrasy of the family Society/Racism The Gitano Case (iii) Fundación Secretariado General Gitano (1994): 36% of the Gitano students do not attend lessons Social Justice in Brazil : Educational Access and Quality Cristiano C. Nunes Social Justice: Educational System in Brazil Primary Education ? Secondary Education Higher Education Access and/or Quality… Access • Gender issues • Compulsory • Schools available • Free education • Public and private Primary and Secondary School • Important Characteristics – Public x Private – 1990’s http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/LACEXT/BRAZILEXTN /0,,menuPK:322351~pagePK:141132~piPK:141107~theSitePK:322341,00.html – Meals – Library • Higher Education ? Higher Education – General Characteristics • Expansion during 1990’s • Different organizations – – – – Federal State Municipal Private – Federal University Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV • Undergraduate Courses • Graduate Courses • Library http://www.ufv.br/ http://www.ufv.br/proplan/ufvnumeros/numeros2005.pdf Education and Social Justice in Iraq Dena K. Mohammad M.A. American Studies Access to Education Free Education – Free education from elementary to high school – Some state universities provide free education – Private universities are not free Availability of Majors – Certain fields of study are not available in universities Libraries – City libraries are free and available in the three major cities across Iraq – Access to library services is free in schools and universities – Sources and materials are generally old publications / lack of up-to-date materials – Access to internet and media services is strict and limited Quality of Education Access and quality do not go hand in hand – Serious deterioration in recent years – Private education do not promise quality – Absence of social justice in all educational institutes Role of Teachers and Professors – Education is strictly teacher-centered – Serious cases of corruption – Teaching methods are out-of-date Challenges to Education – Successive Wars/Aftermath – Stressful security situation – Financial difficulties/Drop-outs Iraqi school girls talk to USAID education advisors in a classroom of the the Agadir Secondary school in the Saydiya neighborhood of Baghdad. USAID is looking at ways of updating the Iraqi school curriculum Attempts at Recovery – Assistance and recovery programs USAID Assistance for Iraq UNESCO programs – Recovery requires community work to back these programs up Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Education and Discrimination Before 1979, Russian Invasion Access to education was low Education centered only in big cities like Kabul, Kandahar, Heart, Mazar e Sharif Only the families related to the king had the right of education and higher education Students were mostly boys The quality of Education was good and was comparable to other countries After Bonn conference in 2001 Learning strategy Article 45 of Afghanistan constitution: states develop unified curriculum based on Islamic principle National culture Based on scientific methods Religious subjects based on branches of Islam Access to the education is very high and successful 1500000 children went to school in 2004 as well as 2005 All children will be at schools by 2015 Equity education for girls and boys Schools are open for both girls and boys in urban and rural areas according to article 44 of Afghanistan Constitution the state is responsible to develop education all over the country for both girls and boys Quality has become a high priority because the quantity is on a regular and satisfactory progress The Quality is improving by: Curriculum development New textbooks in our national languages (farsi and pashtoo) Teacher education programs Content of education Development of culture of peace Respect for human rights National and international understanding Brotherhood Forgiveness Reconstruction of Afghanistan Safeguarding its territorial integrity and Independence Literacy 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Total Colombia Spain Thailand Brazil Iraq CIA - the World Fact Book Afghanistan peru 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Male Female Colombia Spain Thailand Brazil Iraq Peru Afghanistan CONCLUSIONS • WE HAVE SEEN differences and similarities among countries (multiples perspectives) • WE CAN LEARN from each other’s experiences and educational systems • WE MUST find ways to improve education all over the world Potential obstacles • Political corruption • Ambition and egoism • Indifference • War United Nations role • Second UN Millennium Development Goal (to 2015): ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION: Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. • NEXT STEP: REAL POLITICAL DECISION (NOT ONLY DECLARATIVE) AND, ABOVE ALL, $$$. … United Nations role "We will have time to reach the Millennium Development Goals – worldwide and in most, or even all, individual countries – but only if we break with business as usual. We cannot win overnight. Success will require sustained action across the entire decade between now and the deadline. It takes time to train the teachers, nurses and engineers; to build the roads, schools and hospitals; to grow the small and large businesses able to create the jobs and income needed. So we must start now. And we must more than double global development assistance over the next few years. Nothing less will help to achieve the Goals." United Nations Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan Fulbright role • We, as Fulbright Fellows, are direct witness of the great work that Fulbright does to improve education around the world. • Fulbright gives brilliant students from all over the world (LIKE US) the opportunity to complete the “last step” in our education process. • Also, with its competitive system, Fulbright pushes young students to make a great career in order to be eligible in the future. Our role “With great power come great responsibilities” Spiderman (2002) Please, note the quotation, so do not accuse us of plagiarism. … Our role • We can change that phrase and say “With great education comes great responsibilities” Alonso (2006) –please do not plagiarize the phrase-, and make the compromise to work in favor of our countries, as politicians, volunteers, educators, investigators, business man, etc. … Our role • We have received this great opportunity, and we are in debt to the world.