Nonverbal
Messages: Body &
Sound
Chapter 6
Nonverbal Communication
• Massages expressed by other than
linguistic means
I.
Body Communication
Kinesics- Body Positions and Motion
Body Orientation
Posture
Gestures
Emblems
Illustrators
Affect Displays
Regulators
Adaptors
• Body Orientation: The degree to which we
face toward or away from someone during
communication.
• Posture: The alignment of or bodies
• Gestures: The movement of the arms and
hands
• Emblems
are a nonverbal
substitute for the
verbal message
• Deliberate nonverbal
behaviors that have a very
precise meaning, known
to everyone within a
group.
Illustrators
visually demonstrate & accompany
the verbal message
The fish
was this big
Affect Displays
any emotional response
Regulators
group of behaviors that encourage or
discourage communication
Adaptors
satisfy some need
Facial Communication
the communication of emotions
• A. Face Management
– Intensifying = exaggerate expression.
– De-intensifying = to underplay an expression
– Neutralizing = to hide any expression of
feelings
– Masking = to replace one expression with
another
Eye Communication
Functions of Eye Contact
1.
2.
3.
seek feedback
regulate the flow of
communication
signal the nature of the
relationship
a.
duration & quality
b. visual dominance
= aggressive stare
c. Eye Avoidance
Paralanguage
the vocal, but nonverbal, dimension of speech.
Refers to the manner in which you say
something rather than what you say
•
•
•
•
•
•
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Rate
Volume
Pitch
Rhythm
Silence
Disfluencies
•
I need this job done right now.
• I need this job done right now.
• I need this job done right now.
• I need this job done right now.
I.
Spatial Messages
• A. Edward T. Hall’s 4
Intimate
Personal
Spatial Distances
Social
Public
1. Intimate:
0 - 18”
2. Personal:
18” - 4’
3. Social:
4’ -12’
4. Public:
12-25’
B. Theories About Space
• 1. Protection Theory = you establish a
body buffer zone around yourself as
protection against unwanted touching or
attack
• 2. Equilibrium Theory =
intimacy and distance vary together
Territoriality = possessive
reaction to objects/area
• A. Home Field Advantage
• B. Markers
1. central = place items in the
middle to show ownership
2. boundary = separates
your territory from
another
3. ear marker =
identifying mark of
property
III. Artifacts = messages
conveyed by objects that were
made by human hands
• A. Space Decoration
• B. Color Communication
• C. Clothing & Body Adornment
D. Scent (Olfactics)
•
•
•
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
Attraction
Taste
Memory
Identification
III. Temporal Communication
(Chronemics)
A. Cultural
Time
1. formal time = manner
in which culture defines
time
2. informal time
= loose use of
time terms
B. Monochronism &
Polychronism
• 1. monochronic (M-time) = value punctuality,
one event at a time
• 2. polychronic (P-time) =process is more
important than the schedule
a. do not value punctuality
b. do many events at once
C. Psychological Time =
emphasis on past, present, or
future
1. developed by your
culture (SES, frame of
reference)
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Nonverbal Messages: Body & Sound