Settling the Middle
Colonies
New Netherlands &
New Sweden
• New Netherlands
settled by Dutch West
India Co. 1623-24
• Fur trade
• Buy Manhattan Island
from Indians
• Peter Stuyvesant
• New Amsterdam – a
“company town”
• Aristocratic, diverse
• Wall Street – Indian
defense
• New Sweden falls to
Stuyvesant – absorbed
by Dutch into New
Netherland
New York
Manors &
Land Grants
Patroonships
Land granted to
promoters who agreed
to settle 50 people.
New Amsterdam
Peter
Duke
Stuyvesant
of York
• English see Dutch as intruders
• 1664, Charles II grants area to brother,
Duke of York
• Stuyvesant surrenders easily
• New Amsterdam renamed New York
• Dutch influence survived though:
– Autocratic, aristocratic
– Harlem, Brooklyn
– Easter eggs, Santa Claus, bowling,
skating, sleighing, golf
William
Penn
The “Holy Experiment”
“Religious Society
of Friends”
The Quakers
Why are the Quakers seen as so offensive by
authorities?
How did William Penn get the PA land grant?
How did he encourage settlers to come?
Penn & Native Americans
• Fair treatment
• Bought land from
Indians
• Amicable relations
• PA most successful
colony!
Quaker Pennsylvania
• Philadelphia (“City of Brotherly Love”) wellplanned out; becomes largest colonial city
• Representative assembly elected by
landowners
• No tax-supported church / freedom of
worship to all (except Catholics/Jews)
• No military defense established - pacifists
• No restrictions on immigration
• Anti-slavery – THE FIRST ABOLITIONISTS!
• Diverse mix of ethnic groups
• Liberal/modern – but still some “blue laws”
New Jersey – Proprietors, 1664
Delaware - 1610
Urban Population Growth
1650 - 1775
Ethnic Groups
English largest, followed by Germans & Scots-Irish
“The Middle Way”
• Lack of distinctive institution like Southern
slavery or New England town meetings
•
•
•
•
– Not ruled by wealthy planters like South nor by the
church like New England
Characterized by diversity, religious tolerance
Cash crops – grains; “Bread colonies”
Ironworks – Pittsburgh area
Settlement of interior, not just coastal area river access to back country for trade
• Internal Conflicts:
– Leisler’s Rebellion – NY, 1689
• anti-BR sentiment
– Zenger’s trial*** – NY, 1734
• Freedom of the press
• Truth is absolute defense to libel (contrary to BR
law)
– Paxton Boy’s uprising – PA, 1764
• Another east-west conflict like Bacon’s!
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The Restoration Colonies