Golden Era Of Subcontinent
iEARN Learning Circle Project
Places and Perspectives
Session Jan to May 2012
Made by : Class V
Beaconhouse School System
Allama Iqbal Town Chapter
Lahore
Pakistan
Mughal Era (1526-1858)
The Mughals ruled in India for more than 300
years (1526 to 1858).
The Mughal Empire ruled most of India and
Pakistan.
The era of Mughal Empire is written with golden
words in Indian history as this was the period
when the phenomenon of single central ruling
power came into existence in the country.
Prior to the emergence of Mughal Empire,
different regions of the country were ruled by
many Muslim and Hindu kingdoms across the
country.
Mughal Dynasty has contributed immensely with
their culture, tradition, ethnicity and artistry to
the Indian history.
Made by: Usman Ijaz and Muhammad Sheharyar
Mughal Influence in the Subcontinent
One of the greatest Mughal influences is that it gave to
Indian culture new ideas in architecture. It influenced in
terms of giving elaborate designs.
Landscape gardening.
Centralized government system.
Urdu language developed. (Urdu = Persian + Arabic + Turkish)
Mughal cuisine was introduced.
New trade routes with Arabs and Turks.
New style of clothes and jewelry was introduced in the
subcontinent.
Made by: Muhammad Qasim amd Muhammad Rahim Nadeem
Mughal Jewelry
Great Mughal Emperor
The Great Mughal Emperors were:
Babur (1526-1530)
Jehangir (1605-1627)
The Paragon of Stability
Humayun (1530-1556) Akbar (1556-1605)
The Great
Shah Jehan (1627-1658)
Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
The Master Builder
Made by: Mufasser Raza and Huzaiafa Asif
)
Babur (1526-1530
The First of the Mughals
In 1526, a central Asian leader named
Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last sultan of
Delhi, at the Battle of Panipat.
Babur was a descendant of both Timur and
the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan. He
conquered much of Northern India.
The first Mughal Emperor Babur
Humayun (1530-1556)
After Babur died, he was succeeded by his son Humayun in
1530. Humayun was 23 years old.
Made By : Ahmed Shoaib & Shaheer Ahmed
An image from an album
commissioned by Shah
Jahan shows Humayun
sitting beneath a tree in
his garden in India.
Akbar 1556 - 1605
The Great
•
•
•
•
Akbar became the new Mughal ruler at the age of 14.
He built the largest army ever in the empire.
Great administrator
Best known for his tolerance .
Jehangir 1605-1628
The Paragon of Stability
Mughal Empire under
Akbar.
• Jehangir succeeded his father Akbar in 1605.
• He continued many of Akbar’s policies.
• Freedom of worship.
• Continued friendship and alliance with Rajputs.
• Allowed foreigners like the Portuguese and.
English into India for trade
Made by: Qasim Rizwan and Eman Rehan
Shah Jehan (1627-1658)
The Master Builder
• Jehangir was succeeded by his second son
Khurram in 1628. Khurram alias Shah Jahan,
was the fifth Mughal ruler of India.
• He expanded his Empire to Kandhar in the
north and conquered most of Southern India.
• The Mughal Empire prospered greatly during
this reign.
• Shah Jehan was a patron of the arts
• The arts and culture of the Mughal Empire is
admired even today.
Made by: Ammar Riaz and Muhammad Abdullah
The Mughal
Emperor Shah
Jahan is
accompanied by
his three sons
Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
Aurengzeb was the son of Shah Jahan and was the sixth
ruler of the Mughal Empire. He was a devout Muslim.
In terms of tenure he matched the reign of Akbar. The
vision to unite entire India was well realized during his
tenure and in terms of area captured the Mughal rule
was at its peak.
During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the
Mughal Empire to more than 1.25 million square miles,
ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th
The Mughal
of the world's population.
Army under the
The only negative aspect was that he never trained any command of
Prince
of his sons in administration.
Aurangzeb in,
October 1635.
Made by: Muahammad Afnan and Hamza Jillani
Architecture under the Mughal
Dynasty
Art and architecture under the Mughal era was a blend of Islamic and
Persian architecture.
