Module 10
Operant & Cognitive
Approaches
Thorndike’s Law of
Effect
•
Behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened while
behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened
Skinner’s Operant
Conditioning
• An operant response is a response that
can be modified by its consequences and
is a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior
that can be easily measured
• Operant conditioning focuses on how
consequences affect behavior
Source: Based on Behavior of Organisms, by B. F. Skinner, 1938. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Reinforcement &
Punishment
• Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior)
– A consequence that occurs after a behavior and
increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur
again
• Punishment (Weakens Behavior)
– A consequence that occurs after a behavior and
decreases the chance that the behavior will occur
again
Reinforcement &
Punishment
• Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior)
– A consequence that occurs after a behavior and
increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur
again
– Positive reinforcement
• presentation of a stimulus that increases the probability
that the behavior will occur again
– Negative reinforcement
• an aversive stimulus whose removal increases the
likelihood that the preceding response will occur again
Reinforcement &
Punishment
• Punishment (Weakens Behavior)
– A consequence that occurs after a behavior and
decreases the chance that the behavior will occur
again
– Positive punishment
• Presenting an aversive stimulus after a response
• It decreases the chances that a response will recur
– Negative punishment
• Removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response
• It decreases the chances that a response will recur
Clarification of Terms
• Reinforcement vs. Punishment
– Reinforcement- Strengthens
preceding behavior
– Punishment- Weakens preceding
behavior
• Positive vs. Negative
– Positive- adding/ introducing a
stimulus
– Negative- subtracting/ taking away a
stimulus
Examples of Operant
Conditioning: Toilet Training
• Target behavior
– Goal is for Sheryl to urinate in the toilet
• Preparation
– Give Sheryl a large glass of apple juice
• Reinforcers
– Each time Sheryl performs the desired
behavior, she receives an immediate
reinforcer
• Shaping
– Each time Sheryl performs a step that leads
up to using the toilet, she receives
reinforcement
Primary vs. Secondary
Reinforcers
• Primary reinforcer
– Stimulus that is innately satisfying
and requires no learning to become
pleasurable
– Food, water, and sex
• Secondary reinforcer
– Stimulus that has acquired its
reinforcing power through experience
– Coupons, money, and grades
Consequences
Positive Reinforcement
(pleasant stimulus applied)
Increases the preceding
behavior
Negative Reinforcement
(unpleasant stimulus
removed or withheld)
Increases the preceding
behavior
Positive Punishment
(unpleasant stimulus
applied)
Decreases the preceding
behavior
Negative Punishment
(pleasant stimulus removed
or withheld)
Decreases the preceding
behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Examples
Action
Consequence
Dog looks for a Neighbor
bone at the
throws dog a
neighbor’s
bone.
house.
Increase in
Behavior
Dog will return
to neighbor’s
home in search
of a bone.
Positive Reinforcement
Examples
Action
Consequence
Increase in
Behavior
A student
studies for a
test.
The student
earns and A+
on the test.
The student will
study again.
Positive Reinforcement
Examples
Action
Consequence
A student takes The student
a psychology
really enjoys
class.
and learns a lot
from the
psychology
class !
Increase in
Behavior
The student will
probably take
another
psychology
class later!
Negative Reinforcement
Examples
Action
Consequence
The little boy
His parents
whines when
take away the
he is supposed chopped liver.
to eat chopped
liver.
Increase in
Behavior
The little boy
will whine to
get his way
again.
Negative Reinforcement
Examples
Action
Consequence
Sarah cries
The doctor
when the
decided not to
doctor tries to
give her a shot.
give her a shot.
Increase in
Behavior
Sarah will
probably cry to
avoid
unpleasant
situations in the
future.
Negative Reinforcement
Examples
Action
Consequence
Increase in
Behavior
Jennie is pulled
over for
speeding and
cries.
The police
officer decides
not to give Mrs.
Gallagher a
speeding ticket.
Jennie will
probably cry to
avoid tickets in
the future.
