Night 4 – Thursday September 3,
2015
Managing Change and
Communication
Managing Change
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Change is a critical uncertainty facing the organization,
and the ability to manage change is a valuable skill.
Organizations are becoming more change-oriented,
responding to various forces in increasingly dynamic
environments.
Change is difficult, and may not always be good.
Change may often be necessary, but it may also be
painful.
People may differ in the degree to which they resist
change and in their motivations to change.
Forces for Change
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Some external forces for
change:
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globalization
the growing diversity of
the workforce
the explosion of the
Internet
new legislation
changing customer
desires and expectations
heightened levels of
competition
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Some internal
forces for change:
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performance gaps
new leadership
a new mission
employee pressures
Targets of Change
Structural
Technological
Purpose or Task
Human
Sources of Resistance to Change
Uncertainty
Self-Interest
Resistance
to Change
Habit
Rejection of
Change
Source
Lack of
Understanding
and Trust
Differing
Perceptions
Lack of
Tolerance for
Change
The Rhetorical Triangle
Logos
Pathos
Ethos
Logos Guidelines
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Do your homework, gathering relevant facts
that prove that a real problem exists.
Identify sources of help.
Anticipate questions and objections.
Sell the benefits
The Rhetorical Triangle
Logos
Pathos
Ethos
The Importance of Communication
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Communication affects virtually every area of work.
Communication with employees about plant closings,
performance appraisals, organizational goals,
probable salary increases, and job changes, and even
the date of the company picnic are essential to the
proper functioning of the firm.
Organizations also must communicate effectively
with parties outside the firm.
Much of managers’ time is spent communicating.
Henry Mintzberg found 78% of CEOs’ time to be
spent on communication-related activities involving
direct contact with others.
Functions of Communication
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Information Function. Communication
provides information to be used for decision
making.
Motivational Function. Communication
encourages commitment to organizational
objectives, thus enhancing motivation.
Control Function. Communication clarifies
duties, authority, and responsibilities, thereby
permitting control.
Emotive Function. Communication permits the
expression of feelings and the satisfaction of social
needs.
One-Way Vs. Two-Way Communication Flow
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One-way communication is faster than two-way.
Two-way communication is more accurate than one-way.
Receivers are more sure of themselves and make more
correct judgments of how right or wrong they are with
two-way communication.
The sender feels less secure in two-way communication.
The message recipients can point out errors, interrupt
the stream of thought, disagree, or otherwise challenge
the sender.
Two-way communication is relatively noisy and
disorderly. One-way communication appears neat and
efficient to an outside observer, but the communication
is often less accurate.
Communication Networks
Chain
Circle
Y
Star
Wheel
ComCon
Communication Barriers
Perceptual
Factors
Semantics
Barriers to
Effective
Communication
Information
Retention
Distraction
Misrepresentation
Overcoming Communication Barriers
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Feedback, repetition of messages, use of multiple channels,
and simplified language may reduce problems due to
semantics, selective perception and distraction.
Communication overload may be reduced by careful review
of the material needed by the recipient and by use of the
exception principle.
Short-circuiting may be reduced through careful
consideration of who has a “need to know.” Electronic
data-processing techniques that automatically route
messages to certain people may also help.
Information retention and misrepresentation may require
tightened formal controls or organizational audit groups, or
they may require the opposite -- fewer controls and more
trust.
Things that lessen one problem are likely to worsen
another.
Developing Effective Speaking Skills
Identify the
Objective(s) for the
Speech or
Presentation
Develop an Outline
to Achieve
Objectives in View
of Audience
Characteristics
Develop the Content
of the Speech or
Presentation
Select Appropriate
Methods for
Delivery of the Speech
or Presentation
Practice Making the
Speech or
Presentation
Individually or With a
Mock Audience
At the Beginning of the
Actual Speech or
Presentation, Make a
Good First Impression
During the Speech or
Presentation,
Maintain Good Eye
Contact with All
Members
During the Speech or
Presentation, Use
Appropriate Hand
Gestures and Voice
Variations
Finish the Speech
or Presentation
Strongly by
Reinforcing Key
Points
Guidelines for Effective Speaking (1 of 2)
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Determine the purpose of your communication.
Is it to explain ideas to others? To entertain? Tailor your
speech to facilitate the desired purpose of your
communication.
Consider issues of time and space. Determine the
best time and location for delivering your message.
Adapt to your listeners. Consider the size of the
audience as well as factors such as audience age, gender,
interests, level of knowledge about the subject, and
values. Consider also audience expectations about the
nature of the speech.
Use appropriate vocabulary. Speak at the proper
level, and with appropriate terminology, for the particular
audience.
Guidelines for Effective Speaking (2 of 2)
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Practice voice control. Consider proper speech
volume, pitch, and speaking rate. Avoid mumbling and
awkward pauses.
