Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia-Egypt Themes Notes AP World History Political :Trade, War, Diplomacy, Nation Building Egypt: Mesopotamia: • Isolated city cities function as isolated political units or City-State • • Political structure: Kings ruled city- • states as monarchy (Sargon, Hammurabi) Trade with outlying territories: Egypt, Syria, Near East out-posts, Turkey Babylonians united Mes. (Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BC) Hyksos people from near east settled in Nile Delta. Ousted by New kingdom Pharaohs after bringing bronze working (farming tools and weapons). • New Kingdom: invaded parts of Syria and Palestine • Hittite Rise: People of central Turkey brought new languages and Iron technology as major advancement • Rameses II: last great Egyptian pharaoh (1290-1224 BC) Code of Hammurabi: First codified system of laws Unified Egypt lead by the God-King Pharaoh (Menes, 3100 BC, Old Kingdom) Change and Continuity Mesopotamia: Egypt Change Change Writing system—Pictograph, Ideogram, Phonetic sign Political instability: Old, middle, and new kingdoms experienced periods of collapse, chaos, and invasion. Political unification—began as sovereign city-states, become unified under Hammurabi. Territorial growth and change Metal working technology—Copper to Bronze in Second Intermediary Period (1640s). Continuity Continuity Religion—animistic, polytheism Society: Egyptian society and social structure remained though 1200+years (ex. Pharaoh) Technology, Inventions, and Demography Mesopotamia: • Writing—Pictograph to Ideograms Egypt: • Stone working technologies— Pyramids • Bronze working brought by the Hyksos • Schools • Written Language—Pictograph • Literature • Demography: Spread to Palestine and Syria in New Kingdom Social Structure Mesopotamia • Kings and nobles: King and royal family, priests, and high officials • Free clients: Workers who relied on royal family. Worked noble lands in return for an independent plot of land. • Commoners: Free citizens who could buy and sell their lands. City dwellers had some political rights. • Slaves: Indentured servants, prisoners of war, and criminals. • Women: domestic roles, fewer political rights, men controlled home and political world. Some roles for women in religion and some property rights for women. Egypt Social Structure • • • • • • • Pharaohs: God-King on earth rules divine monarchy Royal family and advisors Scribes and other government officials Soldiers, merchants, artisans Farmers and free workers Slaves Women: Also mainly filled traditional roles, no females allowed in scribe schools • Some female leaders as wife of the Pharaoh, did receive royal burial • Goddesses important part of religion Cultural and Intellectual Mesopotamia: • Polytheistic Religion • Animism—prayed to prevent the wrath of the harsh world • Code of Hammurabi—laws governed crime, medicine, trade, and agriculture. Egypt: • Polytheistic Religion; Osiris, Isis, others. Active after-life mythology. Mummification as part of death and after life. • Short period of monotheism (Akhenaten, 1367-1350 BC). • Pharaoh is god Horus in human form. Divine rule. • Ironworking form Hittites • Spread of Culture: Syria, Near East, Egypt.