Agenda
• Clauses
• Sentence Structure
• Practice!
Clauses
• Independent
• Or
• Dependent
Independent Clauses
• A clause that can stand alone as a short
sentence
• Ex. Jim ran track.
Dependent Clause
• Contains subject and verb
• Not a complete thought
• Ex. When Jim studied in the Sweet
Shop for his chemistry quiz.
– What happened next? Not a complete
thought
You know it’s dependent when…
• after, although, as, as if, because,
before, even if, even though, if, in order
to, since, though, unless, until,
whatever, when, whenever, whether,
and while.
Which is which?
• When Jim ran track, he stayed in really
good shape.
• Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his
chemistry quiz, but it was hard to
concentrate because of the noise.
You know it’s independent when…
• Independent Marker Words
– also, consequently, furthermore, however,
moreover, nevertheless, and therefore.
• Coordinating Conjunctions
– and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet
– Connecting words at the beginning of independent
clauses
Sentence Structure
•
•
•
•
Simple
Compound
Complex
Compound-Complex
Simple
• One Independent Clause
• Ex. The designer has a flair for fashion.
Compound
• Contains more than one independent
clause
• Ex. The designer has a flair for fashion;
she creates clothes every season
Complex
• One independent clause and at least
one dependent clause
• Ex. When the spring fashion season
beins, the designer creates new clothes
Compound-Complex
• Contains more than one independent
clause & at least one dependent
• Ex. When the spring fashion season
begins, the designer draws new
designs, and she creates new clothes.
Sentence Types
•
•
•
•
Declarative
Imperative
Interrogative
Exclamatory
Declarative
• Makes a statement and ends with
period
• The baker mixed the ingredients for the
cake.
Imperative
• Gives a command or order
• Subject is always “you” (expressed or
understood)
• Be careful when walking near teething
puppies.
Interrogative
• Asks a question
• Will you bake a cake for me?
Exclamatory
•
•
•
•
Expresses strong feelings or emotions
More forceful than declarative
Explanation Point!
I love birthday parties!
Agenda
• Phrases, clauses, sentences
Phrases
• Usually no more than 3 words long
• Do not have subjects, finite verbs or
objects
• Function is purely descriptive (adding
extra detail about nouns and verbs)
• Types: adjectival, adverbial, infinitival,
participial, prepositional, gerund
Clauses
• Dependent (subordinate) or
Independent (main or superordinate)
• Main grammatical chunks of a sentence
• Dependent: either relative (adjectival),
adverbial, or noun clauses
• ALL clauses have subjects and
predicates whether explicit or implicit
Sentence
• Rhetorical Unit
• Must have at least one independent clause
(simple sentence)
• With or without dependent clauses or
phrases
• Or may contain 2 or independent clauses
(compound), one or more dependent
clauses (complex), and possibly, phrases
(compound/complex)
Prepositional Phrases
• Take me to the opera.
• What is in the box that came from
Hawaii?
Prep. Phrases that function as
adjectival phrases
• The woman on the phone is Jane.
(describe woman)
• The mysteries of outer space are
waiting for us. (describes mysteries)
Prep. Phrases that function as
adverbs
• Bob was caught on the horns of a
dilemma. (describes how)
• A large rabbit dove under the ground.
(describes where)
Prep. Phrases that function as
a complex noun (subject)
• In the evening (it) is as good a time as
any. (‘what’ is a good time?)
Gerund Phrases
• Gerunds are verb forms ending in ‘ing’
that function as nouns
• Reading blueprints is not as easy as it
sounds. (subject)
• Thoreau placed great value on living
simply. (object of preposition)
• Having missed the bus, we arrived late
at the party (participial phrase/modifier
for ‘we’)
Infinitival Phrase
• Can function as a noun phrase,
adjectival or adverbial
• A waiter’s job is to serve a table.
(answer ‘what’ = function as noun
phrase)
• It’s important to have a good language
to suit the occasion. (functioning as
adjectival phrase)
Infinitival Phrase
• We’ll have to run to catch the train.
(functioning as an adverbial phrase –
answer ‘why’)
• We hope to win the race. (infinitival
phrase functioning as object of the verb
= noun phrase)
Finite verbs vs. Infinitive
• Finite = always has an implicit or explicit
subject
– Becomes finite when gets confined by the
noun
– Connected to by number, ‘person’, or tense
• Infinitive = pure, unaffected verb forms
– Not tied to any noun, subject, or object
– Always have the preposition ‘to’
– This form never acts as a verb
Examples finite vs. infinitive
• To sing is a good thing when we are
singing uplifting songs.
Participial Phrase
• Typically used as adjective to modify
noun or pronoun
• The gentlemen standing on the corner
is the owner (modifies gentlemen)
• The fisherman, weathered by
experience, calmly took the line.
(modifies fisherman)
Participial Phrase
• Missing the bus by a second, we
decided to take a taxi. (Modifies ‘we’)
• Running into the house, Mary tripped on
the rug. (modifies Mary)
• Incorrect placement of the participial
phrase typically results in what we term
the ‘dangling modifier’ – in this case,
the dangling participial phrase
Adjectival Clause
• Follows a noun
• Phrase will begin with who, which, that,
whose, whom
• Ex. Margaret, who loves chocolate, eats
a lot of it.
• The function of the words is what
matters
Adverbial Clause
• Do the work of adverbs
• Extend description of the finite verb in
the independent clause
• Tell us: how, when, where, or why
something happens
• Because she loves chocolate, she eats
many. (tells us why)
• During the time he ran frequently, he
lost 15 pounds. (when)
Noun Clause
• Subject or object
• That the moon has no heat of its own
(it) has been confirmed by scientists.
(subject)
• It is obvious that truth is hard to come
by with habitual liars. (object)
Appositives
• Has to do with placement or location
• Can be a word or phrase
• Any single word or phrase (or dependent
clause) is appositional only when it is placed
• *A noun or pronoun that renames another noun
or pronoun
• Most commonly, a noun or pronoun appearing
immediately after another noun
• The noun or pronoun used appositively, seems
to bend back to RENAME previous noun
Appositives
• Frequently offset by commas, although not
always the case
• Woodrow Wilson, the twenty-ninth president
of the USA, said that automobiles
symbolized the ‘arrogance of wealth.’
• Noun that bend back is embedded in the
whole phrase, so the phrase too is
appositively place
Comma or No Comma?
• Restrictive = essential to meaning
– No commas, can’t take out, necessary
• Nonrestrictive
– Non-essential
Friday, 1/20
• Learning Lab: Editing/Labeling
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Clauses - New Bremen Schools