Pueblo Peoples
AN OVERVIEW & CONTEXT
THROUGH THE
LATE1700S & EARLY 1800S
Introductions
 Oldest continuous occupation of a single area in the
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Western Hemisphere outside of Meso-America
Cultural, linguistic and trade relations with Meso-America
Northern Pueblos influenced by Apache, Navajo, Utes,
Comanche and Kiowa
Cultural change and tradition
Connections with Rio Grande peoples

Suma, Manso, etc
 Multiple axes of analysis

Language, political structure, lineage, economy, social organization
Terms and
Identities
“Anasazi” & Mogollon
influences
Pueblos = Spanish term
for people living in
“villages”
4 Language families
Multiple languages that
are mutually
unintelligible
General Characteristics
 Intensive horticulture
 Elaborate ceremonial cycle
 Tightly-knit social organization
 Domesticated plants & animals
 Extensive trade networks
 Highly developed pottery and art/tools
 Little organized warfare
Comparisons
Pueblos in the late 1500s
Modern day reservations
Continued…
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Clusters along Rio Grande
Matrilineal or Patrilineal
Typically clans (family lineages)
Kivas, Katsinas, medicine societies
Some have “moieties”
Dual complimentary social structures. Larger than
families and clans, but not necessarily a hereditary
structure. Tend to be exogamous. Religious, agricultural,
etc. functions. Also have social & biological purposes.
Bind clans together.
 Turquoise/Squash; Summer/Winter
 Ceremonial & social dances, hunting

Taos Pueblo, 1930s
Linguistic Organization
 Keresan Family
 Acoma, Cochiti, Laguna, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Santo
Domingo, Zia
 Tanoan Family
 Tiwa, Tewa Towa
Tiwa: Taos, Picuris, Sandia, Isleta
Tewa: San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Nambe, Tesuque,
Pojaque
 Towa: Jemez
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 Zunian Family
 Zuni
 Uto-Aztecan
 Hopi and many others
Socio-Political Organization
 Western Pueblos
 Hopi, Hano, Laguna, Acoma, Zuni
 Matrilineal and Matrifocal, clans, Katsinas
 Keresan Bridge Pueblos
 Zia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Santo Domingo Cochiti
 Centralized political/social, matrilineal clans, moieties
 Eastern Tanoan Pueblos
 Tesuque, Nambe, Pojaque, Ildefonso, S.C., S.J, Taos,
Picuris, Sandia, Isleta
 Moderate centralization, bilateral, no clans: moieties
Photographs
Acoma woman, 1939
Father and Son, 1893
“Great Southwest Revolt of 1680”
 Juan de Onate
 Santa Fe
 Pueblo Revolt 1680
 Conversion
 Oppression
 Land & Labor
 Apaches/Navajos
 Environment
 Popé/Popay
“Reconquista of 1692/3”
 Spain tempered conversion efforts
 Spanish settlers and Nuevo Hispano villagers
 Vecinos, pobladores, pueblos, communal land holdings
 Land Grants to Spanish & Pueblos
 Conflicts between Spanish groups for labor
 Missions, Presidios, hacendados, traders,
 Congregation, repartimiento, ecomienda, rescate
 Apache-Comanche-Navajo-Hopi tensions, trade, captivity
and intermarriage
 Intermarriage of Pueblos into Hispano settlements & viceversa
 “Detribalized” Indians, Genizaros
 No Treaties
Cultural & Political Hybridity
 1598 & 1620 Spanish imposed new forms of
government
 These blended with or overlapped with Pueblo forms
 “Traditional” or Religious

Cacique & Cacique Society

War Chief & War Captain, aides
 Tribal Councils
 Secular
 Governor & Aides
 Fiscale and aides
 Sheriff & Acequia/ditch bosses
From Joe S. Sando, Pueblo Nations
Pastoral
Borderlands,
1800
Note the Hopi Villages
to the West, organized
mainly on three large
Mesas
Note the location of
Mount Taylor and Big
Bead, two important
points in Dine-Pueblo
Relations
Southwest
Borderlands,
1770s
Pueblo Peoples in
context of regional
cultures, Spanish trade
lines, and slaveexchange economies
Note the location of El
Paso del Norte &
Chihuahua
Note the proximity of
the Cheyenne, Wichita,
Arapaho
New Mexico
circa 1800
Indian Pueblos and
Spanish Settlements
Interspersed
Genizaro communities in
Belen, Anton Chico,
Mora, Las Trampas,
Chimayo
Pecos Pueblo and Taos
Pueblo contact with
llaneros, Comanches,
Comancheros, Cibolleros
Conclusions
 By 1800, Puebloan communities had condensed into fewer
and fewer sites
 Population declines due to exogamy, disease, captivetaking, environmental pressures
 Impact of Spanish institutions created cultural
compartmentalization and syncretism

Political, religious, etc.
 Tense and strained relationship with Hispano communities
re: water, land grants, racial status
 Cultural diversification on N-S and E-W axes
 Tiguas/Ysleta del Sur
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