Chapter One ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE TO THE FIRST RIVER-VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFORMATIONS During the Paleolithic era, hunters and gatherers gradually migrated form their origins in East Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, adapting their technology and cultures to the new areas. TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFORMATIONS Interactions among different groups of people on the planet were usually limited to groups that were geographically nearby, but interactions increased steadily throughout the time period, both in frequency and distance TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFORMATIONS Physical geography and the natural environment interacted with human activities to shape changes and continuities during the time period This period is made up of tow time periods that are distinguished by big changes in human lifestyles, including these “marker events”: the development of agriculture and communities, and the appearance of earliest urban-based societies CIVILIZATION? Generation of reliable surplus Specialized, non-food producing, labor Clear social class distinctions Growth of cities as centers of population Complex, formal governments Long-distance trade System for keeping records (writing) BEFORE CIVILIZATION Culture existed, why not civilization? Tools, dwellings, clothing, and crafts Arts, beliefs, knowledge, and technology Stone Age Paleolithic 2 Million until 8000bce Tools!! Neolithic 8000-2000bce Agriculture! AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONS Horticulture to Agriculture Pastoralism Domestication of Grains Cultural diffusion or independent invention Rice in SE Asia and India Maize in Mesoamerica Potatoes, tomatoes, and pepper in Andes Mountains LIFE IN NEOLITHIC COMMUNITIES Spread of Agriculture Small surplus gave an advantage to farmers Expansion could have been 12-19 miles per generation Society and Religion Farming communities organized by kinship and marriage Religion focused on relations to nature (polytheism) Megaliths used to honor gods and track seasons MEGALITH LIFE IN NEOLITHIC COMMUNITIES Jericho and Catal Huyuk Earliest known “cities” Fortified in different ways Jericho had a stone wall Catal Huyuk used protective architecture Engaged in trade with neighboring areas Specialized labor created pottery, baskets, beads No formal government or class structure NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION “MARKER EVENT” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. People settled down – private property Division of Labor - allowed greater efficiency Social inequality – larger land passed down; respect for jobs differed Gender inequality – men took over Importance of Surplus – allows #2 Religious Changes – spirits become gods MESOPOTAMIA “land between the rivers” Tigris and Euphrates Crossroads for many groups left it open for invasion Sumerians First civilization in Mesopotamia 10-20 city-states with a ruler in each Writing in 3500 bce; governments at 3000 bce Controlled the Semitic people for 1000 years Irrigation technology and cuneiform MESOPOTAMIA Babylon – largest and most important city in Mesopotamia Hammurabi – great king of Babylon, expanded influence across Mesopotamia and created The Code of Hammurabi – first written codified set of laws and punishments MESOPOTAMIA Society three classes Free landowning class Royalty, high ranking officials, warriors, priests, merchants, and some artisans and shopkeepers Dependent Rural farmers and artisans workforce who were in the service of above Slaves Employed in domestic service, they came from rival tribes captured in war or people who could not repay debts MESOPOTAMIA Gods, Priests, and Temples Anthropomorphic – human qualities State religion allowed building of ziggurats Amulets were worn by people to protect from evil MESOPOTAMIA REVIEW Earliest complex civilization Developed between Tigris and Euphrates Sumerians created the civilization, Semitic people eventually took over City-states were primary political unit, but were united through conquest Three classes: landowners, peasants, slaves Cuneiform was created to keep records, lead to multiple languages EGYPT Gift of the Nile – annual floods allowed regular irrigation of farm lands Most of the population lived in the northern delta called Lower Egypt Deserts on all sides led to virtual isolation Abundant natural resources allowed Egypt to become self-sufficient EGYPT Divine Kingship – Pharoh maintained ma’at Death resulted in building of burial chambers, eventually leading to the pyramids at Giza Administration Unified area with extensive bureaucratic system Villages > Districts > Egypt @ Capital City Memphis early capital with pyramids Thebes later capital with Valley of the Kings Government tightly controlled trade and taxed at a rate as high as 50% to pay for lavish projects EGYPT Communication Hieroglyphics – pictures used to represent syllables Extremely difficult to master Eventually led to script writing on papyrus Cities Other than capital, few real cities Most of population lived in small rural farming communities Any cities have been build upon so evidence is hard to come by EGYPT Foreign Relations and Trade Papyrus was only found in Egypt, but in high demand in the ancient world It became a major export for Egypt Strict isolationism (foreigners are enemies) Trade with Levant brought wood Trade with Nubia and other southern neighbors brought gold, ivory, and myrrh EGYPT The People of Egypt Class structure was not as defined as Mesopotamia King and high ranking official at top Lower level and local officials, priests, artisans Peasants who did not own land at the bottom Daily life was dependent upon the season and whether or not a state project was underway EGYPT Belief and Knowledge Polytheism with anthropomorphic gods Re (sun), Osiris (underworld), Isis (mother), Seth (chaos) Pharaoh was seen as Horus on earth Gods came from towns throughout Egypt Daily life involved amulets and small offerings to gods Greeks and Romans commented that devotion to magic was especially strong in Egypt EGYPT Afterlife The Book of the Dead Involved a long journey culminating with weighing of the heart to determine placement Mummification techniques were perfected over time to preserve the body Size of grave indicated wealth and status Tombs were filled with supplies the dead might need on their journey EGYPT Science and Technology Mummification lead to a greater understanding of human anatomy Mathematics were used to measure fields and determine taxes Observation of the stars led to the most accurate calendar in the Ancient World Engineering can be seen in the great pyramids and canals that were more than 50 miles long EGYPT REVIEW Life in Egypt was based on the Nile Abundant natural resources, along with geographic boundaries allowed Egypt to be isolated and self-sufficient King was the peoples link to the gods, so many resources were devoted to him Hieroglyphic and other writing systems allowed the vast bureaucracy to keep track of taxes EGYPT REVIEW Egypt’s population was diverse, no formal class distinction (social mobility was possible) Although subordinate to men, Egyptian women’s status was greater than in Mesopotamia Mummification, tombs, and Book of the Dead indicate an obsession with the afterlife Advancements in medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and engineering were made THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Bi-annual flooding of the Indus River gave fertile land Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Streets were in a rectangular grid, constant width Covered drainpipes carried away waste City blocks were same length Similar mud bricks used throughout Conclusion? Most likely a strong central government THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Technology Irrigation allowed more fertile land Kilns were used to combat erosion from floods Unknown system of writing to keep records Trade With vast metal deposits and precious stones trading flourished with areas as far away as Mesopotamia INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION REVIEW Indus Valley Civilization occupied a large territory Uniformity of major urban centers and smaller settlements indicate a possible strong central authority Irrigation, ceramics, and architecture were advanced, but writing cannot be deciphered Widespread trading partners were due in part to the abundance of metal Cities were abandoned, most likely due to natural disaster or environmental changes ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE CONCLUSION Similarities between the Mesopotamian and Egyptian people Lack of rainfall necessitated forming governments Rulers were kings, and head of religion Gods embodied the environment Common language and culture throughout area despite heterogeneous makeup of people ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE CONCLUSION Differences between the Mesopotamian and Egyptian people Flooding of the Nile was predictable, Tigris-Euphrates was chaotic This influenced relationship with the gods and views of what the afterlife was like Code of Hammurabi clearly defined social classes Egyptian society was less urban and classes were less important Women retained rights in Egypt, but had virtually none in later Mesopotamia REVIEW QUESTIONS What marker event occurs in the Neolithic Era? Sumerians are important because… Egypt was able to flourish due to… Why are we limited in what we know about the Indus Valley Civilization?