Communications
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Introduction
Language
Nonverbal Communication
Listening
Public Communication
Factors in Securing Professional
Employment
• 1. Oral
Communication
• 2. Listening Ability
• 3. Enthusiasm
• 4. Written skills
• 5. Technical
Competence
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6. Appearance
7. Poise
8. Work Experience
9. Resume
10. Specific Degrees
Held
Communication Principles
• Communication can be intentional or
unintentional.
• It is impossible NOT to communicate.
• Communication is irreversible.
• Communication is unrepeatable.
Communication Misconceptions
• Meanings are not in words.
• More communication is not always
better.
• Communication will not solve all
problems.
• Communication is not a natural ability.
Characteristics of Competent
Communicators
• A wide range of
behaviors
• Ability to choose the
most appropriate
behavior
• Skill at performing
behaviors
• Commitment
• Perspective
• Self-Monitoring
Self-Monitoring
Perception
• “I am not
what I think I
am. I am not
what you
think I am. I
am what I
think you
think I am.”
Bleiberg and
Leubling
Stereotyping
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Women are _________________.
Men are ____________________.
Hispanics are ________________.
Teenagers are _______________.
Dancers are _________________.
Politicians are ________________.
People with AIDS are __________.
Cultural Differences
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Language
Nonverbal behaviors
Beliefs about talk and silence
Eye contact
Proximity
Accuracy or Inaccuracy?
• We judge ourselves
more charitably than
others.
• We cling to first
impressions.
• We assume others
are similar to us.
• We are influenced
by the obvious.
Perception Checking to Prevent
Misunderstandings
• Describe the
behavior.
• Suggest possible
interpretations of
the behavior.
• Request clarification
about how to
interpret the
behavior.
• “You said you really
liked the job I did,
• But something in
your voice made me
think you may not
be happy with it.
• How do you really
feel about my
work?”
Language is
• Symbolic
• Subjective
• Rule-governed
• Phonological Rules
(sound)
• Syntactic Rules
(arrangement)
• Semantic Rules
(meaning)
• Pragmatic Rules
(interpretation by
context)
Messages take on different
meanings.
• “Let’s get together
later.”
• “You look really
pretty today.”
• What does it mean if
your friend says it?
• What does it mean if
your boss says it?
Impact of Language
• Identity
• Affiliation
• Power
Abuse of Language
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“Family Catches Fire Just in Time.”
“20 Year Friendship Ends at Altar.”
“We never do anything fun anymore.”
“You need to have a better attitude.”
“These (those) people need our help.”
“It’s not bad .” “It’s good.”
Taking Responsibility for It
• “It bothers me when
you’re late.”
• “It’s nice to see
you.”
• “It’s a boring class.”
• “I’m worried when
you’re late.”
• “I’m glad to see
you.”
• “I’m bored in the
class.”
Taking Responsibility for But
• “You’re really a
great person…….
• “You’ve done good
work for us………
• “This paper has
some good ideas…..
• BUT I think we
should stop seeing
each other.”
• BUT we’re going to
have to let you go.”
• BUT I’m giving it a D
because it’s late.”
“I” vs. “You”
• “You’re always late.”
• “You need to have
more discipline in
your classroom.”
• “When you aren’t
here by 7:30, I have
to leave my duty
station to cover
yours.”
• “When you don’t
have a tardy policy,
I have a hard time
dealing with your
referrals.”
Three Parts to the “I” Statement
• Describe the behavior: “When you
don’t turn in your grades on time...
• Describe your feelings about it: “I can’t
meet the deadline for data processing…
• Describe the consequences for you:
“and our student report cards will be
late to parents.”
“We” vs. “You”
• “You need to be
more organized.”
• “You shouldn’t be
wasting time on that
activity.”
• “You don’t have
control of your
classroom.”
• “We need to work
on a format for your
daily lesson plans.”
• “I would like to see
us focus more on
the SS Standards.”
• “We need to figure
out how to manage
your difficult
students.”
Three Bad Habits
• Fact/Opinion
Confusion
• Fact/Inference
Confusion
• Emotive
Language
• I’m casual.
• You’re a little
careless.
• He’s a slob.
Gender and Communication
Gender and Language
• Content: Women discuss relationships;
men discuss events.
• Reasons: Women use conversation to
nurture; men use conversation to
accomplish the job at hand.
• Style: Women use questions and
justifiers; men use directives and
interruptions.
Nonverbal Communication
• No matter what we
do, we give off
information about
ourselves.
