UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND FACULTY OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION SCIENCE COMMUNICATION SCIENCE 1 ACOM111 LECTURER: MISS A. REDDY EXT: 7038 OFFICE: A2-48 CITY CAMPUS RICHARDS BAY E-MAIL: [email protected] Welcome Thank you for registering for Communication Science (ACOM 111) and welcome to the course. I trust that you will find this course rewarding and enriching. The purpose of this module is to introduce you to the basic principles of communication and to create an awareness of the skills and competencies needed to communicate effectively. The prescribed book for this course is - Communication Studies: an introduction by Shiela Steinberg. The study guide is also available on the website www.comsci.uzulu.ac.za Learning Outcomes • Enhancing your learning skills and developing a variety of learning strategies • Developing your self-responsibility skills • Working effectively with other learners in a group • Motivating yourself to make a positive contribution towards your community • Considering and improving your communicative competence • Stimulating your thoughts on communication as a science • Identifying, formulating and solving practical communication problems experienced personally or in your community • Being sensitive to multicultural communication • Encouraging you to pursue your studies in communication science • Becoming a successful life-long learner. Venue & Dates • Lectures Days Mondays Wednesdays Thursdays Venue A1 - 38 A1 - 38 A1 - 38 Time 08h30 08h30 12h30 Dates 22 March 18 April 17 May Weight 15% 20% 15% • Assessments Assessments 1st term test Major Assignment 1 2nd term test Course Outline STUDY UNIT COURSE OUTLINE ACOM 111 – COMMUNICATION SCIENCE 1 Week 1 Introduction to Communication Science 1 Week 2 Brief History of Communication 2 Week 3 Communication and Human Needs 3 Week 4 The Communication Process 4 Week 5 Perception, Listening and Feedback 5 Week 6 Nonverbal Communication 6 Week 7 Language and Communication 7 Week 8 Intrapersonal Communication 8 Week 9 Interpersonal Communication 9 Week 11 Small Group Communication 10 Week 12 Public Speaking Tentative dates UNIT 1 WEEK CONTENTS 13 Feb – 17 Welcome Feb Overview of course Learning outcomes Guidelines and Rules The Stages of Human Communication 20 Feb – 24 Feb 2 27 Feb – 2 Mar Purposes of Communication Effects of Communication Maslow’s theory Communication as a scientific discipline Communication competence UNIT WEEK CONTENTS 3 5 Mar – 9 Mar Defining Communication Dimensions of Communication Components of the Communication Process Models of the Communication Process 12 Mar – 16 Perception Mar Listening Feedback 19 Mar – 23 Functions of Nonverbal Communication Mar Aspects of Nonverbal Communication Categories of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal skills 4 5 UNIT WEEK CONTENTS 6 10 Apr – 13 Apr Uses of Language Language as a system of signs Social phenomenon of Language Communicative functions of language The self Self-concept Intrapersonal variables Perception of others Improving accuracy of your perceptions 7 16 Apr – 20 Apr UNIT WEEK CONTENTS 8 23 Apr – 4 May Buber’s theory of interpersonal relationships Interpersonal communication and self-disclosure Interpersonal communication and needs Interpersonal communication and assertiveness Presentation skills Defining a group Advantages and disadvantages of small groups Group characteristics Communication networks in small groups Leadership and discussion in groups Differences between interpersonal and group 9 7 May – 11 May communication UNIT WEEK CONTENTS 10 14 May – 18 May Determining the purpose of your talk / speech Analyzing the audience Selecting a topic Researching the topic Writing the speech Organisational techniques for specific purposes Preparing the delivery Visuals Evaluating speeches Course Rules & Responsibilities 1. Attendance to Lecturers • Attendance to lecturers is compulsory. An attendance register will be taken at every lecture. Should you become ill, submit a copy of the medical certificate to your lecturer. Any other reasons for your absenteeism will have to be given to your lecturer in writing. 2. Assessments and tests • These must be written according to the official time-table. If a student is prevented from doing so, the student must inform the lecturer before the commencement of the test • The student must also produce a medical certificate, covering the full period of absence, immediately upon return. • Should the student not write that test for non-medical reasons, then they will receive 0% (zero) for that test. There will be no re-evaluation under these circumstances. 3. Assignments • Assignments are to be submitted during the lecture period (unless otherwise stipulated by your lecturer) • Meet deadlines and due dates as stipulated in the course outline. • Marks will be deducted for each day that the assignment is not late. • Submit original work, no plagiarizing or cheating. 4. Semester-end examination • You will write a 3-hour examination at the end of the semester. This mark will contribute the other 50% of the final mark. 5. Consultation Times • Students are welcome to consult the lecturer regarding problems during the times stipulated by the lecturer. General Guidelines • Dates of assignments and assessments are provided in advance so that you have adequate study and preparation time. If you miss an assignment deadline, your assignment will not be accepted and you will be given a ZERO. Should you experience problems, speak to your lecturer before the assignment is due and not on the due date. • Assignments must be TYPED. • Font size should be 12 and you should use either Arial/Times New Roman. • Use 1.5 line spacing. Cover Page • Name and Surname • Student registration number • Due date • The Topic • Lecturer’s name Content of written assignment • Your written assignment should consist of the following: • Table of contents • An introduction – this should briefly explain how you intend to answer the question (provide aims of the assignment) • The main section of your assignment will consist of all the readings. This must be arranged in a logical way and should be the most important part of your assignment. You should ensure that you have answered the question. • Your conclusion should consist of a summary of the main points. • List of references/bibliography A brief history of Communication • Can you imagine life without your blackberry, facebook, mixit or twitter??? • Did you ever wonder how communication began or how it