SOCIAL JUSTICE OR
INJUSTICE IN EDUCATION
SYSTEM
IN 6 DIFFERENTS COUNTRIES,
Access and quality
Luis Fernando Aranguren
Why education?
1. “Everybody has right to education
2. Education shall be directed to the full
development of human personality and to the
strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms
3. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and
friendship among all nations, racial or religious
groups, and shall further the activities of the
United Nations for the maintenance of peace”
(art.26 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
BUT?
 ACCESS & QUALITY
 Access:
– Gender issues
– School available,
– Free education
– Public & private education
– Library
– Internet and other media
– Availability of all possible majors
 Quality:
– Not only literacy and numeracy
– Making the teacher training consistent
– Traditional system methods
– Improve new methodologies
– Comparison of different teaching system
– Degree comparables with foreign
universities
Colombia
Colombia
•
•
Gender Issues: (Since +/- 30 years ago. The same right
School available:
– Basic and middle school:
• Public: free
• Private: expensive
70%*
30%*
– Superior education
• Public: cheap,
• Private: Expensive
•
*
**
30% public universities *
70% private universities *
Literacy rate
• Women:
• Men:
•
good quality
good quality
92%**
91%**
Library and Internet:
Main cities:
small cities or villages:
free access.
Not access.
Source: Ministry of education. www.mineducacion.gov.co
Source: CIA
www.cia.gov
Colombia
Basic and media education
students
Coverage rates
National coverage
Year
students
Coverage rate
Source: Colombian education minister
Colombia
Superior education
students
Coverage rates
National coverage
Year
students
Coverage rate
Source: Colombian education ministry
Social Justice in Thailand:
Educational Access and
Quality
Wasan Chantong
DVM, MSc
(PhD student)
The Structure of the Thai
Education System
Pre-primary education
(Three years)
Primary education
(Six years)
Lower-secondary education
(Three years)
Upper-secondary education
(Three years)
Higher education
(Four years for Bachelor’s degree)
Educational System
and Network
Central: Ministry of Education
Network: public and private
institutions
Neighboring countries: Lao PDR
and Cambodia
School atmosphere
Access 1: Educational Opportunity
• Gender issues
– both Thai male and female
are provided equal opportunity
to access to life-long
education and training
• Disabilities
– Provide public education to
the disabled, the handicapped
and the under-privileged.
Girl-guides and crippled boy scouts stand
hand in hand during their gathering.
Access 2: Education Technology System
and Information Network
•H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn
has always paid special attention
to education for young people.
• Increase and disperse
the opportunities for
education for all Thais in
both urban and rural
areas.
– Tele-education (Thai-com
satellite)
– Television set
– Computer and internet
Access 3: Availability
• Universities and Community
Colleges
– 65 public and private
universities and colleges
– 17 institutions are
community colleges
• 150 other educational
institutions
– offering various
vocational degrees
•Classroom atmosphere
Quality1: Literacy
• Currently according to UNDP, the literacy
rate in Thailand is 92.6 per cent
– male: 94.9%
– female: 90.5%
(www.cia.gov, retrieved July 26, 2006)
• Need to develop more
Quality 2: Teachers
• High-quality teachers and educators
– basic ethical requirements
– 5-year-course Bachelor’s degree in Education
– Professional certificate
– High salary
• Inadequate number of quality teachers
and financial supports
Quality 3: Tradition and new
methodology
• Traditional system methods
– the integration of education, religion, culture
and sports into the educational and training
curriculum
• Improvement of new methodology
– the integrative learning process
– the "learner-centered approach“
– self-education and life-long education
Quality 4: knowledge-based society
• On-going access; need time to measure
the quality
– Power of creativity
– A love of reading
– Sufficient community-based libraries, learning
centers and educational media
Jorge Pintor
General Background
Primary and Secondary School
University
The Gitano Case
Primary and Secondary School
 Most government-funded/Private institutions
 Usually good (though not excellent)
University
 Fees (Usually Low)
 Good students with good marks don’t pay if
they apply for government grants
The Gitano Case (i)
 650.000 gitanos
 1.6% of the population
 According to Alfagueme
y Martínez, (2004):
650
550
450
Total NO. of
Students
Primary School
350
250
150
Secondary
School
50
-50
20002001
The Gitano Case (ii)
Idiosyncrasy of the
family
Society/Racism
The Gitano Case (iii)
Fundación Secretariado General
Gitano (1994):
36% of the Gitano students
do not attend lessons
Social Justice in Brazil :
Educational Access and Quality
Cristiano C. Nunes
Social Justice: Educational System in Brazil
Primary
Education
?
Secondary
Education
Higher
Education
Access and/or Quality…
Access
• Gender issues
• Compulsory
• Schools available
• Free education
• Public and private
Primary and Secondary School
• Important Characteristics
– Public x Private
– 1990’s
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/LACEXT/BRAZILEXTN
/0,,menuPK:322351~pagePK:141132~piPK:141107~theSitePK:322341,00.html
– Meals
– Library
• Higher Education
?
Higher Education
– General Characteristics
• Expansion during 1990’s
• Different organizations
–
–
–
–
Federal
State
Municipal
Private
– Federal University
Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV
• Undergraduate Courses
• Graduate Courses
• Library
http://www.ufv.br/
http://www.ufv.br/proplan/ufvnumeros/numeros2005.pdf
Education and Social Justice
in Iraq
Dena K. Mohammad
M.A. American Studies
Access to Education
 Free Education
– Free education from elementary to high
school
– Some state universities provide free
education
– Private universities are not free
 Availability of Majors
– Certain fields of study are not available in
universities
 Libraries
– City libraries are free and available in the
three major cities across Iraq
– Access to library services is free in schools
and universities
– Sources and materials are generally old
publications / lack of up-to-date materials
– Access to internet and media services is strict
and limited
Quality of Education
 Access and quality do not go hand in hand
– Serious deterioration in recent years
– Private education do not promise quality
– Absence of social justice in all educational institutes
 Role of Teachers and Professors
– Education is strictly teacher-centered
– Serious cases of corruption
– Teaching methods are out-of-date
 Challenges to
Education
– Successive
Wars/Aftermath
– Stressful security
situation
– Financial
difficulties/Drop-outs
Iraqi school girls talk to
USAID education advisors
in a classroom of the the
Agadir Secondary school in
the Saydiya neighborhood
of Baghdad. USAID is
looking at ways of updating
the Iraqi school curriculum
 Attempts at Recovery
– Assistance and recovery programs
 USAID Assistance for Iraq
 UNESCO programs
– Recovery requires community work to back
these programs up
Islamic Republic
of Afghanistan
Education and Discrimination