Mughals introduced a lot of innovative ideas when it came to
construction in the subcontinent.
• White marble, red sandstone and Gemstones were used in the Mughal
architecture.
• Nearly 400 monuments have survived a time-span of 132 years.
• Used arches and domes .
• Symmetry and balance stressed designs.
• Used octagons a lot.
Made
by: Moiz Ali and
.
Usman Udin Khan
Architecture under the Mughal Dynasty
(contd)
• Mughal architecture under Babur
witnessed the construction of quite a few
mosques around India.
• The famous architectural groundings
that belong to Akbar are:
•
the fortified-palace of Agra
•
Fatehpur Sikri in Agra
• Jahangiri Mahal, Palace in Allahabad
• Fort in Ajmer
• Jodha Bai Palace
• House of Birbal and his own magnificent
tomb.
Made by: Muwahid Sulatn and Haji Ammar Ali
The royal planned city in Fatehpur Sikri,
situated 26 miles west of Agra, Uttar
Pradesh, had served as the political
capital of India`s Mughal Empire during
Emperor Akbar`s reign. The city is
known to have been built on the Sikri
ridge, in honour of Saint Shaikh Salim
Chisti
Architecture under the Mughal Dynasty (contd)
Shah Jahan left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed
during his reign.
His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, now a wonder of the
world, which he built out of love for his wife the empress Mumtaz
Mahal.
Its structure was drawn with great care
and architects from all over the world
were called for this purpose. The
building took twenty years to complete
and was constructed from white marble
under laid with brick.
Wonder of World
Made by: Ali Hassan and Asad Ahsan
Architecture under the Mughal Dynasty (contd)
Among the other constructions of Shahjehan are
- Red Fort in Delhi
- Large sections of Agra Fort
- The Jama Masjid(Grand Mosque)
- The Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan
- The Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque), Lahore
- The Shalimar Gardens in Lahore
- Sections of the Lahore Fort, Lahore
- The Jahangir mausoleum—his father's tomb
- He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made
to celebrate his rule.
Made by :Roshan Ahmed and Urva Bin Sharjeel Butt
Mughal Art
It is very colorful and detailed.
It involved flowers and floral patterns
The Mughal empire provided a secure framework
within which artistic genius could flourish. Both
Hindu and Muslim artists collaborated to produce
some of the best Indian art.
The Mughal emperors were themselves patrons
of art whose intellectual ideas and cultural
outlook were expressed in the architecture.
Made by: Mustafa Ali and Wajeeh Haider
Science and technology in Mughal Era
Mughal emperor Humayun built a personal observatory
near Delhi.
Fathullah Shirazi a Persian-Indian
polymath and mechanical engineer
who worked for Akbar the Great in
the Mughal Empire, developed a
volley gun.
Made by:Faizan Qasim and Muhammad Bilal
Mughal Society
• The Indian economy remained as prosperous under the
Mughals as it was, because of the creation of a road
system and a uniform currency.
• Manufactured goods and peasant-grown cash crops were
sold throughout the world.
• Key industries included shipbuilding , textiles, and steel.
• The Mughals also maintained various river fleets, which
transported soldiers over rivers and fought rebels.
• Most industry was based in rural areas.
• The Mughals also built libraries in every province.
Made by: Hamza Ikram and Muhammad Siddique
It is agreed among many scholars that the Mughal
empire was the greatest, richest and most long-lasting
Muslim dynasty to rule India.
The Mughal emperors were ambitious and for the
most part able rulers.
Made by : Shahzaib Zafar
Sources
• http://www.indiaonline.in/about/Profile/History/IndianHistory/Medieval-Age/Mughal-Era.html (data taken on 6th May
2012)
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_Empire#Early_history
( access to the site on 1st May 2012)
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_era ( access to the site on 2nd
May 2012)
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_painting ( access to the site
on 2nd May 2012)
• http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0834336.html ( access to the
site on 3rd May 2012)
• The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture written
by Annemarie Schimmel, Burzine K. Waghmar
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Golden Era Of Subcontinent