Negative Reinforcement
Examples
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Taking an aspirin to relieve a headache.
Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold.
Giving in to an argument or to a dog’s begging.
Fanning oneself to escape the heat.
Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad.
Smoking in order to relieve anxiety.
Following prison rules in order to be released from
confinement.
Feigning a stomachache in order to avoid school.
Putting on a car safety belt to stop an irritating buzz.
Turning down the volume of a very loud radio.
Putting up an umbrella to escape the rain.
Saying “uncle” to stop being beaten.
Positive Punishment
Examples
Action
Consequence
Decrease in
Behavior
Joe misses 3
free throws in
the basketball
game.
Joe must run
Joe will be less
three sprints
likely to miss
after the game. free throws in
the next
basketball
game.
Positive Punishment
Examples
Action
Consequence
Meggie
Meggie
touches
experiences
electrical outlet. mildly painful
shock.
Decrease in
Behavior
Meggie won’t
touch the outlet
again.
Positive Punishment
Examples
Action
Consequence
Decrease in
Behavior
Quinn touched
a hot pan.
Quinn’s finger
is burnt.
Quinn will not
touch the hot
pan again.
Negative Punishment
Examples
Action
Consequence
Decrease in
Behavior
Mr. Spooner
speeds.
Mr. Spooner
has to pay for
an expensive
speeding ticket
(money is
taken away).
Mr. Spooner
will probably
not speed in
the near future!
Negative Punishment
Examples
Action
Consequence
Decrease in
Behavior
A child
misbehaves in
a restaurant.
Her mother will The child will
not let her
be less likely to
order dessert. misbehave in
the future.
Negative Punishment
Examples
Action
Consequence
Decrease in
Behavior
Quinn pushes
Meggie.
Quinn has to sit Quinn will be
in timeout.
less likely to
push Meggie
again.
BE CAREFUL,
OPERANT CONDITIONING
VARIES WITH THE INDIVIDUAL…
Action
Consequences Behavior?
Kaitlin talks
during class.
Teacher
reprimands
Kaitlin for
talking.
P0SITIVE
REINFORCEMENT?
Kaitlin really
wants
attention, she
will be more
like to talk in
class again.
Action
Consequences
Behavior?
Kaitlin talks
during class.
Teacher
reprimands
Kaitlin for
talking.
PUNISHMENT?
Kaitlin wants
the teacher’s
approval, she
will be less
likely to talk in
class again.
Action
Consequences Behavior?
Kaitlin talks
during class.
Kaitlin gets a
detention.
POSITIVE
REINFORCEMENT?
Kaitlin really
needs quiet
time to do her
homework
after school.
Action
Consequences Behavior?
Kaitlin talks
during class.
Kaitlin gets a
detention.
PUNISHMENT?
Kaitlin has a
busy after
school
schedule and
may be kicked
off the team.
Classifying
Consequences
What type of operant
conditioning is it?
Which consequence?
•
•
•
•
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Positive punishment
Negative punishment
Positive Reinforcement
• A rat presses a bar and receives a
food pellet.
• ADDING a pleasant consequence
that INCREASES the likelihood of
the behavior
Positive Punishment
• A child swears and is spanked.
• ADDING an unpleasant
consequence that DECREASES
the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Punishment
• A child has her bike taken away for
crashing it.
• SUBTRACTING a pleasant
consequence that DECREASES
the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Punishment
• A teenager is put on restriction for
keeping the car out too late.
• SUBTRACTING a pleasant
consequence that DECREASES
the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
• A child swims three more laps just
so he can stop swimming which he
hates.
• SUBTRACTING an unpleasant
consequence that INCREASES the
likelihood of the behavior
Positive Reinforcement
• You study and earn an A.
• ADDING a pleasant consequences
that INCREASES the likelihood of
the behavior
Positive Punishment
• You party all night and get an F.
• ADDING an unpleasant
consequence that DECREASES
the likelihood of the behavior
Positive Punishment
• You are caught speeding and are
given a ticket by the highway
patrol.
