Adverbial Clauses and
Phrases
Lesson 8
Santa Clause does like to write.
We’ll discuss two type of clauses.
Independent
Independent
She came to the U.S.
Dependent (Adverb Clause)
Dependent (adverb clause)
so that she could be with her
relatives.
Independent and dependent
She came to the U.S. so that she
could be with her relatives.
Independent and dependent
So that she could be with her
relatives, she came to the U.S.
Independent / Dependent
She came to the U.S.
So that she could be with her relatives.
If she saves enough money, she will visit her first country.
She came to Canada
Because of war,
before she came to the U.S.
many Bosnians came to the U.S.
Even though she didn’t know English,
she came to Canada.
Independent / Dependent
She came to the U.S.
So that she could be with her relatives.
If she saves enough money, she will visit her first country.
She came to Canada
Because of war,
before she came to the U.S.
many Bosnians came to the U.S.
Even though she didn’t know English,
she came to Canada.
Independent / Dependent
She came to the U.S. So that she could be with her relatives.
If she saves enough money, she will visit her first country.
She came to Canada
Because of war,
before she came to the U.S.
many Bosnians came to the U.S.
Even though she didn’t know English, she came to Canada.
5 Types of Adverbial Clauses
•
•
•
•
•
Time
Reason
Purpose
Contrast
Conditions
5 Types of Adverbial Clauses
•
•
•
•
•
Time
(before)
Reason (because)
Purpose (so that)
Contrast (even though)
Conditions (if)
Types of Adverbial Clauses
• Time Clauses (She went to Canada
before she came to the U.S.
• Reason Clause ( She went to Canada
first because she couldn’t get a visa
for the U.S.
• Purpose Clause (She came to the U.S.
so that she could be with her
relatives
Types of Adverbial Clauses
Cont.
• Contrast Clause (She came to the U.S.
even though she didn’t know
English.
• Condition Clause (She will go back to her
country if she saves enough money.
Language note
• An adverbial clause is
dependent on the main
clause and MUST be
attached.
Wrong: She came to
America. Because she
wanted to study.
Right: She came to
America because she
wanted to study.
• The dependent clause
can come before or
after the independent
clause.
• If it comes before, it is
usually separated by a
comma.
Even though I’m not tired,
I think I’ll take a break.
Reasons and purposes
• Many Irish came to the U.S. because of
hunger.
• Since you are late, you will need a pass.
(similar to because)
• In order to make money, my family came to
the U.S.
• Some people came to the U.S. for freedom.
Reasons and purposes
(cont.)
• Many people come to the U.S. so that
they can be reunited with family.
(present tense)
• So that I would learn English, I
came to Canada. (past tense)
Page 330
Read “Reason and Purpose
Create 6 sentences
because
because of
since
for
in order to
so that
Page 331 and 332
#1 and #2
because
because of
since
for
in order to
so that
Answers for ex. 1 p. 331
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.because
2. so that
3. so that
4. because
5. because of
6. in order to
7. Since
•
•
•
•
•
•
8. in order to
9. for
10. so that
11. to
12. because
13. for
Time Expressions
• When “at that time” “immediately after
that time”
• Whenever “any time” or “every time”
• Until “up to that time”
• Since/ ever since from that time in
the past to the present”
• For the amount of time
Time Expressions Cont.
• During use with day, night, month, summer or
a specific time period.
• While / as with a continuous action
Notes:
For is an amount of time, but during is with
a named time period.
When: used with a sample past action
While: used with a continuous action (ing)
Now practice in your journal
• Page 337 Exercises 4 and 5 (only write
the answers)
Answers p. 337 ex 4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Until
Since
While
During
When
For
During
While
9. While
10.Since
11.When
12.While
13.For
14.until
Answers p. 337 and 338 ex. 5
1. Whenever
(every time)
2. For
3. Whenever
4. When
5. For
6. When
7. While 14. until
9. Since
10. Since
11. For
12. While
13. During
To Show Contrast
For an unexpected result or contrast of
ideas, use a clause beginning with:
Even though
Although
In spite of the fact that
Try using each of these phrases in a
sentence with a partner.
Note on in spite of
• Use in spite of + noun phrase to show
contrast.
• A clause does not follow in spite of
Ex: In spite of their hard lives, the lost
Boys are hopeful about their futures.
Still and Anyway
• Still and anyway can be used in the
main clause to emphasize the contrast.
Ex: Even though the Lost Boys are happy
in the U.S., they still miss their families.
Ex: Even thought it’s hard for an
immigrant to work and go to school,
they have to do it anyway.
Let’s Practice!
• Find a partner and complete the
sentences out loud. Do NOT write
• P. 343 Ex. 10 and 11
Examples for 10
1. I like my apartment even though the rent is high.
6. I like my job in spite of the fact that my boss doesn’t
handle conflict well.
Example for 11: (make a contrast.)
Even though the U.S. is a rich country, there are many
homeless.
Scored Review
Use the following phrases in sentences.
Write on a piece of paper and hand in
While (ing verb)
Whenever
Ever since
Until
Even though. . .still
Although. . .anyway
In spite of the fact that
Transitions
(Sentence Connectors)
• However, Nevertheless: Show contrast (similar to
but)
Ex.: The U.S. is not a perfect country. Nevertheless,
many people want to immigrate here.
• In addition, Furthermore, Moreover: add more
information (similar to and)
Ex: My sister came to the U.S. to earn money.
Furthermore, she wanted to be reunited with her
family.
Transitions Cont.
• Therefore, As a result, For this reason:
show result or conclusion. (similar to
so)
Ex: Many couples in China prefer sons.
As a result, the majority of adoptions
from China are girls.
Punctuation Note
• Use either a period or a semicolon (;) before
a transition.
• A comma is used after the connector.
Ex: My friends couldn’t adopt a baby here.
Therefore, they went to another country
to adopt.
Ex: My friends couldn’t adopt a baby
here; therefore, they went to another
country to adopt.
Let’s Practice!
• Write the answer in your journal after
your notes.
• Page 352-354 Ex 18 #1-21
So. . .that/ Such. . .that
• Such + adjective + noun + that
Ex. The Sudanese Boys had such an
awful trip that many of them died
along the way.
Ex. We waited such a long time to
catch the bus that we missed the
concert.
So. . .that/Such that
continued
• So + adjective + that
• So + adverb + that
Ex. Foreign adoption is so expensive
that many people cannot afford it.
Ex. Small children learn English so easily
that the become fluent in a short time.
So. . .that/Such that
With Countable Nouns
• So many + plural count noun + that
• So few + plural count noun + that
Ex. There are so many students in the
room that we don’t have enough desks
for them.
There are so few desks available that
many students need to sit on the floor.
So. . .that/Such that
With uncountable nouns
• So much + noncount noun + that
• So little + nonount noun + that
Ex.: There was so much poverty in
Ireland in the 1800s that Irish people
were forced to leave.
Ex: The Sudanese Boys had so little to
eat that many of them died.
Let’s practice
• Write your answers in your journal
beneath your notes.
• Page 357 Ex. 21 #1-10
Descargar

Adverbial Clauses and Phrases