• Nonverbal
communication
makes up 60-90%
of our messages.
Unintentional behaviors differ
from deliberate ones.
Nonverbal communication is
culture-bound.
Nonverbal communication serves
many functions.
• Repeats
• Substitutes
• Complements
• Accents
• Regulates
• Contradicts
Types of Nonverbal Communication
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Body orientation
Posture
Gestures
Facial expressions
Vocal tones
Touch
Physical
attractiveness
• Clothing
• Proxemics
• Territoriality
Nonverbal communication is
ambiguous.
Deception
• Young people are better at uncovering
lies than older people are.
• Women are more accurate than men at
detecting lying; however, women are
more likely to fall for the deception of
intimate partners than are men.
• We are more likely to be deceived by
those we know well.
When our nonverbal communication
contradicts our verbal
communication, the nonverbal
messages are more powerful.
“What you do speaks so loud that
the world can’t hear what you
say.”
Dangerous Mistakes
• Criminals select victims on the basis of
the vulnerability shown in their posture.
• A tense posture indicates lack of power.
• Children, poor listeners, and people
with low intellects do not understand
sarcasm.
• Touch boosts compliance.
• We are more likely to obey people
dressed in a high-status manner.
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• Students are more responsive to
teachers who reduce the distance
between themselves and their classes.
• We grant people with higher status
more personal “territory.”
• Low-status people must never make
more important people wait.
We spend more time listening than
participating in any other form of
communication.
Elements of Listening
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Hearing
Attending
Understanding
Responding
Remembering
“Everybody’s talkin’ at me - I don’t
hear a word they’re sayin’ - Only the
echoes of my mind.”
Types of Nonlistening
• Defensive listening
• Ambushing
• Insensitive listening
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Pseudolistening
Stage-hogging
Selective listening
Insulated listening
Who’s listening?
• 20% are thinking about sex.
• 20% are reminiscing about something.
• 20% are paying attention, but only
12% are listening actively.
• The rest are worrying, daydreaming,
thinking about lunch or religion.
Devil’s Dictionary - by
Ambrose Bierce
• Bore - a person who
talks when you wish
him to listen
• Conversation - a fair for
the display of the minor
mental commodities,
each exhibitor being too
intent upon
arrangement of his own
wares to observe those
of his neighbor.
• Egoist - a person of low
taste, more interested
in himself than in me
• Heaven - a place where
the wicked cease from
troubling you with talk
of their personal affairs,
and the good listen with
attention while you
expound your own.
Why don’t we listen?
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Message overload
Preoccupation
Rapid thought
Effort
External noise
• Hearing problems
• Faulty assumptions
• Lack of apparent
advantages
• Lack of training
How can we listen better?
• Talk less.
• Get rid of
distractions.
• Don’t judge
prematurely.
• Look for key
ideas.
• Ask questions.
• Paraphrase.
Public Presentations
• Content (what you say)
• Delivery (how you say it)
• Media (what they say you said)
Before you begin, you should
know…….
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Your purpose
Your audience
Your subject
Your objective (in 25 words or less)
Three major points
How much time you have to speak
How the program is arranged
What should be written?
• Objective
• Main points in
outline form
• Opening
• Closing
• Do not write out
your entire
speech.
• Do not read your
speech.
• Use notes if
necessary.
• Practice!!!!!!!
Effective Delivery
• Use simple words
• Don’t use lots of
numbers
• Maintain eye contact
• Don’t memorize
• Gesture and move
naturally
• Channel nervous
energy into
enthusiasm
Dealing with the Media
• Know who you’re
dealing with.
• Ask for time if you
need it.
• Don’t say anything
you don’t want to
see in print.
• If you don’t know
the answer, say so.
Transition Techniques
• Step I: Take the question, let the questioner
finish, and do not interrupt.
• Step II: Use a transition phrase to revert to
your own agenda:
– “Our main concern is…”
– “Our top priority is…”
– What we are focused on is…”
Close the interview.
Use transitions to
• Avoid giving personal opinions.
• Avoid hypothetical statements.
• Avoid interpreting facts beyond your
area of expertise.
• Avoid leading questions that detract
from your public record or the integrity
of your message.
Other Good Advice
• Don’t do interviews
in your private
office.
• Treat phone
interviews just like
formal interviews.
• Tape your interview
if the situation is
controversial.
Never……………..
• Say “no comment.”
• Provide inaccurate
information.
• Speak “off the
record.”
• Volunteer
unnecessary
information.
Always………..
• Be brief.
• Be
confident.
• Be positive.
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