Use appropriate gestures. Properly used, gestures
can make a presentation more engaging, and they may
help disguise anxiety. Avoid short, jerky movements
that may appear as nervousness, and use a variety of
gestures to reinforce spoken points or even as
substitutes.
Organize your presentation. Any oral presentation
can be divided into three parts: gaining attention,
presenting the information, and closing effectively. Each
is critical.
Night 4 – Thursday September 3,
2015
Managing Change and
Communication
Guidelines for Active Listening (1of 2)
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Control the physical environment. Try to minimize
noise and other distractions,
Be alert. Give your full attention, and allot the necessary
time to listen.
Be mentally prepared. Do your homework in advance
of the presentation. Anticipate the encounter by learning
new terminology and background information about the
persons, organization, or issues.
Be emotionally prepared. Keep an open mind about
what is being said, even if it is unpleasant. Give the
speaker the opportunity to complete his or her message
before raising questions.
Guidelines for Active Listening (2 of 2)
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Be attentive. Continually review the speaker’s message, and
tie the various segments of the message together. Take notes if
necessary, but record only main points.
Read nonverbal cues. Pay attention to the speaker’s tone
of voice, expressions, gestures, and other nonverbal cues.
Distinguish among facts, inferences, and value
judgments. Try to sort out whether what is being said is a
fact that can be verified, an inference, or a personal judgment.
Offer and solicit feedback. The best sort of feedback in a
listening situation is to paraphrase the speaker’s message.
Nonverbal Communication
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Nonverbal communication is
communication that uses no words or uses words
in ways that conveys meaning beyond their strict
definition.
It may take place through such channels as the
body, the face, the tone of voice, and
interpersonal distance.
The meaning of nonverbal communication often
varies markedly across cultures.
Studies suggest that a substantial amount of
information transmitted during a conversation -perhaps 80 or 90 percent -- is nonverbal.
Forms of Nonverbal
Communication
Proxemics
Dress
Touch
Paralanguage
Nonverbal
Communication
Hand
Movements
Facial
Expressions
Posture
Eye Contact
Zones of Personal Space
Social
Personal
Intimate
Public
Zones of Personal Space
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Intimate Zone. We let others enter the intimate
zone only for purposes such as lovemaking, protecting,
and comforting.
Personal Zone. This is the zone used for
comfortable interaction with others and connotes
closeness and friendship.
Social Zone. This zone is used for interpersonal
business. People working together use the inner part
of the zone. The outer part is used for more formal
interactions.
Public Zone. This zone is beyond the range of
comfortable interaction.
Some Issues in Electronic
Communication
E-commerce
E-mail
Use of Computers
in Communication
Teleconferencing
and
Videoconferencing
The Internet and
the World Wide
Web
Guidelines for Using E-Mail (1 of 2)
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Be careful. Both sending and receiving e-mail demands
caution. Don’t send sloppy or hastily reasoned messages,
and avoid a “slip of the finger” that could misdirect a
message. Be careful when opening attachments since they
main contain viruses.
Recognize privacy issues. Don’t write anything in email messages that you would not want to be widely read.
Keep messages clear, simple, and short. Use a
subject line that conveys the content of the message. Avoid
lengthy attachments and fancy formatting.
Reply only to appropriate persons. Ask yourself who
really needs the message.
Guidelines for Using E-Mail (2 of 2)
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Personalize your e-mail as appropriate. Smileys can
be used to convey feelings and add a personal touch. These
shouldn’t be overused, and they may be inappropriate in some
formal e-mails.
Be considerate. Avoid using e-mail to vent frustration and
anger through hostile messages. Such flaming can create a
climate of distrust, fear, and anger. Practice netiquette.
Check e-mail at least once a day. Respond promptly. If
your message will be delayed, let the sender know you received
the message and when you will respond.
Manage your e-mail with folders and filters. Set up
folders to organize e-mails and filters to eliminate junk mail
and to transfer low-priority mail to appropriate folders.
Informal Communication
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While formal communication channels are important, much information
flows in other, officially unrecognized ways.
Informal communication is information shared without formally
imposed obligations or restrictions.
In organizational settings, information that is communicated informally
among employees is referred to as the grapevine.
Over three-fourths of the information sent on the grapevine is accurate,
but one error may change the whole meaning of a message.
People see the grapevine as a primary source of information, but rank it
very low as a preferred source.
Grapevines carry messages that formal systems do not, they are fast and
flexible, and they can reach people in the need to know.
Employees tend to view grapevine information as accurate.
Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Communication
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Learn all you can about the other party’s culture. Many
differences across cultures affect communications, including
whether the culture is high-context or low-context.
