Night 4 – Thursday September 3, 2015 Managing Change and Communication Managing Change Change is a critical uncertainty facing the organization, and the ability to manage change is a valuable skill. Organizations are becoming more change-oriented, responding to various forces in increasingly dynamic environments. Change is difficult, and may not always be good. Change may often be necessary, but it may also be painful. People may differ in the degree to which they resist change and in their motivations to change. Forces for Change Some external forces for change: globalization the growing diversity of the workforce the explosion of the Internet new legislation changing customer desires and expectations heightened levels of competition Some internal forces for change: performance gaps new leadership a new mission employee pressures Targets of Change Structural Technological Purpose or Task Human Sources of Resistance to Change Uncertainty Self-Interest Resistance to Change Habit Rejection of Change Source Lack of Understanding and Trust Differing Perceptions Lack of Tolerance for Change The Rhetorical Triangle Logos Pathos Ethos Logos Guidelines Do your homework, gathering relevant facts that prove that a real problem exists. Identify sources of help. Anticipate questions and objections. Sell the benefits The Rhetorical Triangle Logos Pathos Ethos The Importance of Communication Communication affects virtually every area of work. Communication with employees about plant closings, performance appraisals, organizational goals, probable salary increases, and job changes, and even the date of the company picnic are essential to the proper functioning of the firm. Organizations also must communicate effectively with parties outside the firm. Much of managers’ time is spent communicating. Henry Mintzberg found 78% of CEOs’ time to be spent on communication-related activities involving direct contact with others. Functions of Communication Information Function. Communication provides information to be used for decision making. Motivational Function. Communication encourages commitment to organizational objectives, thus enhancing motivation. Control Function. Communication clarifies duties, authority, and responsibilities, thereby permitting control. Emotive Function. Communication permits the expression of feelings and the satisfaction of social needs. One-Way Vs. Two-Way Communication Flow One-way communication is faster than two-way. Two-way communication is more accurate than one-way. Receivers are more sure of themselves and make more correct judgments of how right or wrong they are with two-way communication. The sender feels less secure in two-way communication. The message recipients can point out errors, interrupt the stream of thought, disagree, or otherwise challenge the sender. Two-way communication is relatively noisy and disorderly. One-way communication appears neat and efficient to an outside observer, but the communication is often less accurate. Communication Networks Chain Circle Y Star Wheel ComCon Communication Barriers Perceptual Factors Semantics Barriers to Effective Communication Information Retention Distraction Misrepresentation Overcoming Communication Barriers Feedback, repetition of messages, use of multiple channels, and simplified language may reduce problems due to semantics, selective perception and distraction. Communication overload may be reduced by careful review of the material needed by the recipient and by use of the exception principle. Short-circuiting may be reduced through careful consideration of who has a “need to know.” Electronic data-processing techniques that automatically route messages to certain people may also help. Information retention and misrepresentation may require tightened formal controls or organizational audit groups, or they may require the opposite -- fewer controls and more trust. Things that lessen one problem are likely to worsen another. Developing Effective Speaking Skills Identify the Objective(s) for the Speech or Presentation Develop an Outline to Achieve Objectives in View of Audience Characteristics Develop the Content of the Speech or Presentation Select Appropriate Methods for Delivery of the Speech or Presentation Practice Making the Speech or Presentation Individually or With a Mock Audience At the Beginning of the Actual Speech or Presentation, Make a Good First Impression During the Speech or Presentation, Maintain Good Eye Contact with All Members During the Speech or Presentation, Use Appropriate Hand Gestures and Voice Variations Finish the Speech or Presentation Strongly by Reinforcing Key Points Guidelines for Effective Speaking (1 of 2) Determine the purpose of your communication. Is it to explain ideas to others? To entertain? Tailor your speech to facilitate the desired purpose of your communication. Consider issues of time and space. Determine the best time and location for delivering your message. Adapt to your listeners. Consider the size of the audience as well as factors such as audience age, gender, interests, level of knowledge about the subject, and values. Consider also audience expectations about the nature of the speech. Use appropriate vocabulary. Speak at the proper level, and with appropriate terminology, for the particular audience. Guidelines for Effective Speaking (2 of 2) Practice voice control. Consider