originated? • Communication has changed dramatically over the past decade. This is due to the rapid development of new technologies. The art of communication science has evolved with time and has undergone various stages to get where it is today. Stages in the history of human communication • Communication as we know it today evolved over a period of time and went through various stages. In early civilisations there was a need to communicate and instruments such as a ram’s horn, drumbeats and smoke signals were used and during the Middle Ages, homing pigeons were used to transmit messages. In modern times communication is often available by means of pressing a button ( phoning someone, sending a message via your cellular phone, typing a letter on computer or switching on the television) Age of Speech and Language • The development of communication did not replace anything preceding it. Gestures, the development of language and the need for interaction with others merely contributed towards modern-day methods of expression. • It is not very clear how language originated. Some believe words imitated sounds that accompanied gesture; others believe words came from expression of emotion (crying or laughing) while another school of thought believes that language resulted because of group activities (like working together). • There are more or less 3,000 languages spoken worldwide today. In South Africa we have eleven official languages and each of these languages has been influenced by other existing languages. Many language characteristics in your mother tongue have been taken over from older languages. Age of Writing • In prehistoric times drawings and pictures of animals and people in cave paintings and cuneiform were used to communicate. • For generations cave paintings provided people with a way of recording customs and traditions • Wedge shaped strokes on clay tables ( known as cuneiformpictographic writing in which symbols represented objects) represented ideas. Sounds were later added to identify pictures and in about 3500 BCE ( Before the common era), the Sumerians used words that sounded similar to create meaning ( for example “bee” and “leaf” created “belief”). A complete cuneiform system had more than 600 signs and a cuneiform script discovered in 1929 contained an alphabet of consonants. Age of Print • In medieval Europe the preservation of learning was one of the major responsibilities of the monks. One way this task was done, was by meticulously copying entire texts onto papyrus (paper had not been invented yet). Crafts men and manuscript copyists also participated in this activity to ensure that books were made available and that information was communicated to people. • In the West, however, at around 1438, the German printer Johan Guttenburg invented a mould for casting individual letters in metal and published the first book in the 1450’s. The Gutenberg Bible (1455) was the first work in Europe to be printed with movable type ( about 200 copies were printed). • News-sheets an early form of the newspaper were later developed, which flourished and circulated rapidly. • Society was easily influenced with the spread of books and information as they could share their knowledge. More people began to read and write. • However the release of the newspaper became the first true mass communication medium. Age of Electronic Mass Media • In modern times personal computers have become known as Multimedia PC’s because various forms of media, such as cameras, telephones, videos, compact disks and images can be integrated to enhance the accessibility and distribution of information. • Mass media is the term used to denote radio, newspapers, television and the Internet- media that can be used to reach the masses. Radio - Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian that was familiar with the work of Samuel Morse, invented the first “wireless telegraph” and patented it in England in 1896. On 12 December 1901 he transmitted his first transatlantic message between Newfoundland in America and Poldu in England. Today Marconi is credited as the father of Radio. The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) was established on 1 August 1936. Film - Two Frenchmen, Niepce and Daguerre invented film during the 19th century. By the early 20th century the movie camera and projector were available and motion pictures became an important source of entertainment. By 1905 cinemas were built in Europe and United States. In South Africa film can make an important contribution to the democratisation and development that needs to take place. • Television - Television means “to see at a distance”. It is transmission of images and sounds to distant screens by means of electrical or radio waves. John L. Baird showed the live television pictures in London in 1926. The first television service in South Africa was introduced on 5 January 1976. Today SABC channels broadcast in all 11 languages reaching an estimated 18 million people. Information Age • Also known as the computer or digital age. • The rapid development of technology has provided greater access to information, in terms of both speed and information. • The explosion brought about by computer technology has led to the revision of many laws regulating access to and communication of information. The Internet • The internet makes use of almost any kind of electronic transmission promoting the sharing of information, enhancing business transactions in terms of reducing time to send and access information and supporting global interaction between organisations and people. • The Internet can be regarded as a universal library, the worlds first viable commercial democracy. The Internet is not free and users have to register with a service provider and also pay for the time spent on the Internet. Some websites provide information free of charge while others rely on subscription fees. E-mail - E-mail has become an essential part of communication within and between organisations. It has replaced letters, faxes and telephone calls in both business and personal lives. E-mail is fast, cheap and reliable. The World Wide Web (WWW) - is a part of Internet in which information is presented. Tim Berners-Lee created it in 1989 at the CERN Particle Physics Laboratories in Switzerland. The WWW combines words, graphics, video and sound, adds colours and includes advertising and downloadable texts and programmes. It is possible to search for information on almost any topic using a key word or phrase. A collection of papers