Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia-Egypt Themes Notes AP World History Political :Trade, War, Diplomacy, Nation Building Egypt: Mesopotamia: • Isolated city cities function as isolated political units or City-State • • Political structure: Kings ruled city-states • as monarchy (Sargon, Hammurabi) Trade with outlying territories: Egypt, Syria, Near East out-posts, Turkey Babylonians united Mes. (Hammurabi, • 1792-1750 BC) Code of Hammurabi: First codified system of laws Unified Egypt lead by the God-King Pharaoh (Menes, 3100 BC, Old Kingdom) Hyksos people from near east settled in Nile Delta. Ousted by New kingdom Pharaohs after bringing bronze working (farming tools and weapons). New Kingdom: invaded parts of Syria and Palestine • Hittite Rise: People of central Turkey brought new languages and Iron technology as major advancement • Rameses II: last great Egyptian pharaoh (1290-1224 BC) • Depended on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Change and Continuity Mesopotamia: Egypt Change Change Writing system—Pictograph, Ideogram, Phonetic sign Political instability: Old, middle, and new kingdoms experienced periods of collapse, chaos, and invasion. Political unification—began as sovereign city-states, become Territorial growth and change unified under Hammurabi. Metal working technology—Copper to Bronze in Second Intermediary Period (1640s). Continuity Continuity Religion—animistic, polytheism Society: Egyptian society and social structure remained though 1200+years (ex. Pharaoh) Technology, Inventions, and Demography Mesopotamia: • Writing—Pictograph called Cuneiform • Schools Egypt: • Stone working technologies— Pyramids • Bronze working brought by the Hyksos • Written Language—Pictograph • Literature • Demography: Spread to Palestine and Syria in New Kingdom Social Structure Mesopotamia 1. Kings and nobles: King and royal family, priests, and high officials 2. Free clients: Workers who relied on royal family. Worked noble lands in return for an independent plot of land. 3. Commoners: Free citizens who could buy and sell their lands. City dwellers had some political rights. 4. Slaves: Indentured servants, prisoners of war, and criminals. • Women: domestic roles, fewer political rights, men controlled home and political world. Some roles for women in religion and some property rights for women. • Religion: Developed as a system to explain the unexplainable. Violent relationship with gods due to the unexpected nature of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Social Structure Egypt 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pharaohs: God-King on earth rules divine monarchy Royal family and advisors Scribes and other government officials Soldiers, merchants, artisans Farmers and free workers Slaves • Women: Early on mainly filled traditional roles, no females allowed in scribe schools, eventually women were pharos • Some female leaders as wife of the Pharaoh, did receive royal burial • Religion: Goddesses important part of religion. More peaceful relationship with gods due to the predictable nature of the Nile River. Culture Mesopotamia: • Polytheistic Religion • Animism—prayed to prevent the wrath of the harsh world • Ziggurat – Most visible religious structure • Code of Hammurabi—laws governed crime, medicine, trade, and agriculture. Eye for an eye. • Cuneiform – Writing system with wedge shaped symbols. Became basis of Asian language. Complex system; small group used it. Egypt: • Polytheistic Religion; Osiris, Isis, others. Active after-life mythology. Mummification as part of death and after life. • Short period of monotheism (Akhenaten, 1367-1350 BC). • Pharaoh is god Horus in human form. Divine rule. • Ironworking form Hittites Culture Cont. Mesopotamia: • Math and Science 1. Number system based on 60; basis of second and minutes we use today. 2. Astronomy • Great adapters of their environment: Metals (Bronze) ceramics, transportation, and engineering.