Emergence of
Civilization
Unit 1
Chapter 1
Objectives:

Understand the characteristics of the
Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Eras

Understand the agricultural revolution
and how its development led to the
“Beginnings of Civilization.”

Know the characteristics of early
civilizations.
Common Era (CE)
Before Common Era (BCE)
6000 5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
Years
BCE means “Before Common Era.” It is
the same thing as B.C. (Before Christ).
After the year 0 scientists use the term
CE for Common Era. It is the same as A.D.
(Anno Domini, in the year of our Lord).
Terms to Know


PRE-HISTORY

Period before writing was invented

used pottery, buildings, bones,
etc...to determine our best guess as
to what life was like for them
ARTIFACTS

objects studied by archaeologists,
shaped by humans, used to make our
best guess of what life was like

tools, pottery, weapons, toys.
Terms to Know

Technology
 A change in thinking and
practice about how we do
something to become more
efficient and productive with
less effort.

Culture

The unique way that people live
Terms to Know

ARCHAEOLOGISTS
scientists who analyze ARTIFACTS left by early people
 try to piece together what life was like




Three step process of gathering and analyzing

1 - find site

2 - start digging

3 - analyze artifacts found

a - determine location within/around a structure

b - determine age of the artifact
Vore Buffalo Jump
ANTHROPOLOGY

study of cultures, to gain a better understanding of their lives and things
that effected them.
Stone Age Peoples
Stone Age - Period when people used simple tools made of stone (arrow
heads, axe heads) before writing was invented

Old Stone Age - Paleolithic

New Stone Age – Mesolithic & Neolithic
Stone Age Peoples

Old Stone Age

Paleolithic Era



‘Paleo’ means Old Stone
Started about 2.5 Million years ago.
Africa, China, Asia, Europe, and Americas
Old Stone Age Peoples
Characteristics

Nomadic
 Move
with and in search of food
 Fished, hunted, gathered plants, roots,
fruits, nuts and seeds.
 Travel in groups of related families
 No permanent shelters
 lived
in caves and lean-tos

Some organizational structures

limited spoken languages
Wore animal skins

Old Stone Age Peoples

Learned to control fire
 light,

cooking, protection and warmth
Simple tools start to become more
specialized
 Used
bone & stone chipped to make sharp
edges
 needles, axes, fish hooks, arrow heads,
spear points
Old Stone Age Peoples

Some basic religious
beliefs but no real
structure
 Cave
drawings could
help a hunt be
productive
 Burying
dead with
food – Belief in an
afterlife
End of Paleolithic Era/
Old Stone Age

Marked by the end of the last Ice Age

Glaciers start to melt and move back towards the poles

Land bridges become covered with water as the oceans start to
fill back up

Believed to be the way in which people first came to this
continent from Africa and Europe, following herds

Changed the climate of many areas, deserts appeared with new
plants
New Stone Age Peoples

Stone Age
 Mesolithic
Era
 ‘Meso’
meaning middle
 Lasted
about 10,000 years
 18,000

B.C.E. to 8000 B.C.E.
Africa, China, Asia, Europe, Americas and Middle East (Mesopotamia)
New Stone Age Peoples

Mesolithic Era
 Developed
the Bow and Harpoons
 Tamed
dogs, used for hunting of small
animals
 Built
canoes from hollowed out logs
 Cross
 Fish
large rivers
in deep waters
New Stone Age Peoples

Neolithic Era
 ‘Neo’
meaning New
 Lasted
about 4000 years
 8000
 Started
B.C.E. to 3500 B.C.E.
grinding and polishing tools to sharper
points and edges
New Stone Age Peoples

Agricultural Revolution
Change from hunting and moving to
farming
 Domesticated Animals – For work and food




Dogs, Sheep, goats and pigs
Women farmed, men hunted
Permanent settlements
Villages
 Built houses


Some remained hunters & gatherers
and nomadic
New Stone Age Peoples

Growth of political structure

Council of Elders


Make decisions
Settle disputes
Developed more complete spoken
languages
 Specialized tools





Hoes – Granite
Cloth – Wool
Nets for fishing
Pottery for cooking
New Stone Age Peoples


Used animals for work

Oxen to pull plows

fertilizers

Work more land, harvest more crops

Support larger population
Simple religions based upon nature

Gods control the forces of nature

Polytheistic – the belief in more than one god
New Stone Age Peoples

Transportation Improvements

Wheel is invented



improved land transportation
replaced the wooden sleds
Sails
for water transportation
 Quicker, more efficient means of travel


Metals used


Copper is the first
Bronze

mix of copper and tin - stronger metal
New Stone Age Peoples

By 3000 B.C.E. all of these inventions and items are in use in
some part of the world, BUT NOT ALL.

