Vocabulary
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Geography
Prehistory
Anthropology
Culture
Archaeology
Artifact
Historian
Nomad
Animism
Domesticate
Civilization
Polytheistic
Pictogram
City-state
Cultural diffusion
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Silt
Delta
Dynasty
Pharaoh
Mummification
Hieroglyphics
Demotic
papyrus
Ziggurat
Cuneiform
Criminal law
Civil law
Barter economy
Money economy
Monotheistic
• Covenant
• Prophet
• Diaspora
Civilization Begins
Prehistory – 3000 B.C.
32 questions
Understanding Our Past
• * Archaeologists learn about the human
past by studying artifacts, or objects
made by people, such as tools,
weapons, pottery, clothing, and jewelry.
(Pre-History, before writing)
• * Historians reconstruct the past by
studying written evidence such as
letters or tax records and visual
evidence such as photographs or films.
• Must evaluate information for reliability
Geography, the study of
people and their environments
• * Geographers study five major themes
– Location, where a place is on the surface of the Earth
– Place, physical and human characteristics of a location
– Interaction, how people have shaped and been shaped
by the places where they lived
– Movement, movement of people, goods, and ideas
– Region, places with similar unifying physical, economic,
or cultural features
The Dawn of History
• *Old Stone Age or Paleolithic
age, until about 10,000 BC
– The people were know as hunter
gatherers or nomads
– People made tools, digging sticks,
spears and axes from natural
materials
– Learned to build fires and wear
clothing
– Developed spoken languages
– Religions began
Sungir, Russia, buried
some 25,000 years ago
*New Stone Age or Neolithic
Age….11,000 years ago
• *Humans learned to farm, a
development that transformed
the way people lived
– Planting seeds and
domesticating animals
• * By about 5,000 years ago, the
advances made by early farming
communities led to the rise of
civilizations.
– Social hierarchy
– Accumulation of personal property
– New technologies
Beginnings of Civilizations
• *Cities, first rose in
river valleys
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Water
Farming
Renewable soil
Animals
Transportation
*Eight basic features common
to most early civilizations:
• Cities
– In fertile areas producing a food surplus
• Well-organized central governments
– Needed to maintain order and the surplus
– Divine Right
– Bureaucracy developed
• Complex religions
– Polytheistic, believing in many gods
– Controlling the natural forces and human activities
– People created ceremonies, temples and priests to
intervene with the gods on behalf of the people
Marduk
God of Thunder
• Job specialization
– Artisans, priests, farmers, weapons maker and soldiers
Features
• Social classes
– The importance of the persons job
ranked them socially
• Arts and architecture
– Temples to the gods
– Places for the rulers
• Public works to benefit the city
– Defensive walls, irrigation systems,
roads and bridges
• Writing
– Pictograms
– Leaders needed to keep records
Summary
Review notes and summarize using at
least four sentences
First Civilizations
(3200 B.C. – 500 B.C.)
• Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
– Egypt and Nubia
• * Egyptian civilization is divided
into three main periods:
– Old Kingdom (2700 to 2200 BC)
• Egyptian pharaohs organized a
strong centralized state
• Built majestic pyramids
• Pharaoh was a God
– Middle Kingdom (2200 to 1800BC
– New Kingdom (1800 to 100BC
Egyptian Civilization
• Egyptians worshiped many gods and
goddesses.
– * Amon-Re sun god, Osiris and Isis
– They also believed in life after death
• * Developed special skills for preserving the
bodies of the dead.
– Mummification, for the trip into the after life
Valley of the
Kings
Tutankamun
Hieroglyphics
Picture writing
•* Rosette Stone
Demotic and Greek
• Kept records and histories
of their culture on Stone,
Clay and Papyrus
Egyptian Scientific Advances
• Mathematics developed geometry to survey
fields
• Medicine diagnosing illnesses, complex
surgery and medicines
• Astronomy developed a calendar which we
use today
• Engineering to build the pyramids and
irrigation systems.
– Romans later used Egyptian engineering in their
buildings
Summary
Review notes and summarize using at
least four sentences
City States of
ancient Sumer
• Sumer, the oldest civilization
of the Middle East
– Developed in *Mesopotamia
means “between the rivers”
– On fertile land between the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
– *Epic of Gilgamesh, oldest
works of literature
XI
City States
• * Few natural resources, built
great cities of clay
– Built *ziggurats pyramid temples
– Sumerians made the first
wheeled vehicles
• Each of which had its distinct
social hierarchy
– The ruling family, leading
officials, and priests at the top
– Small middle class of artists and
merchants
– Peasant farmers and slaves at
the bottom
Sumerian Culture
• Women had rights as in
Egypt but not as many
• * The Sumerians invented
the earliest form of writing,
known as cuneiform
– A form of picture writing
• Made great advances in
mathematics and
astronomy.
– 360 degrees and base 6
numbers
Sumerian Religion
• * Polytheistic
The Bull-man is a demon.
He is a man above the
waist and a bull below the
waist. He also has the
horns and the ears of a
bull. He helps people fight
evil and chaos. He holds
the gates of dawn open
for the sun god Shamash
and supports the sun disc.
– Gods controlled
every aspect of
life
– More pessimistic
than Egyptians
Ishtar is the morning and
evening star (the planet we
call Venus), and the
goddess of love and war.
She is shown as a woman
standing on a lion,
generally holding several
weapons.
Invaders, Traders and Empire
Builders
• *Mesopotamia’s location at a geographical
crossroads opened it to a succession of invaders
The Babylonians
•Hammurabi, king of Babylonia
•* Published the Code of Hammurabi on
a stone pillar
•The world’s first major collection of laws
•Both civil and criminal
•Improved irrigation and trained his army
The Persian Empire
• * Darius organized the empire
Darius I - Darius the Great
(521-486 BC)
– Provinces headed by a satrap
– Based taxes on what each could
afford
– Built roads
– Kept moving his royal capital
– Uniform weight and measures
– Introduced coinage
– Tolerant of the customs and cultures
under their control
Effects of
Warfare and
Trade
• * Spread ideas and technology around the
Mediterranean (cultural diffusion)
– Hammurabi’s Code of laws
– Iron-working from the Hittites
– Phoenician alphabet
• Used 22 symbols for consonant sounds
• Greeks added symbols for vowels (p. 109)
Summary
Review notes and summarize using at
least four sentences
The World of the Hebrews
• By 1000 B.C., the Hebrews had set up the kingdom of
Israel in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia.
• Moses led from Egypt to Canaan (Palestine) the
promised land
• King David united the feuding tribes
• King Solomon built Jerusalem and an impressive
temple to God
• Israel divided, Israel in the north and Judah in the
south
• Nebuchadnezzer destroyed the temple and exiled the
Hebrews
• Israel lived under a series of rulers
*Covenant with God
They would obey commandments and worship Him
alone.....God would protect and Cannan would be theirs
forever
• * Monotheistic
– One true god all knowing,
all powerful and everywhere
• * The Chosen People
– Covenant with Abraham
– Renewed with Moses
• God’s laws are set down in the Ten
Commandments and the Torah
• *Believed in Prophets or spiritual leaders who
interpret God’s will
– Preached a strong code ethics
– Saw their leaders as men not gods who must obey god’s
law
Summary
Review notes and summarize using at
least four sentences
The End
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Ancient India and China
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Before Civilization