Marshland and swamps…
How was Mesopotamia transformed around 3200 BC?
Each city was believed to be the property of an individual god
• King Gudea of
Lagash
C. 2150 bce
• The inscription
describes a temple
dedicated to the
goddess Geshtinanna
Religion was the central force:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explained the workings of nature
Eased the fear of death
Justified rules and morality
United people in a common view
Bolstered the authority of rulers
Promoted creativity in art, literature and
science
• What were the
functions of a
temple priest?
(administrator)
How did Mesopotamians define the purpose of man’s existence?
Why did a mood of pessimism, uncertainty and anxiety
pervade the Sumerian psyche?
• Frequent floods and droughts
• Windstorms
• The gods were unpredictable
• How did King Sargon
earn a place in our
history books?
Third Dynasty of Ur…Ur-Nammu, 2113-2096 BC
The ancient Sumerians were very smart people:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cuneiform
Law codes
Literature
Schools
Numbering system
Kiln-dried bricks & pottery
Lunar calendar
Potter’s wheel
The wheel
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The wheelbarrow
Sailboats
Bronze tools and weapons
The plow
Frying pans
Razors
Cosmetic sets
Shepherd’s pipes
harps
Why were King Hammurabi’s law
codes obeyed?
The Hittites,
1600 bc- 1200 bc
examples of Hittite iron swords…
A Phoenician sailing vessel
•
The Phoenician Alphabet, circa 1400 bc
The
Hebrews
• Monotheism
• Removed the gods
from nature
• Assertion of human
dignity
• 10 Commandments
Descargar

Mesopotamia: the rise of civilization