• ADDING an unpleasant
consequence that DECREASES
the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Punishment
• A child is acting up in class and is
sent to the corner of the room for
10 minutes.
• SUBTRACTING a pleasant
consequence that DECREASES
the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
• You clean up your room to avoid
your mom’s nagging.
• SUBTRACTING an unpleasant
consequence that INCREASES the
likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
• Since you find that aspirin relieves
your headaches, you find yourself
taking it every time you feel a
headache coming on.
• SUBTRACTING an unpleasant
consequence that INCREASES the
likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
• Whenever shock is applied to a
rat’s feet, it presses a lever to stop
it.
• SUBTRACTING an unpleasant
consequence that INCREASES the
likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement
• A rat has learned to press a lever
whenever a light comes on in order
to prevent shock from ever being
applied.
• SUBTRACTING an unpleasant
consequence that INCREASES the
likelihood of the behavior
Positive Reinforcement
• Every time a child says the words
“mommy” or “daddy,” both parents get
very excited and pay extra attention to
him. Soon the child is saying these
words more and more.
• ADDING a pleasant consequences that
INCREASES the likelihood of the
behavior
Classical or
Operant?
Identification Activity
Decide CC or OC
• If the situation is an example of
classical conditioning, label the
UCS, UCR, CS, and CR.
• If the situation is an example of
operant conditioning, decide which
of the four consequences applies
(positive reinforcement, negative
reinforcement, positive punishment,
or negative punishment).
Scene One
• A very bright (mildly painful) light is
turned on a rat. The rat has
learned that he can turn off the light
by pressing a lever on the other
side of his cage. As soon as the
light comes on, the rat runs across
the room and presses the lever.
– Operant Conditioning
– Negative Reinforcement
Scene Two
• When a mother strokes her infant’s
skin, the stroking creates pleasure
responses in the baby. After this
goes on for many days, that baby
begins to show pleasure responses
– Classical Conditioning
– UCS- stroking
– UCR- pleasure
– CS- mother
– CR- pleasure
Scene Three
• A patient in a mental hospital is very
disruptive at meal times. She grabs
food from the plates of those sitting near
her and tries to cram the food in her
mouth. Because this behavior of
stealing food is very undesirable, a plan
is developed whereby every time the
patient steals food from other plates,
she is immediately taken to a room
without food.
– Operant Conditioning
– Negative Punishment
Scene Four
• Johnny has gotten into a habit of yelling
“Bye, Mom” and then slamming the door
very loudly in his hurry to leave for
school in the morning. The door slam
causes his mother to flinch. After
several days of the procedure, Johnny’s
mother begins to flinch at the sound of
her son’s words, “Bye, Mom.”
–
–
–
–
–
Classical Conditioning
UCS- door slam
UCR- flinching
CS- “Bye, Mom”
CR- flinching
Scene Five
• Imagine you have a friend who keeps
the temperature in her home so high
that each occasion on which you visit
her you find yourself perspiring. The
last time you visited her, you noticed
that you began to perspire and became
uncomfortable as soon as you saw her
house (before you even got inside).
–
–
–
–
–
Classical Conditioning
UCS- heat
UCR- perspiration
CS- sight of friend’s house
CR- perspiration
Scene Six
• Fred leaves his clothes and toys all
over his room. It seems that the
only time he cleans up his room is
when his mother yells at him.
When she yells at him, Fred picks
up his clothes and puts away his
toys.
– Operant Conditioning
– Negative Reinforcement
Scene Seven
• Mr. & Mrs. Jones are having a heated
argument that both are finding
unpleasant. Mr. Jones gets up and
leaves the room, closing the door
behind him. This has the effect of
terminating the argument. From then
on, every time Mrs. Jones raises her
voice, Mr. Jones leaves the room.
– Operant Conditioning
– Negative Reinforcement
Scene Eight
• A husband who usually ignores his wife
still likes to think of himself as an
understanding man. So, whenever his
wife complains that her heart condition
(which has no medical cause) is giving
her pain, he becomes attentive and tries
to comfort her. This responsiveness
doesn’t seem to help much: her reports
of heart trouble just increase.