belonging to the same organisation is called a “web site”. Newsgroups and chatrooms - newsgroups and chatrooms enable people who share the same interests from all over the world to communicate. A chatroom is an electronic gathering place for people with similar interests. Teleconferencing - is a way to hold meetings with people who are in different distant locations and is a substitute for face-to-face communication. Videoconferencing and Audioconferencing use telephone and video technology. Telecommuting - enables people to work at home three or four times a week. They are connected to the main office by a computer and is widespread in the United States. Activity 1. The five major stages of the development of human communication are distinguished according to different stages: a) List them in historical order. b) Write down the medium or technological development that characterised each age. 2. Briefly describe the most important social outcome of the development of the age of electronic mass media. . 3. To which electronic mass media are you exposed daily and how has the use of these enriched your life? The Functions of Communication • Ever wondered why we communicate??? • Think about your everyday activities… • When we communicate we have some purpose in mind. Purposes of Communication • The most important purpose of communication is to satisfy a personal or social need. • Needs can be described as the requirements of life. • The various purposes of communication are.. Physical & Psychological needs : physical needs refer to the basic needs required to survive (food, water, shelter & air). Psychological needs refers to the need of socialising and communicating with others. Relationships : the development maintenance of relationships with others. and Sense of self : communication which allows us to gather an insight into ourselves and develop self-concept of who we are by the way people respond to us. Information : society cannot function without information. Information is obtained and shared for various reasons. Decision making : decisions can be made consciously or unconsciously. It can also be made together with others. Persuasion : we often communicate to persuade others to think the way we do. Mass media persuasion. is used extensively for Effects of Communication • The use of communication can have two effects. Intentional effects : refers to the direct and predictable response expected from the communicated message. Unintentional effects: refers to the indirect influences and unpredictable response from the communicated message. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self actualisation esteem social safety survival • Survival – most basic needs such as the physical wellbeing of a person. • Safety – feeling free and secure from danger with order in our lives. • Social – forming meaningful and close relationships with others. Satisfying the need to be accepted, loved, appreciated and belong to a group. • Esteem – the need to be respected by others and yourself. Allowing yourself to become successful by enhancing your self – image. • Self-actualisation – fulfilling your potential and achieving all that you can as a human being. This is the most difficult need. According to Maslow’s theory, people are motivated to progress from the most basic needs ( to survive) to achieving the highest level of needs (to fulfill ones potential and to become all that one is capable of becoming). Maslow believed that motivation deals with conscious and unconscious drives and a primary level need has to be satisfied before the next level of needs can be satisfied. Maslow proposed that those people who have fulfilled their need for self-actualisation can become aware of the fullest potential of humans at large. Communication as a scientific discipline • In modern age there has been a demand for the scientific study of communication to determine whether effective communication is taking place at institutions. • Tools such as scientific study, theories, concepts, models and communication research is used to test our knowledge and assumptions of communication. Communication competence • The success of your communication with your partner will depend on a number of factors, such as communication competence. You will, among other things, have to formulate the words carefully in order to express yourself clearly and concisely. You will have to understand and interpret nonverbal communication and also display the correct and most acceptable nonverbal behaviour. • Communication is a competence which one can learn. Communication skills can be improved by understanding 1) the communication process; 2) different communication categories; 3) elements of communication; 4) verbal and nonverbal communication and by 5) developing effective listening skills. The Communication Process Defining Communication • There is no single approach to communication. • As years went along theorists developed, changed or modified communication theories. • Three definitions of communication will be discussed. The first theory looks at communication as a linear (one-way) process. Communication can be defined as the ‘sending or receiving of messages’ or ‘the transmission of messages from one person to another’. PERSON X MESSAGE PERSON Z The second theory is more complex. Along with the transmission, it includes the interpretation and meaning of messages. Communication can be seen as a two-way process in which people exchange messages. Here communication can be defined as ‘a dynamic process of exchanging meaningful messages’. PERSON X MESSAGE PERSON Z The last theory also views communication as a dynamic process of exchanging messages but as a transaction in which the participants develop a relationship between them. It focuses on the quality of the relationship in which participants negotiate di, transfer and Communication interpretation becomes a of reciprocal messages. process. Communication is defined as ‘a transactional process of exchanging messages and negotiating meaning to establish and maintain relationships’. Dimensions of Communication • Are we able to communicate without using words??? • Communication can take place in various dimensions such as verbal and nonverbal; oral and written informal communication; communication; unintentional communication. formal and intentional and Verbal and nonverbal communication Verbal communication – refers to spoken or written signs called words, which make up a language. Nonverbal communication – refers to communication without spoken