Change in the way people lived and survived

Brings more technological advances
Emergence of Civilization

CIVITAS - Latin word meaning 'cities‘
 Cities
emerge at the end of the Neolithic
era
 First
Civilizations develops in four
different areas independently of each
other.
5 Characteristics of
Civilization

1- Surplus of Food

2- Complex Institutions




More complex government and religious
High level of cooperation for the benefit of the
group
Technology Advances
3- Division of Labor
Different people doing different jobs
 Creates a class of skilled worked called Artisans


Merchants and Traders
5 Characteristics of Civilization

4- Writing - Record Keeping

Priests were the first to start using marks or drawings
which evolved into writing
Needed to keep track of when to do important
ceremonies and rituals to keep the gods happy
 A sacrifice at the wrong time could ruin a crop
 Scribes –
 Those who mastered the writing and reading
of the symbols – Keep Secretive



Government

Births, deaths, taxes

Ownership, marriages, business contracts, etc..
Became a way to pass down traditions, learning,
wisdom, information, ideas and religious beliefs
Characteristics of Civilization

5- Calendar – at first, based on the moon for
growing season
 Needed to know when river would flood
 Time from flood to flood was a year
 Time from full moon to next full moon
was a month
 Not completely accurate – about 11
days off
GROWTH OF CITIES
4 Areas of the world develop independently of each other
1.
2.
3.
4.
Valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers - Middle East
Valley of the Nile River in Africa – Egypt
Indus River Valley in South Asia – India
Yellow River Valley East Asia - China
• All Develop around Rivers
• Fertile soil
• Rivers consistently flood every year
• Bring moisture to the land
• Can be used for Transportation and food
• Fish and animals
GROWTH OF CITIES – Govt.
• Construction projects increased as
number of people increased
• Organized projects
• Clear land for farming
• Irrigation systems for dry times of
the year
• Temples and palaces
• Defense of cities from invaders
- increased size and power of
government
Religion

POLYTHEISTIC - Belief in many Gods and
Goddesses that control the forces of nature
Believed in spirits
 Believed that the Gods controlled forces of
nature

Gave sacrifices to win the gods favor and get peace,
good harvests, rainfall, etc.
 Gave thanks to Gods when the outcome was favorable
 Wanted to keep the Gods happy


Priests gained power because they carried out
the rituals to keep the gods happy

Powerful positions in the governments
Religion

THEOCRACY - Government controlled
by a church or religion

Military leaders worked in conjunction
with priests to keep the gods happy and
provided a defense against enemies
Military leaders increased in power
 Became judges, made laws, supervised
building projects
 Collected taxes - earliest system of taxation




Labor for construction projects
Part of harvest
Used to pay for government and building
projects
Economy and Society

Technology was important





made work easier, faster and more efficient
Bronze Age - Vessels, tool, weapons, longer lasting
Farming improved

Develop use of irrigation through ditches and canals

Fewer farms needed

Excess food used for trading with merchants for goods
Barter Economy - Trading goods or services for something
you need

Creates a demand for more specialized skills and goods

Still used to some extent today
Social structure starts to change

Social Classes - Defines a persons place in society

Movement between classes

THEN --> No movement – born there die there

NOW --> Movement is possible but still hard
Social Classes
 Kids
generally took over
parents profession or
occupation
 Artisans
- People with a
specialized skill or trade
 Indentured

Servants
People working off debts
Family

Women managed the family
 Cared
for children, prepared food, made clothing
 Probably invented weaving and pottery making
 Probably discovered plants could be grown from
seeds
 Increased
provider
women’s power and status as primary food
 Lead
to the Agricultural Revolution and drastic change in the
way people lived.
 As
technology increased men became the primary
food providers and primary authorities in society
Important Point to Note

Although civilization developed in
different areas and at different times
there was still limited contact between
them
 Trading
 Migration
 Wars
 Brought a spread of ideas, skills, and a
diversity of culture – Cultural Diffusion
The End
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Emergence of Civilization