HOW TO
FORMAT YOUR PAPER
AND
WRITE IN-TEXT
CITATIONS
According to MLA Standards
Miss Mackowski
Library Media Specialist
Norwalk High School
What is MLA?
MLA (Modern Language Association)
-Developed a universal way for scholars to research and write.
-MLA style formatting is often used in various Humanities
disciplines
FORMATTING
101 BASICS
#1 RULE
******
ALWAYS
Find out your instructor’s guidelines
for your paper before you start!
Formatting
BASICS
-Font size and type: 12 pt./Times New Roman
-Paper size: 8.5” by 11” only (letter size)
-Margins: 1” around paper; ½ inch indentation for 1st line of a paragraph
-Spacing: Double-space all text
-Title page: None unless your instructor requires one
BEGINNING OF PAPER
-Upper right hand corner of 1st page-type from ½” from top your last name
and page number (continue this for every page)
-Left hand corner of 1st page-type your name, your instructor's name, the
course, and date
-Center the paper title with standard capitalization-do not underline, bold, or
quote
Sample 1st Page
FORMATTING SHORTCUTS
IN WORD
Spacing
Font Size
Font Type
HEADER
AND FOOTER
Formatting Section Headings
 Headings are generally optional
 Headings in essays should be numbered
 Headings in paper should be consistent in grammar
and formatting but are otherwise up to you
 Ask your teacher if you are unsure if you need section
headings
Sample Section Headings
Numbered (all flush left with
Unnumbered (by level):
no underlining, bold, or
italics):
1. Soil Conservation
1.1 Erosion
Level 1 Heading: bold, flush left
Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left
Level 3 Heading: centered, bold
1.2 Terracing
2. Water Conservation
3. Energy Conservation
Level 4 Heading: centered, italics
Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left
HOW TO WRITE
IN-TEXT CITATIONS
IN YOUR PAPER
*******
Two acceptable ways to use
information (and give credit)
from another source in writing:
PARAPHRASE and QUOTE
SUMMARY
VS.
PARAPHRASE
---What’s the difference?
Summary vs. Paraphrase
• A summary is when you take someone
else’s ideas and put them into your own
words.
• A paraphrase is when you take someone
else’s ideas and put them into your own
words BUT you ALWAYS GIVE CREDIT
TO THE AUTHOR.
MLA in-text citations are made with a combination of
SIGNAL PHRASES
and
PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES
-A signal phrase indicates that something taken from
a source (a quotation, summary, paraphrase, or fact) is
about to be used; usually the signal phrase includes
the author's name.
-A parenthetical reference which comes after the
cited material, normally includes at least a page
number. It may also include the author’s last name.
AUTHOR NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE
Ordinarily, introduce the material being cited with a signal phrase that includes
the author's name. In addition to preparing readers for the source, the signal
phrase allows you to keep the parenthetical citation brief.
Christine Haughney reports that shortly after Japan made it
illegal to use a handheld phone while driving, accidents from
phone use decreased by 75% (8).
The signal phrase — Christine Haughney reports that — names the author; the
parenthetical citation gives the page number where the information was found.
As Wendy Martin has suggested, Emily Dickinson firmly
believed that we cannot fully comprehend life unless we also
understand death (625).
In his Autobiography, Benjamin Franklin states that he
prepared a list of thirteen virtues (135-137).
AUTHOR NAMED IN PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE
If a signal phrase does not name the author, put the author's last name in
parentheses along with the page number.
Most states do not keep adequate records on the number of
times cell phones are a factor in accidents; as of December
2000, only ten states were trying to keep such records (Sundeen
2).
The aesthetic and ideological orientation of jazz underwent
considerable scrutiny in the late 1950s and early 1960s
(Anderson 7).
It may be true that “in the appreciation of medieval art the
attitude of the observer is of primary importance…” (Robertson
136).
AUTHOR UNKNOWN
Either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in
parentheses. Titles of books are italicized; titles of articles are put in quotation
marks.
As of 2001, at least three hundred towns and municipalities
had considered legislation regulating use of cell phones while
driving ("Lawmakers" 2).
PAGE NUMBER UNKNOWN
You may omit the page number if a work lacks page numbers, as is the case
with many Web sources. Although printouts from Web sites usually show page
numbers, printers don't always provide the same page breaks; for this reason,
MLA recommends treating such sources as unpaginated.
The California Highway Patrol opposes restrictions on the use
of phones while driving, claiming that distracted drivers can
already be prosecuted (Jacobs).
According to Jacobs, the California Highway Patrol opposes
restrictions on the use of phones while driving, claiming that
distracted drivers can already be prosecuted.
HOW TO WRITE
QUOTES IN YOUR PAPER
RULE 1:
Introduce a quote with an introductory
phrase and a comma
According to Mr. Jake Smith, A New York Times editor, “The
economy is beginning to show signs of recovery” (3).
Joseph Conrad writes of the company manager in Heart of
Darkness, “He was obeyed, yet he inspired neither love nor
fear, nor even respect” (4).
RULE #2:
Introduce a quote with a complete
sentence followed by a colon
Barbara Brehm believes that Americans cannot live without
coffee: “Coffee is a part of every day American culture…[and]
it seems to have become an American obsession” (10).
RULE #3:
Use block quotes with a complete sentence and a colon
and ALWAYS double indent the entire block quote.
In a study published in Health Magazine, Nancy Clark
summarizes the side effects of coffee:
A woman who wants to start a family should
be aware that consuming over 300
milligrams of coffee per day may increase
the time it takes to get pregnant. The USDA
recommends that pregnant women avoid
caffeine-containing foods (11).
Adding/Omitting Words
Adding words: [Brackets]
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals
[who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78).
Omit words: Ellipses … or ….
Ellipsis dots indicate the omission of unused parts of a quotation
-3 periods (. . .) indicate an omission within a sentence and
-4 periods (. . . .) indicate an omission at the end of a sentence
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals
make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a
lively exchange of details occurs” (78).
In surveying various responses to plagues in the Middle Ages, Barbara W.
Tuchman writes, “Medical thinking, trapped in the theory of astral influences,
stressed air as the communicator of disease….” (16).
Descargar

Slide 1