proper speech volume, pitch, and speaking rate. Avoid mumbling and awkward pauses. Use appropriate gestures. Properly used, gestures can make a presentation more engaging, and they may help disguise anxiety. Avoid short, jerky movements that may appear as nervousness, and use a variety of gestures to reinforce spoken points or even as substitutes. Organize your presentation. Any oral presentation can be divided into three parts: gaining attention, presenting the information, and closing effectively. Each is critical. Night 4 – Thursday September 3, 2015 Managing Change and Communication Guidelines for Active Listening (1of 2) Control the physical environment. Try to minimize noise and other distractions, Be alert. Give your full attention, and allot the necessary time to listen. Be mentally prepared. Do your homework in advance of the presentation. Anticipate the encounter by learning new terminology and background information about the persons, organization, or issues. Be emotionally prepared. Keep an open mind about what is being said, even if it is unpleasant. Give the speaker the opportunity to complete his or her message before raising questions. Guidelines for Active Listening (2 of 2) Be attentive. Continually review the speaker’s message, and tie the various segments of the message together. Take notes if necessary, but record only main points. Read nonverbal cues. Pay attention to the speaker’s tone of voice, expressions, gestures, and other nonverbal cues. Distinguish among facts, inferences, and value judgments. Try to sort out whether what is being said is a fact that can be verified, an inference, or a personal judgment. Offer and solicit feedback. The best sort of feedback in a listening situation is to paraphrase the speaker’s message. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication is communication that uses no words or uses words in ways that conveys meaning beyond their strict definition. It may take place through such channels as the body, the face, the tone of voice, and interpersonal distance. The meaning of nonverbal communication often varies markedly across cultures. Studies suggest that a substantial amount of information transmitted during a conversation -perhaps 80 or 90 percent -- is nonverbal. Forms of Nonverbal Communication Proxemics Dress Touch Paralanguage Nonverbal Communication Hand Movements Facial Expressions Posture Eye Contact Zones of Personal Space Social Personal Intimate Public Zones of Personal Space Intimate Zone. We let others enter the intimate zone only for purposes such as lovemaking, protecting, and comforting. Personal Zone. This is the zone used for comfortable interaction with others and connotes closeness and friendship. Social Zone. This zone is used for interpersonal business. People working together use the inner part of the zone. The outer part is used for more formal interactions. Public Zone. This zone is beyond the range of comfortable interaction. Some Issues in Electronic Communication E-commerce E-mail Use of Computers in Communication Teleconferencing and Videoconferencing The Internet and the World Wide Web Guidelines for Using E-Mail (1 of 2) Be careful. Both sending and receiving e-mail demands caution. Don’t send sloppy or hastily reasoned messages, and avoid a “slip of the finger” that could misdirect a message. Be careful when opening attachments since they main contain viruses. Recognize privacy issues. Don’t write anything in email messages that you would not want to be widely read. Keep messages clear, simple, and short. Use a subject line that conveys the content of the message. Avoid lengthy attachments and fancy formatting. Reply only to appropriate persons. Ask yourself who really needs the message. Guidelines for Using E-Mail (2 of 2) Personalize your e-mail as appropriate. Smileys can be used to convey feelings and add a personal touch. These shouldn’t be overused, and they may be inappropriate in some formal e-mails. Be considerate. Avoid using e-mail to vent frustration and anger through hostile messages. Such flaming can create a climate of distrust, fear, and anger. Practice netiquette. Check e-mail at least once a day. Respond promptly. If your message will be delayed, let the sender know you received the message and when you will respond. Manage your e-mail with folders and filters. Set up folders to organize e-mails and filters to eliminate junk mail and to transfer low-priority mail to appropriate folders. Informal Communication While formal communication channels are important, much information flows in other, officially unrecognized ways. Informal communication is information shared without formally imposed obligations or restrictions. In organizational settings, information that is communicated informally among employees is referred to as the grapevine. Over three-fourths of the information sent on the grapevine is accurate, but one error may change the whole meaning of a message. People see the grapevine as a primary source of information, but rank it very low as a preferred source. Grapevines carry messages that formal systems do not, they are fast and flexible, and they can reach people in the need to know. Employees tend to view grapevine information as accurate. Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Communication Learn all you can about the other party’s culture. Many differences across cultures affect communications, including whether the culture is high-context or low-context. Try to speak the language. By speaking the language -- even haltingly -- we are more likely to recognize subtle nuances of meaning, to avoid gaffes, and to show a sense of caring and commitment. Challenge your stereotypes and assumptions. The goal is to replace your original assumptions and beliefs about the society in question with information received from actual members of that society. Withhold evaluation. Try to gather facts while avoiding evaluation. Put on the other person’s hat and try to understand the situation from his or her position. Interpersonal Distances Across Cultures Interpersonal distances corresponding to the zones of personal space vary dramatically across cultures. For instance, in northern Europe, the “bubbles” tend to be quite large and people keep their distance. In southern France, Italy, Greece, and Spain, the bubbles are smaller. A distance seen as intimate in northern Europe overlaps normal conversational distance in southern Europe. As a result, Mediterranean Europeans “get too close” for the comfort of Germans, Scandinavians, English persons, and Americans of northern European ancestry. The Five Disciplines of Learning Organizations Systems Thinking Personal Mastery Learning Capabilities Team Learning Mental Models Shared Vision The Seven Learning Disabilities (Cont) “I am my position.” People often identify with their jobs rather than with the larger enterprise. “The enemy is out there.” We have a tendency to “externalize,” finding someone or something outside ourselves to blame when things go wrong. “The illusion of taking charge.” All too often, proactiveness is just reactiveness in disguise. “The fixation on events.” We are conditioned to see life as a series of events and to believe that there is one obvious cause for each event. The Seven Learning Disabilities (Cont) “The parable of the boiled frog.” We often fail to notice gradual change. It is critical to remain attuned to the gradual processes that often pose the greatest threats. “The delusion of learning from experience.” We never experience the consequences of our most important decisions; these have system-wide consequences that play out over years. “The myth of the management team.” Members of management teams, instead of battling these disabilities, often fight for turf, try to avoid blame, and work to give the appearance of a cohesive team. Developing Learning Organizations Learning Cultures Learning Leaders Learning Organizations Learning Infrastructures Leadership Communities Bottom Line: Developing a Learning Organization Leaders Generate “Creative Tension” by Convincing Workers That a Significant Gap Exists Between the Status Quo and a Future Vision Leaders Provide Support for a Wide Range of Learning Activities Throughout Various Units in an Organization to Create Learning Communities Leaders Help to Create and Establish Formal Systems and Processes to Support Learning Activities Throughout the Organization Leaders Evaluate the Performance of Workers, Units, and The Organization Based on LearningRelated Outcomes Leaders Model Behaviors That Support a Learning Organization and Foster a Culture That Values Learning Hand Movements Some hand movements have a specific meaning that is understood in a particular culture or occupation, such as a thumbs-up gesture. Others, such as touching oneself or others, may be associated with anxiety, guilt, hostility, or suspicion. For example, interviewers are sometimes taught that a hand-to-face movement is a sign of deception. Eye Contact Eye contact is a major regulator of conversation. Generally, eye contact suggests understanding and interest. Seeking eye contact connotes the desire to open a conversation. Conversely, someone hoping to avoid communication will avoid eye contact. Some characteristic eye-contact patterns have specific meanings. For instance, the slow blink -- a pattern in which an individual closes his or her eyes for two to four seconds and then slowly opens them - indicates doubt or suspicion. The Importance of Potential Eye Contact High status individuals tend to choose positions of high potential eye contact, such as: An elevated position; A position at the front of the room; A position at the end of a conference table. The Importance of Potential Eye Contact (Continued) Individuals who choose positions of high potential eye contact are perceived to have high status. They are also: Most likely to be perceived to be the group leaders; Likely to have the most communications directed to them. Posture Posture is the way people position their bodies with respect to others. For example, if a customer’s arms are relaxed and open and she leans forward as she talks to a salesperson, her posture reflects approval and acceptance of the salesperson’s message. If she leans back with arms tightly crossed, her posture suggests rejection or disagreement. Proxemics Proxemics is the use of interpersonal space (that is, proximity) to convey status or degree of intimacy. Sitting at the head of a table conveys status. Standing close to another conveys intimacy. Sitting behind a desk (as opposed to alongside it) indicates a superior-subordinate relationship. Two elements of proxemics -- personal space and seating arrangements -- are especially relevant in organizational settings.