messages, it deals with body language such as gestures, touch, facial expressions and use of space. Verbal and nonverbal communication work together to convey the meaning of a message. Oral and written communication Oral communication – refers to messages that are transmitted aloud. Daily we speak and listen to others. Written communication – involves mainly words and is taking place as you read this slide. It also has a nonverbal dimension. Formal and informal communication Communication within this context depends largely on the situation we in. Formal communication – is well structured, more attention is paid to the way in which we use verbal and nonverbal communication. We express ourselves clearly and avoid using of slang. A scene at work or an interview. Informal communication – communicating with ease, less structured. A scene at a friend’s party. Intentional and unintentional communication Intentional communication – refers to communication with a specific goal in mind. Unintentional communication – refers to occasions when communication takes place without the communicator being aware of it. Components of the communication process • The communication process can be viewed as a system. A system is composed of interdependent parts working together to achieve an intended goal. Example: a car – the individual parts work together so that it can function efficiently. • A concept is a word with a specific meaning. Communication terms or concepts that you will study in this unit include: encoding, context, message and feedback. Examples will be used to explain and elaborate each term. People : people involved in the communication process are called the communicator (message source) and the recipient (message receiver). Communication is a dynamic process people therefore interactively play both roles. - The communicator (message source) intentionally forms purposeful messages and expresses them through verbal and nonverbal signs. - The recipient (message receiver) is an active participant who receives and interprets the message, then responds to the message and becomes the communicator and the partner becomes the recipient. Message : communication takes place through the sending and receiving of messages. The message has content which is conveyed during the communication encounter. Messages have a meaning that must be understood and interpreted. Sign and code : signs represent something such as an idea and a code is a system for using signs. You have already learned that communication is both verbal and nonverbal, and that both work together to convey the message. You also know that nonverbal signs such as gestures can sometimes be confusing because people from different cultures use these gestures in different ways. Encoding and decoding : encoding is the process of transforming ideas into verbal and nonverbal signs (create messages); decoding is the process of taking the verbal and nonverbal messages and giving it a meaning. Medium and channel : these are links between the communicator and the recipient. The medium is the physical means of transmitting messages. The channel is the route which the messages travel. Meaning : The reason that meaning is so difficult to define is that it is an abstract concept . The best way of explaining meaning now is to define it as being the outcome or product of communication. Interpretation : involves adding you own meaning to what is being conveyed. Interpretation depends largely on social (shared) and individual (personal) meanings. Noise : refers to anything that distorts the message. Noise is anything that makes the recipient receive a message that the communicator did not intend to convey. There are three types of noises: - External noises : stimuli in the environment that distracts your attention. - Internal noises : people’s thoughts or feelings that may interfere with communication. - Semantic noises : interferences caused by different meanings of words. Feedback : feedback does not always have to be verbal. It is any response given by the participants when communicating with each other. Even silence communicates a message. Context : refers to the different settings in which the encounters take place Models of the communication process • Models help to describe and explain the communication process. • The models capture essential features and help us to visualise the communication process more clearly. • Four theories will be discussed - Laswell’s view of communication - Shannon and Weaver’s view of communication - Schramm’s view of communication - Transactional model Laswell’s view of communication - Emphasises the effect of the message on the recipient. - Communication is a one-way process, the communicator influences others through the content of the message. - The communicator is the only active participant in the process. - It is not a technical model as it draws attention to the importance of the content of the message. Shannon and Weaver’s view of communication - Shannon and Weaver were mainly concerned with finding solutions to technical problems, especially noise, which caused distortions during the transmission process. Also called a technical model - A channel with a lot of noise makes communication between the communicator and the recipient very difficult. Schramm’s view of communication - His model is primarily concerned with the path that a message follows from communicator to recipient. - Communication is seen as a dynamic interaction by two active participants and as a two-way process. - The importance of feedback is highlighted. - Communication here may be interpersonal or mass communication. Transactional model - Uses all elements from previous models and builds on them to show that the communication process is a transaction. - the transactional model illustrates the view of the communicator and recipient. Both participants receive and send messages at the same time. In other words, they are simultaneously involved in negotiating meaning. The type of relationship that develops between them is a crucial outcome of the communication encounter. Perception, Listening and Feedback • Have you ever gotten lost because you did not pay attention to the directions given to you??? • Missed an appointment because you got the times wrong??? • These examples illustrate why listening plays a vital role in the communication process. Perception - When we talk about perception, we are referring to your five senses. That is hearing, sight, touch, taste and smell. These five senses provide you with a great deal of