– Operant Conditioning
– Positive Reinforcement
Operant vs. Classical
Conditioning
• Goal
– The goal of operant conditioning is to increase or
decrease the rate of a response
– The goal of classical conditioning is to create a new
response to a neutral stimulus
• Voluntary or involuntary response
– In operant conditioning, the individual must first
perform a voluntary response before getting a reward
– In classical conditioning, physiological reflexes
(involuntary responses) are triggered by a stimulus
Schedules of
Reinforcement
• Schedule of Reinforcement
– A program or rule that determines how and
when the occurrence of a response will be
followed by a reinforcer
• Continuous reinforcement
– Every occurrence of the operant response is
reinforced
• Partial reinforcement
– Responses are reinforced only some of the
time
Fixed-Ratio
• Reinforcement given after a
specific number of correct
responses
• Required number of correct
responses for reinforcement does
not change
• Example: Every 4th correct
response is rewarded
Fixed-Interval
• First correct response after a
certain amount of time has passed
is reinforced
• Required amount of time does not
change
Variable-Ratio
• Reinforcement is given after a
certain number of correct
responses
• Required number of correct
responses for reinforcement
changes constantly
• Example: Slot machines in Las
Vegas operate on a variable-ratio
schedule of reinforcement
Variable Interval
• First correct response after a set
amount of time has passed is
reinforced
• Required amount of time changes
constantly
Schedules of
Reinforcement
Activity
Identify the Schedule (X2)
Scene 1
• Kimmy loves to go bowling and get
strikes. She may roll the bowling ball
three times to get a strike. Sometimes,
she only needs to roll the bowling ball
once to get a strike.
– Steady or sporadic reinforcement?
• Sporadic- Variable
– Reinforced contingent on time or number of
responses?
• Number of response- Ratio
VARIABLE RATIO
Scene 2
• Jacob gets paid $10.00 for every hours
he works. Jacob would like to make
more, but no matter how productive he
is, he only receives $10.00 per hour.
– Steady or sporadic reinforcement?
• Steadily- fixed
– Reinforced contingent on time or number of
responses?
• Time- interval
FIXED INTERVAL
Scene 3
• Marissa gets praise from her parents
every now and then. She never knows
when she will get praised. She may
have to wait two months, or only a
week.
– Steady or sporadic reinforcement?
• Sporadic- Variable
– Reinforced contingent on time or number of
responses?
• Time- interval
VARIABLE INTERVAL
Scene 4
• Ervin has figured out that every time he
says, “I love you,” to his girlfriend, his
girlfriend kisses him. This inspires Ervin
to tell her that he loves her all the time.
– Steady or sporadic reinforcement?
• Steadily- fixed
– Reinforced contingent on time or number of
responses?
• Number of responses- ratio
FIXED RATIO
Scene 5
• If Little Amber is good at the store, her
dad might give her a lollipop.
Sometimes she has to be good on two
trips to the store, and sometimes only
one trip to receive her lollipop.
– Steady or sporadic reinforcement?
• Sporadic- variable
– Reinforced contingent on time or number of
responses?
• Number of responses- ratio
VARIABLE RATIO
Scene 6
• Paulie pledges to read two books every
month. For each month he
accomplishes his task, he receives
points that he can redeem for prizes.
– Steady or sporadic reinforcement?
• Steadily- fixed
– Reinforced contingent on time or number of
responses?
• Time- interval
FIXED INTERVAL
Most Effective?
Which type of schedule do you
think is the most effective?