Try to speak the language. By speaking the language -- even
haltingly -- we are more likely to recognize subtle nuances of
meaning, to avoid gaffes, and to show a sense of caring and
commitment.
Challenge your stereotypes and assumptions. The goal is
to replace your original assumptions and beliefs about the society
in question with information received from actual members of
that society.
Withhold evaluation. Try to gather facts while avoiding
evaluation. Put on the other person’s hat and try to understand
the situation from his or her position.
Interpersonal Distances Across Cultures
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Interpersonal distances corresponding to the zones of
personal space vary dramatically across cultures.
For instance, in northern Europe, the “bubbles” tend to be
quite large and people keep their distance.
In southern France, Italy, Greece, and Spain, the bubbles
are smaller.
A distance seen as intimate in northern Europe overlaps
normal conversational distance in southern Europe.
As a result, Mediterranean Europeans “get too close” for
the comfort of Germans, Scandinavians, English persons,
and Americans of northern European ancestry.
The Five Disciplines of Learning
Organizations
Systems
Thinking
Personal
Mastery
Learning
Capabilities
Team
Learning
Mental
Models
Shared
Vision
The Seven Learning Disabilities (Cont)
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“I am my position.” People often identify with
their jobs rather than with the larger
enterprise.
“The enemy is out there.” We have a tendency
to “externalize,” finding someone or something
outside ourselves to blame when things go
wrong.
“The illusion of taking charge.” All too often,
proactiveness is just reactiveness in disguise.
“The fixation on events.” We are conditioned
to see life as a series of events and to believe
that there is one obvious cause for each event.
The Seven Learning Disabilities (Cont)
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“The parable of the boiled frog.” We often fail to
notice gradual change. It is critical to remain attuned
to the gradual processes that often pose the greatest
threats.
“The delusion of learning from experience.” We
never experience the consequences of our most
important decisions; these have system-wide
consequences that play out over years.
“The myth of the management team.” Members of
management teams, instead of battling these
disabilities, often fight for turf, try to avoid blame,
and work to give the appearance of a cohesive team.
Developing Learning
Organizations
Learning
Cultures
Learning
Leaders
Learning
Organizations
Learning
Infrastructures
Leadership
Communities
Bottom Line:
Developing a Learning Organization
Leaders Generate
“Creative Tension” by
Convincing Workers
That a Significant Gap
Exists Between the
Status Quo and a
Future Vision
Leaders Provide
Support for a Wide
Range of Learning
Activities Throughout
Various Units in an
Organization to
Create Learning
Communities
Leaders Help to
Create and Establish
Formal Systems and
Processes to Support
Learning Activities
Throughout the
Organization
Leaders Evaluate the
Performance of
Workers, Units, and
The Organization
Based on LearningRelated Outcomes
Leaders Model
Behaviors That
Support a Learning
Organization and
Foster a Culture
That Values Learning
Hand Movements
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Some hand movements have a specific
meaning that is understood in a particular
culture or occupation, such as a thumbs-up
gesture.
Others, such as touching oneself or others,
may be associated with anxiety, guilt,
hostility, or suspicion.
For example, interviewers are sometimes
taught that a hand-to-face movement is a
sign of deception.
Eye Contact
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Eye contact is a major regulator of conversation.
Generally, eye contact suggests understanding and
interest.
Seeking eye contact connotes the desire to open a
conversation. Conversely, someone hoping to avoid
communication will avoid eye contact.
Some characteristic eye-contact patterns have
specific meanings. For instance, the slow blink -- a
pattern in which an individual closes his or her eyes
for two to four seconds and then slowly opens them - indicates doubt or suspicion.
The Importance of Potential Eye
Contact
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High status individuals tend to choose
positions of high potential eye contact,
such as:
An elevated position;
A position at the front of the room;
A position at the end of a conference
table.
The Importance of Potential Eye
Contact (Continued)
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Individuals who choose positions of
high potential eye contact are
perceived to have high status.
They are also:
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Most likely to be perceived to be the
group leaders;
Likely to have the most
communications directed to them.
Posture
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Posture is the way people position their
bodies with respect to others.
For example, if a customer’s arms are
relaxed and open and she leans forward as
she talks to a salesperson, her posture
reflects approval and acceptance of the
salesperson’s message.
If she leans back with arms tightly crossed,
her posture suggests rejection or
disagreement.
Proxemics
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Proxemics is the use of interpersonal space (that
is, proximity) to convey status or degree of
intimacy.
Sitting at the head of a table conveys status.
Standing close to another conveys intimacy.
Sitting behind a desk (as opposed to alongside it)
indicates a superior-subordinate relationship.
Two elements of proxemics -- personal space and
seating arrangements -- are especially relevant in
organizational settings.
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Night 4 – Tuesday, September 25, 2007