information about the world and the people around you. - we store perceptual information ( i.e information we get through our five senses) in our memory. Because we remember information , our perception of new experiences is to a certain extent, determined by our past experiences. The simple example of touching a hot stove illustrates this point. Once we’ve burned ourselves on a stove, we will be far more careful in future. - However the point is that our perceptions of what has happened and what is happening are sometimes so inaccurate that they give us the wrong impression of people and events around us, and even of ourselves and how others see us. - But understanding how it occurs and the consequences it could have can help us to improve our communication with ourselves and with the people whom we meet. - The two major causes of this sort of distortion are perceptual inaccuracies and the fact that any perception process is always subjective ( subjective means that we interpret things from our own point of view). - perceptual inaccuracies : which is figure is longer?? - look how easy it is to be deceived by the evidence of your own eyes. - The perception process occurs in three principle stages: selection organisation Interpretation -These stages take place relatively unconsciously and almost simultaneously. Listening - A great deal of time is spent on listening. - But the major limitations in establishing and maintaining relationships is the inability of partners to listen efficiently. - The listening process consists of four stages: sensing and attending : sensing the sound vibrations, once identified your brain attends to these sounds. Understanding and interpreting : understand and interpret the meaning of the message. Remembering : storing the meanings received and recall later on. Responding: providing feedback to the speaker. • Types of listening Listening for enjoyment Comprehensive or discriminative listening Critical listening Conversational and reflective listening. Feedback - Verbal and nonverbal feedback by partners in communication indicate the level of understanding or agreement between them. - Feedback indicates whether the message is understood and perceived positively or negatively. - Successful communication depends on the giving and receiving of feedback. Nonverbal communication • Nonverbal communication is used to describe all intentional and unintentional messages that are not written or spoken. • Body movements, gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, eye movement and the use of space, time and touch are all part of nonverbal communication. Functions of nonverbal communication - We cannot study nonverbal messages in isolation. We always study them in relation to the verbal part of the message because, together, they make up the total message. - Nonverbal functions in the following ways: • Reinforces the verbal message • Adds to ( or complements) the verbal message • Replaces the verbal message • Contradicts the verbal message • Regulates the flow of messages Aspects of nonverbal communication - Nonverbal messages are sometimes misunderstood - Three possible reasons are: Leakage : leaking information about ourselves that we cannot hide. Contextual : nonverbal communication primarily conveys relational information (emotions and feelings) depending on the context. Culture: different cultures have different codes of acceptable behaviour in different situations. Categories of nonverbal communication • Kinesics: “Kine” means motion or movement. Movement of ones body, arms, legs, face or eyes are therefore included in the word kinesics. • Proxemics: comes from the word “proximity” which refers to closeness or nearness in space. • Haptics: has also been described as “tacesics” which refers to our tactile sense ( our sense of touch) • Chronemics: comes from the word “chronological” which means arranging events according to dates or a time sequence. • Paralanguage: “Para” can mean beside or by the side of something; the something in this case is language. That is way the word paralanguage includes the quality of the speakers voice, hesitations between words, and other sounds, as well as the speed or rate or the volume and pitch of the speakers voice. Language and Communication - Language denotes different things to different people, but language consists of signs (arbitrary and symbolic) , has different levels of meaning (denotative and connotative) and has various functions, uses and purposes. - Language is needed for people to interpret their social world, to think about experiences and to share information with others because language is the tool by means of which communication processes are mediated. None of the intrapersonal or interpersonal communication processes would be possible without the use of verbal language. • Uses of language - Language is our primary means of exchanging messages. - We can discuss our feelings, thoughts and experiences of the world by using languages. • The three possible levels of meaning of words which can be distinguished are the - Denotative level of meaning - Connotative level of meaning - Mythological or ideological level of meaning • Functions of language - The following communicative functions of language can generally be distinguished: 1. Referential function: conveys concrete, objective information about the content of the message. Example : news reporting or science writing. 2. Expressive function : ability to communicate our emotions, beliefs and opinions and attitude towards a subject. Example : debating a sensitive topic 3. Conative function : use of language to persuade the recipient. Example : political speeches and adverts. 1. Phatic function : use of language for making and sustaining contact with others. Idle chatter which can be meaningless. Example : weather and greetings. 2. Poetic function: use of language for intrinsic pleasure and draws attention to sound, diction and syntax. Example : poetry and proverbial sayings. 