Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700 Separatists vs. Puritans Puritanism Calvinism Institutes of the Christian Religion Predestination. • Good works could not save those predestined for hell. • No one could be certain of their spiritual status. • Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion.” Puritans: Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England. Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England. Separatists Separatist Beliefs: Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership. Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects, Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned.” Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England. James I (1603 - 1625) •James I was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He had become James VI of Scotland after Mary lost her head, and he became James I when he took over England. •He was the first to call himself "King of Great Britain." James struggled with Parliament - he thought he ruled by divine right. •There was a new English translation of Bible - the "King James Bible.“ •He persecuted Pilgrims because they would not recognize him as the religious leader of the Church of England. •So, they became a political risk as well. Sources of Puritan Migration The Mayflower 1620 a group of 102 people [half Separatists] Negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction. Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish. Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company. Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt. •41 Male passengers on the Mayflower formed into a “civil body politic”, signed a compact promising to write and obey "just and equal laws ... for the general good of the colony." •The compact brought an element of democracy to America and was an example of the practice of selfgovernment in the colonies. •All the colonies practiced some form of selfgovernment………… The Mayflower Compact November 11, 1620 Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule. Signed by 41 adult males. Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings. •Difficult winter (44 out of 102 survived)…. •First year went through a “starving time” •Developed friendly relations with Indian tribes •Squanto befriended settlement •Plymouth settlement survived under the leadership of Gov. William Bradford •First Thanksgiving That First Year…. Winter of 1620-1621 Only 44 out of the original 102 survived. None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back. Fall of 1621 First “Thanksgiving.” Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber. Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant. 1691 only 7,000 people Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony. William Bradford Self-taught scholar. Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections. Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society. A Model of Christian Charity Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony Charles I (1625 - 1649) •Son of James I and ruled by divine right. •Conflicts with Parliament = much resistance to his policies. •Forced to sign the Petition of Right •no taxes without Parliament’s consent; •civilians didn't have to house soldiers; •no military law in peacetime •Due process of law •In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled until 1640. •Persecuted Puritans led to the Puritan Migration. •1642–1651: English Civil Wars, "Cavaliers" (Anglicans, royalists, nobility, Catholics) vs. the "Roundheads" (Puritans and Middle Class). •Charles I was beheaded in 1649-------Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth. The MA Bay Colony 1629 non-Separatists got a royal charter to form the MA Bay Co. Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England. They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities.” 1630 1,000 people set off in 11 wellstocked ships Established a colony with Boston as its hub. “Great Migration” of the 1630s Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America. Not all Puritans 20,000 came to MA. Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony Communities well organized Established towns Protestant Work Ethic Family values John Winthrop Well-off attorney and manor lord in England. Became 1st governor of Massachusetts. Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead there. Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years. We shall be as a city on a hill.. •John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony •Middle class settlers, educated and organized •Successful as fur traders, fishermen and shipbuilders •Ruled as “Bible Commonwealth” or theocracy •New England Way = Puritan covenant with God •To establish holy society----”city upon a hill” Covenant Theology “Covenant of Grace”: between Puritan communities and God. “Social Covenant”: Between members of Puritan communities with each other. Required mutual watchfulness. No toleration of deviance or disorder. No privacy. Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs. Building the Bay Colony • Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about 40% of men in the colony ~ higher percentage than in England) • However, in town government, all propertyowning males could vote in town meetings – Direct democracy----self government • Since idea of government was to enforce God’s laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were very influential Building the Bay Colony • Clergy were barred from formal political office – early “church/state separation” • Puritan ideas: “calling” to God’s work, Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell Trouble in Bible Colony (Puritan Rebels) • • • Social harmony when only Puritans, but that didn’t last Quakers: fines, floggings, banishments, executions Anne Hutchinson: truly saved don’t need to obey (“antinomianism” the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture) – Banished from Mass. Bay – Travels to Rhode Island with her children and helps organize this settlement Anne Hutchinson’s Trial 1638 she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. Direct revelation was even more serious than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY?? Puritan leaders banished her she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY. She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County. John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this! Puritan “Rebels” Young, popular minister in Salem. Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church. Condemned MA Bay Charter. • Did not give fair compensation to Indians. Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior. Roger Williams 1635 found guilty of preaching new & dangerous opinions and was exiled. Rhode Island 1636 Roger Williams fled there. MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony. Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI • Universal manhood suffrage later restricted by a property qualification. • Opposed to special privilege of any kind freedom of opportunity for all. RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters More liberal than any other colony! New England Spreads Out New England Spreads Out • 1635: Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English settlers. Some Puritans moved westward to Connecticut with Rev. Thomas Hooker • 1639: Fundamental Orders – modern constitution established democratic government • 1641: New Hampshire taken over by overly aggressive Bay Colony • 1679: Annoyed by greed of Bay Colony, king arbitrarily separates it, becomes royal colony Characteristics of New England Settlements Low mortality average life expectancy was 70 years of age. Many extended families. Average 6 children per family. Average age at marriage: Women – 22 years old Men – 27 years old. New England 1. good harbors 2. small farms and towns 3. trade centered around harbors 4. hilly, forested and shallow soil 5. cities: Boston • 15,000 – 1750 6. fishing, lumber and trapping 7. Family, religion and community Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut Population of the New England Colonies Puritans vs. Native Americans Indians especially weak in New England epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul. Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers. Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto. 1621 Chief Massasoit signed treaty with the settlers. Autumn, 1621 both groups celebrated the First Thanksgiving. The Pequot Wars: 1636-1637 Pequots very powerful tribe in CT river valley. 1637 Pequot War Whites, with Narragansett Indian allies, attacked Pequot village on Mystic River. Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors! Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years. King Philip’s War (1675-1676} Only hope for Native Americans to resist white settlers was to UNITE. Metacom [King Philip to white settlers] Massasoit’s son united Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England. Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston. Massasoit’s son, Metacom (King Phillip) formed Indian alliance – attacked throughout New England, especially frontier English towns were attacked and burned unknown numbers of Indians died 1676: War ended, Metacom executed, lasting defeat for Indians •Charles II was the son of Charles I. •Because his father had been killed, Charles II had the ravens caged so they couldn't leave. •He was a "Merry Monarch," a very popular king. •Charles II encouraged religious toleration. Charles II (1660 - 1685) •The “Restoration Colonies” were settled during his reign. Goal: • Bring colonies under England’s rule • Defend colonies from French & Indians • Stop colonial smuggling Sir Edmund Andros, King’s Representative restricted colonies: • Town meetings, the press, & schools • Revoked land titles • Taxed without consent of the governed Forced by King James I All NE Colonies, NJ & NY Collapses after Glorious Revolution Colony/Date Person Responsible Massachusetts William Bradford •1621—Pilgrims Plymouth Colony •1630---Puritans Mass. Bay Colony •Pilgrims John Winthrop •Puritans •Plymouth merges with Mass. 1691 Rhode Island Roger Williams •1644 •Formed from Mass. •Exiled from Mass. Anne Hutchison •Exiled from Mass. Connecticut •1662 •Formed from Mass. Rev. Thomas Hooker New Hampshire John Mason Sir Ferdinando Gorges •1679 •Formed from Mass. Why Founded Governed/Owner Religious freedom, avoid religious persecution, to start a “city upon a hill”, and to begin a new life. Mayflower Compact Theocracy General Court Royal Colony •Dissatisfied with Mass. Bay Colony •Religious freedom •Consent of the governed •Self-governing colony Religious freedom, exploring the frontier and settling new areas. Part of Mass. Bay Colony and set up for greater opportunity in frontier---trade goods, fur, fishing & lumber industry Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Self-governing colony Royal Colony •James II was Charles' son, a Catholic. •He had a Protestant daughter, Mary, and a Catholic son. •Parliament didn't want his son taking over, so they gave the crown to Mary and her husband, William III of Orange. James II (1685 - 1688) •This was known as the "Glorious Revolution." (Revolution because they overthrew the last Catholic monarch, Glorious because no one died.) • Parliament put more restrictions on the monarch. •The king couldn't make or suspend laws, have an army during peacetime, and the king couldn't interfere with freedom of speech in Parliament. •English Bill of Rights Chart 13a Colony/Date Person Responsible New Netherland In1609--Dutch Henry Hudson for Netherlands New York—1664 England Duke of York of England names it New York New Jersey---1702 Pennsylvania—1681 Indian land---Dutch and Swedish gift from King Charles II to brother James--gives to his friends Lord John Berkeley & Sir George Carteret William Penn Swedes Delaware--1682 Maryland--1634 Lord Baltimore Why Founded Governed/Owner English fleet takes New Amsterdam from Dutch in 1664 and becomes New York City---Good harbor for trade New Netherlands was an autocracy 1689---English Bill of Rights Representative Govt Royal Colony Attract new settlers for Dutch and Swedish colonists Royal Colony Penn founded for religious freedom for the Quakers---Holy Experiment—invited all people Representative govt Religious toleration— those who believed in Christ---allowed persecuted Catholics to settle in Maryland Representative govt Royal Colony Proprietary Colony Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands 1600s Golden Age of Dutch history. Major commercial and naval power. Challenging England on the seas. 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars Major colonial power [mainly in the East Indies]. New Netherland (New York) • 1609: Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India Company sails into Hudson river looking for passage through continent ~ claims area for Dutch • 1623-24: Dutch West India Company establishes New Netherland • Goal: quick-profit fur trade • “Bought” Manhattan from Indians • Company town: no religious tolerance or free speech, harsh governors Henry Hudson’s Voyages New Netherland • Colony had aristocratic influence (a member of a ruling class or of the nobility) with large feudal estates (“patroonships” – one larger than Rhode Island) • Very diverse population: in 1640s missionary observed 18 languages New Netherlands New Netherlands founded in the Hudson River area (16231624) Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade. Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony. Manhattan [New Amsterdam] Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000) acre. New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639 Company town run in interests of the stockholders. No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy. Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic. Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church [including Quakers] were persecuted. Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists. New Amsterdam, 1660 Characteristics of New Amsterdam: Aristocratic patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them]. Cosmopolitan diverse population with many different languages. New York Manors & Land Grants Patroonships similar to the fedual system New Netherland& New Sweden Swedes in New Netherlands Mid-1600s Sweden in Golden Age settled small, under-funded colony [called “New Sweden”] near New Netherland. 1655 Dutch under director-general Peter Stuyvesant attack New Sweden. Main fort fell after bloodless siege. New Sweden absorbed into New Netherland. Dutch Residue in New York Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC. New York City seal. Names Harlem, Brooklyn Architecture gambrel roof Customs Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf]. Dutch Conflicts • Dutch cruelties to Indians brought retaliatory massacres – Dutch built wall (Wall Street) • Connecticut rejected Dutch settlers Dutch in New York An Angry Peter Stuyvesant • • • Duke of York English immigration to New Netherland resulted in 1/2 total population English regarded Dutch as intruders Charles II brazenly granted area to his brother (Duke of York) English squadron comes, New Netherland leader, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New York had no defense; surrendered, renamed New York • Mid-1600s: religious dissenters named Quakers arose in England • Hated by authorities because they refused to pay taxes to Church of England, refused to take oaths, refused military service Urban Population Growth 1650 - 1775 Penn’s family owed a large debt from the British Crown. Given a land grant in 1681. Pennsylvania Penn governs the colony, unusual for a proprietor Advertised in Europe, promising land & freedoms Frame of Government (guaranteed elected assembly), Charter of Liberties (freedom of worship, open immigration), fair treatment of Native Americans Penn, more than any other individual an example founder or colonist, provedThat to be the may be upstream to the nations chosen vessel through whichsetthe of as ... a holyrights experiment. demand for respect for individual was to flow so richly into our American reservoir of precious ideals.William Penn All men have a natural and infeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience, and no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishment or modes of worship. - William Penn, Declaration of Rights Pennsylvania & Neighbors • Penn bought land from Indians ~ treatment of them so fair that Quakers went to them unarmed and even employed Indians as babysitters • However, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they were less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish) • Liberal features: elected assembly, no taxsupported church, freedom of worship, only 2 capital crimes New Jersey Lord John Berkeley • James gave 2 friends, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, the section of New York located between the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1664 – He felt the territory of New York was too large to administer • Both proprietors allowed religious freedom and an assembly in addition to giving generous land offers to attract settlers Delaware William Penn • Penn granted the lower 3 counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly • Governor was the same as Pennsylvania’s until the American Revolution Middle Colonies 1. River systems 2. Valleys – fertile soil 3. ."bread basket" large farms surplus food 4. diverse population 5. manufacturing 6. iron mines, glass, shipyards, and paper 7. Cities: New York and Philadelphia New York Pennsylvania New Jersey Delaware New York Settling the Middle [or “Restoration”] Colonies New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!] 1664 English soldiers arrived. Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses. Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot. Renamed “New York” England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies. England now controlled the Atlantic coast! Duke of York’s Original Charter Pennsylvania The Quakers Called Quakers because they “quaked” during intense religious practices. They offended religious & secular leaders in England. Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England. They met without paid clergy Believed all were children of God refused to treat the upper classes with deference. Keep hats on. Addressed them as commoners ”thees”/“thous.” Wouldn’t take oaths. Pacifists. William Penn Aristocratic Englishman. 1660 – attracted to the Quaker faith. Embraced Quakerism after military service. 1681 he received a grant from king to establish a colony. This settled a debt the king owed his father. Named Pennsylvania [“Penn’s Woodland”]. He sent out paid agents and advertised for settlers his pamphlets were pretty honest. Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants. Penn & Native Americans Bought [didn’t simply take] land from Indians. Quakers went among the Indians unarmed. BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA Treated native peoples poorly. This undermined the actions of the Quakers! Government of Pennsylvania Representative assembly elected by landowners. No tax-supported church. Freedom of worship guaranteed to all. Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt. Death penalty only for treason & murder. Compared to 200 capital crimes in England! Pennsylvanian Society Attracted many different people Religious misfits from other colonies. Many different ethnic groups. No provision for military defense. No restrictions on immigration. No slavery!! “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws] against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc. A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!! New Jersey New Jersey — PA’s Neighbor 1664 aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area from the Duke of York. Many New Englanders [because of worn out soil] moved to NJ. 1674 West NJ sold to Quakers. East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers. 1702 E & W NJ combined into NJ and created one colony. Delaware Delaware — PA’s Neighbor Named after Lord De La Warr [harsh military governor of VA in 1610]. Closely associated with Penn’s colony. 1703 granted its own assembly. Remained under the control of PA until the American Revolution.