Before 1979, Russian Invasion





Access to education was low
Education centered only in big cities like
Kabul, Kandahar, Heart, Mazar e Sharif
Only the families related to the king had the
right of education and higher education
Students were mostly boys
The quality of Education was good and was
comparable to other countries
After Bonn conference in 2001

Learning strategy

Article 45 of Afghanistan constitution: states
develop unified curriculum based on
Islamic principle
 National culture
 Based on scientific methods


Religious subjects based on branches of Islam

Access to the education is very high and
successful



1500000 children went to school in 2004 as well
as 2005
All children will be at schools by 2015
Equity education for girls and boys


Schools are open for both girls and boys in urban
and rural areas
according to article 44 of Afghanistan Constitution
the state is responsible to develop education all
over the country for both girls and boys

Quality has become a high priority
because the quantity is on a regular and
satisfactory progress

The Quality is improving by:
Curriculum development
 New textbooks in our national languages (farsi and
pashtoo)
 Teacher education programs


Content of education







Development of culture of peace
Respect for human rights
National and international understanding
Brotherhood
Forgiveness
Reconstruction of Afghanistan
Safeguarding its territorial integrity and
Independence
Literacy
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Total
Colombia
Spain
Thailand
Brazil
Iraq
CIA - the World Fact Book
Afghanistan
peru
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Male
Female
Colombia
Spain
Thailand
Brazil
Iraq
Peru
Afghanistan
CONCLUSIONS
• WE HAVE SEEN differences and
similarities among countries (multiples
perspectives)
• WE CAN LEARN from each other’s
experiences and educational systems
• WE MUST find ways to improve education
all over the world
Potential obstacles
• Political corruption
• Ambition and egoism
• Indifference
• War
United Nations role
• Second UN Millennium Development Goal (to 2015):
ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY
EDUCATION: Ensure that all boys and girls
complete a full course of primary schooling.
• NEXT STEP: REAL POLITICAL DECISION (NOT ONLY
DECLARATIVE) AND, ABOVE ALL, $$$.
… United Nations role
"We will have time to reach the Millennium Development
Goals – worldwide and in most, or even all, individual
countries – but only if we break with business as usual.
We cannot win overnight. Success will require sustained
action across the entire decade between now and the
deadline. It takes time to train the teachers, nurses and
engineers; to build the roads, schools and hospitals; to
grow the small and large businesses able to create the jobs
and income needed. So we must start now. And we must
more than double global development assistance over the
next few years. Nothing less will help to achieve
the Goals."
United Nations Secretary-General
Kofi A. Annan
Fulbright role
• We, as Fulbright Fellows, are direct witness of
the great work that Fulbright does to improve
education around the world.
• Fulbright gives brilliant students from all over the
world (LIKE US) the opportunity to complete the
“last step” in our education process.
• Also, with its competitive system, Fulbright
pushes young students to make a great career
in order to be eligible in the future.
Our role
“With great power come great
responsibilities”
Spiderman (2002)
Please, note the quotation, so do not
accuse us of plagiarism.
… Our role
• We can change that phrase and say “With
great education comes great
responsibilities” Alonso (2006) –please do
not plagiarize the phrase-, and make the
compromise to work in favor of our
countries, as politicians, volunteers,
educators, investigators, business man,
etc.
… Our role
• We have received this great
opportunity, and we are in debt to
the world.
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