3. Metalinguistic function : explore and reflect upon a message. Example : phrases like “understand” or “you know”. • Language as a system of signs - Language can be defined as a unified system of signs and the grammatical rules that permit sharing a meaning. - We construct messages using linguistic signs or words using the rules of the language that we speak. - English, isiZulu, French and so on are classified as language systems. - Words are signs that stand for something. There are natural and arbitrary (symbolic) signs. - Natural signs refer to a natural connection such as a sneeze which refers to hayfever. - Arbitrary signs are those signs that people created and are common. a tree can represent vegetation because people have chosen to associate it with vegetation. • Language as a social phenomenon o Verbal language is used when people interact (communicate) with one another and to build relationships between people. Verbal communication is conveyed either orally or in printed form and can be found in different settings, such as face-to-face communication, mass media or when using the Internet. o Before people can effectively communicate with one another by means of a language, they need to acquire an understanding of what words actually mean and a mutual understanding of connotations attached to words. Intrapersonal Communication • As humans we are constantly involved in planning, dreaming, thinking and worrying about what is going on around us – i.e communication within the self to the self. • The Self - The self is used to describe who and what we think we are (personal identity). - It is made up of 2 dimensions : internal (private self) and social (public self). - We in fact have many features to ourselves including the physical, emotional, intellectual, and moral selves. • Self concept - Refers to everything that we think and feel about ourselves. - It is the mental image that we communicate with to other through the way we behave in a particular situation. • Development of self concept - Self concept is shaped by our relationships with others. - The way we perceive ourselves depends largely on how we believe other see us. - If you are positive about yourself, you will develop a positive self concept. If you feel negative about yourself and the impression others have of you, the more negative your self concept will be. • Intrapersonal variables - We all have intrapersonal variables. Whether or not we realise it. Intrapersonal variables are our attitudes, values, beliefs, opinion and prejudices. And of course, the people with whom we interact also have attitudes, values, beliefs, opinions and prejudices which do not always coincide with ours. o Values are the moral and ethical judgements we make about things that are important to us. o Attitudes are the learned reaction to a person or situation.it implies a negative or positive evaluation of someone or something. o A Belief is anything that is accepted as true without judgement, an opinion is your personal viewpoint and prejudices are usually stereotypes which are accompanied by strong emotions. • Perception of others - We often judge others by their appearance. We use the way someone dresses, walks, speaks and even the car they drive to label him or her. It is only after closer investigation that we realise that the older man who drives a battered car is in fact a professor, or that the blonde woman who always wears daring mini-dresses is in fact a computer whizz. However as you know by now, we cannot always rely on the evidence of our senses. • Improving the accuracy of your perceptions - Recognise your own strengths and weaknesses which will allow you to get to know yourself. - Develop a positive but accurate self image of yourself. - Your perceptions of others are not always correct so allow yourself to revise them. • Interpersonal communication - This unit is mainly concerned with one-to – one, face- to – face relationships- in other words, relationships between two people, who are in each other’s physical presence, who can watch each other during the communication process, and who can give each other immediate feedback. • Buber’s theory of interpersonal relationships - Buber suggested that the basis of human existence is that people are communicating beings. - He identified two types of interpersonal relationships. I – you relationships I – it relationships • The difference lies in the nature of the communication that takes place between them. The concepts dialogue and monologue makes it easier to understand the difference. • Dialogue : is a conversation in which both participants can equally express and interpret each others messages. • Monologue : is a conversation where the communicator is seen as the only participant, as he does not take into account the other persons view or allow them to respond meaningfully. • I – you relationships - Partners approach each other with mutual respect, sincerity, honesty with the intention of participating in a reciprocal relationship. - A space opens up between people which Buber calls an interhuman domain - the dialogue unfolds and “you” and “I” become “we”. - The relationship is based on intersubjectivity (acknowledge and understand their differences) and individuality. • I – it relationship - The attitudes and intentions of the I is that his partner is not an equal subject but an object to be manipulated for personal gain. - The intention of the I is to persuade the views and needs by conducting a monologue. - This relationship is characterised by self centeredness, pretence, manipulation and exploitation. - It does not include the option of agreement to differ. • Interpersonal communication and needs - Theories have been developed about interpersonal needs and allow us to understand why we and others behave the way we do in our relationships. - Schutz developed an interpersonal theory that people need people. He suggests that we need to satisfy three basic human needs to develop interpersonal relationships with others. • Schutz’s interpersonal needs theory. - Need for inclusion : a desire for social contact, be in the company of others and maintain a feeling of mutual interest with them. Oversocial people : continually seek the companionship of others. Undersocial people : prefer being left alone. Adaptable – social people : balance their need for inclusion and privacy. - Need for affection : we all need opportunities to show and receive affection from others. To form emotionally close relationships and express the affection verbally and nonverbally. Overpersonal people : have a high need of relationships with others, confide in others and express feelings freely. Underpersonal people : avoid close ties, value privacy and have little need for affection. Personal people : express and receive affection when desirable but can maintain a distance when necessary. - Need for control : the desire both to successfully manage and influence events and people around you and allow other to establish control. Autocrats : dominate others, must be in charge and become anxious if they are not in charge. Abdicrats : people with a strong need to be controlled, prefer not to make decisions or accept responsibility, submissive and abdicates all power to their partners. Democrats : know when it is appropriate to control but is also comfortable submitting to others when necessary. • Homan’s social exchange theory - This theory suggests that, when we enter into communication, we look at what we get from the encounter. The exchange is two-way: each partner has something the other desires or values, so , for Homan’s, communication is similar to a commercial exchange between a buyer and a seller. In the same way that we do not go into business with the expectation of losing money, we do not put time or effort into a relationship we feel we are getting nothing or little out of it. -Homan’s theory uses economic terms such as “profit" and “loss” to describe an interpersonal outcome or “exchange”. If, for example, an interaction between two people, is positive, the outcome of the relationship is regarded as a profit. If the interaction is negative, the outcome of the relationship is regarded as a loss. A profit or reward means that you gain something for yourself; it does not have to be money. Cost , on the other hand, has a negative meaning, and can be regarded as a kind of punishment. • Interpersonal communication and self-disclosure - self-disclosure means to reveal personal information such as inner experiences and private thoughts. We usually hide this type of information from others. - Please note that while self-disclosure is essential to the growth of meaningful interpersonal relationships, it is in intrapersonal communication that we decide how much information about our private self we are willing to reveal to other people. A model of self-disclosure (The Johari window) - The window represents yourself. The self includes everything about you, including things you do not even know about. Do you agree that, as a relationship becomes closer, the open pane grows larger? And that the hidden quadrant in the window is usually fairly large at the beginning of a relationship, but becomes smaller as the open pane grows larger? As you learn and disclose more about yourself to others, the unknown quadrant becomes smaller and smaller. • Because we can never know ourselves completely, the unknown pane will always exist. But, as people get to know us better, they may tell us thinks about ourselves that we did not know about- in other words, information that comes from the unknown pane. As this happens, the blind panethat is, the pane that contains information about ourselves that we do not know – will become smaller. This is how our close relationships help us to gain self-knowledge. Too see how the size of the panes changes as we self-disclose, look at the two Johari windows drawn below. Start your analysis by looking at the biggest pane. Open pane Blind pane Open pane Hidden pane Blind pane Unknown pane Unknown pane Window A Hidden pane Window B The four quadrants are interdependent, thus a change one quadrant will affect the others. • Window A has a large hidden pane and a small open pane. Window A represents someone who is not prepared to share his or her self with others. It is usually very difficult for this sort of person to form close relationships. • Window B has an extremely large open pane and a very small hidden pane. Window B is regarded as being the ideal window for an intimate relationship. • Interpersonal communication and assertiveness - Assertiveness training has become common practice, more recently, assertive behaviour as a communication skill has begun to be valued in South Africa. Everyone needs to learn assertiveness as a communication skill. - What exactly is assertiveness? The first point to remember is that being assertive is not the same as being aggressive. Being assertive enables you to express yourself clearly and confidently without putting down yourself and without putting other people down. • Assertive styles - Three communication styles of coping with situations. - passive style : suppressing feelings to avoid conflict and rejection. - aggressive style : lashing out at the source of discomfort with little concern for the situation or feelings of others. - assertive style : neither avoid conflict nor dominate a relationship but communicate feelings and opinions honestly and clearly without hurting others. • Small Group Communication - All of us spend time in groups. - Some groups are formal and others informal. - Socially oriented(human need for social contact) and task oriented (problem solving/ achieving specific outcomes). Defining a group - a group is a collection of individuals who see themselves belonging, interacting, occupying certain roles to achieve a certain goal. - A small group is composed of twelve or fifteen people interacting face-to-face influencing others and being influenced by others. Advantages of small groups - Pooling of resources and information to achieve goals and reach decisions. - increase in individual motivation and commitment to the tasks. - Superior decisions and solutions are often reached because groups are better equipped than individuals. - Having one’s ideas confirmed by others provides a feeling of personal satisfaction. Disadvantages of small groups - the temptation to allow others to do all the work. - The temptation for forceful people to take over and dominate the group. - Personal goals of the group members sometimes conflict with group goals to the extent that they interfere with group objectives. Group characteristics - optimum number of members : small group consists of three to twelve or fifteen people. Five to seven people in a group is the most productive size as it is large enough to share information and workload it also allows each member maximum participation. An odd number makes it easy to vote and will prevent tie votes. - Good working environment : promotes interaction among its members. Seating that is too formal or too informal inhibits free discussion. The ideal arrangement of tables allows everyone to see each other and everyone has a equal status, establishing a climate of equal opportunity for all. The climate concerns the atmosphere in the group and I dependent on the communication styles of the members. Group climate affects the cohesiveness and commitment of the members to the task in hand and to group norms. - Cohesiveness and commitment to the task : groups that succeed in achieving their goals are committed and strive to meet the group's goals. Effective groups are usually cohesive in that every member actively work together as a group and help one another as group members. - Group norms : norms are the rules of behaviour expected for a group to operate effectively and to develop cohesiveness. - Group interaction and group procedure are two important areas of norm development. - Filling role requirements : members of the group play or fulfill certain prescribed roles. In effective groups, members understand and fill various roles such as task and maintenance roles that enable the group to function. Problems arise when members deliberately play self-centered roles and dominate the discussion. Communication networks in small groups - The structure of the group plays a major role in the effectiveness of communication in the group. Communication networks provide a way of looking at a group structure. Communication networks are recurring patterns of interaction (who talks to whom in a group). Draw diagram from textbook • The wheel, chain and Y are centralised networks. In centralised networks the person with the most channels of communication tends to become the group leader. • The circle and all-channel patterns are decentralised and sometimes leaderless. Leadership in groups - Leadership is defined as any behaviour that facilitates group task accomplishment. Effective leaders are able to help a group attain both task and maintenance functions. Many theories have been developed about leadership. Leadership traits and leadership styles will be discussed. - Leadership traits : effective leaders display consistent traits which relate to ability, sociability, motivation and communication skills. - Leadership styles : quality of work produced by groups depends on the style of leadership of the group leader. There are three different leadership styles, namely authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire styles. Authoritarian leaders are strongly task oriented and have opinions on how to achieve the groups goals. They exercise direct control, make decisions without consulting the group which causes conflict and group satisfaction is low. Democratic leaders are people oriented. They guide rather than direct by involving all members. Produces high quality results, opportunities, motivation and desire to communicate. laissez-faire leadership usually does not direct the group at all. They supply information but do not actively participate in group decisions. The group has the final say. The group can suffer from loss of direction and the quality of work they produce suffers. Public speaking - How would you react if someone asked you to give a speech at some occasion? - “Sure, any time!” or “Me, give a speech? Forget it!” - Public speaking is seen as a context of communication science- something that takes place in the public domain. It can also be seen as a skill that a person acquires and practises.. there are people who have a natural talent for giving speeches, but with a few basic principles under the belt, anyone can give a speech. • Determining the purpose of your talk / speech - The topic might be selected by the person or organisation that has invited you or you may be free to select the topic yourself. - The first step should be to decide the purpose of your talk. - Most oral presentations have four purposes: to inform, to instruct, to persuade or to entertain. • Analysing the audience - Asses the nature, needs and interests of the people who will be listening to you. - Gather information about the audience which can help you decide on a topic that will capture their interest and attention and guide you in organising and presenting the talk. - Three factors to consider: characteristics of group, psychological makeup of listeners and the place in which you will be talking. • Selecting a topic - The subject area of the talk - Specific topic within the subject area - Purpose of the talk - Topic statement • Researching the topic - Information you provide must be correct and soundly based. - Two sorts of material: information for the content of your talk and illustrations, statistics, expert opinions and quotations. - Research can be done using materials at libraries or on the internet, conducting interviews and drawing on personal experiences and observations. • Writing the talk - The written preparation determines the quality of the end result. Organise in a logical order, making it easier for the audience to understand. - Three main parts : introduction, body, conclusion. - Introduction: states the purpose of your talk, gain audiences attention and establishes rapport. - Body: elaborates on the ideas of the introduction using a logical pattern. - Conclusion: reinforces the central idea, sum up and tie up main points together, remind and motivate audience to think or act on ideas presented. • Organisational techniques for specific purposes - Informative talks : increases the audiences knowledge and understanding of topic. If the main idea is abstract you need to support it with concrete evidence. - Use statistics, specific examples and quotations to achieve this. - Instructive talks : you usually want the audience to be able to do something. - Using information and putting it into practice by using a variety of props or aids to demonstrate what you are describing. - Persuasive talks : the goal is usually to establish a need and show how it can be met or describe a problem and provide solution. • Preparing the delivery - Using notes : serves as reminders, small cards with the main ideas in point form. - Language of oral message : must be personal and direct and give the listener instant comprehension of meaning. Use your active voice and use vocabulary they will understand or explain any technical terms used. - Using your voice : you must be clear and the enunciation correct and distinct. - Body movement : nonverbal messages increases your chances of success. You appear relaxed and natural and it helps measure the audiences reactions. The way you dress is also a nonverbal message. Clothing and personal appearance influences the audiences initial impression. - Dealing with questions : decide in advance when the audience can pose their questions. This allows the speaker to clarify points raised in the talk. Remain courteous and avoid sarcasm. • Visuals : using visuals or graphics increases the effectiveness of your presentation. They help to attract and hold the audiences attention. • Evaluating speeches : One of the best ways of sharpening your public speaking skills is to evaluate your own and other speaker’s speeches.