Operant Conditioning
Concepts
• Generalization
– An animal or person emits the same response to similar
stimuli
– Young child generalizes the word “Daddy” to all males
• Discrimination
– A response is emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is
reinforced and not in the presence of unreinforced stimuli
– Parents reinforce the child saying “Daddy” in the presence
of their real father, but do not reinforce the child when she
calls strangers “Daddy”
• Extinction
– Reduction in an operant response when it is no longer
followed by a reinforcer
• Spontaneous recovery
– Temporary recovery in the rate of responding
Power of
Immediate
Reinforcement
Intrapersonal Activity 21 3
Cognitive Learning
• Cognitive learning involves mental
processes such as attention & memory
• Cognitive map
– Mental representation in the brain of the
layout of an environment and its features
• Social cognitive learning
– Results from watching, imitating, and
modeling
– Does not require the observer to perform
any observable behavior or receive any
observable reward
Bandura’s Social Cognitive
Theory 4 Processes
Albert Bandura: Identified four required factors
for observational learning
• Attention
– Observer must pay attention to what the model says
or does
• Memory
– Observer must remember the information so that it
can be retrieved and used later
• Imitation
– Observer must be able to use the remembered
information to guide his/her own actions and imitate
the model’s behavior
• Motivation
– Observer must have some reason or incentive to
imitate the model’s behavior
Bandura’s Famous Bobo
Doll Experiment
• Examined the influence of observational
learning on aggressiveness in children
• All three groups viewed a film of an adult
punching and verbally abusing a ‘Bobo Doll’
– Group One: Adult was rewarded
– Group Two: Adult was punished
– Group Three: No consequences for the adult
• After the film, the children played in a room
with toys (including a Bobo doll
• Adult rewarded group was most aggressive
• This showed that operant conditioning can take
place through observation alone!!!
• Applications?
Latent Learning
• Learning that is not revealed in
performance immediately
• Revealed later when the behavior is
reinforced
– Panic on test?
• Learning-performance distinctionlearning may occur but may not always
be measured by, or immediately evident
in, performance
Tolman Rat Study
– Tolman Rat Study: To prove that learning can be
latent (hidden), Tolman had three groups of rats
run through mazes for 10 days
• Group One: Rewarded for running through maze
to end
• Group Two: Un-rewarded
• Group Three: Un-rewarded for 10 days/rewarded
on the 11th
– The rats in group one (rewarded) learned to run
through the maze with few errors
– The rats in groups two and three (no reward) did
not run through the maze with ease
– On day 11, Tolman began rewarding Group
Two. Once rewarded, these rats instantly
became as efficient as the group that had been
rewarded all along!
Social Cognitive Learning:
Decreases the Fear of Snakes
• Subjects with an intense fear of snakes were chosen for
participation
• After watching a model handle a 4-foot snake, one group
was invited to move closer to the snake
• Subjects were invited to touch the snake
• The group who watched the live model scored an
average of 27 on the 29-step approach scale
Source: Bar graph data from “Relative Efficacy of Desensitization and Modeling Approaches for Inducing Behavior, Affective
and Attitudinal Changes” by A. Bandura, E. B. Blanchard & B. Ritter, 1969, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13,
173-179.
Imprinting
• Inherited tendencies that are
displayed in newborn animals when
they encounter certain stimuli in
their environment
– Chicks, goslings, and ducks follow the
first moving object they see
• Sensitive/Critical period
– Relatively brief time during which
learning is most likely to occur
Prepared Learning
• Innate tendency of animals to
recognize, attend to, and store
certain cues over others
• Nutcrackers have amazing memory
to hide and find hundreds of hidden
stores of food
• Humans are biologically prepared
to make sounds
Teaching
Challenge
Teach Skill Through
Modeling
Behavior Modification
• Treatment that changes problems or
undesirable behaviors by using principles of
learning based on operant conditioning,
classical conditioning, and social cognitive
learning
• Autism
– Marked by especially abnormal or impaired
development in social interactions and
communication abilities
– Signs usually appear when a child is 2 or 3 years old
• Dr. Lovaas’ training program uses behavior
modification to teach autistic children language
and social skills as well as self-help behaviors
Assignment
Personal Change Project 21
12
Biofeedback
• Training procedure through which a
person is made aware of his/her
physiological responses such as muscle
activity, heart rate, blood pressure, or
temperature
• After becoming aware of these
physiological responses, the person
tries to control them to decrease
psychosomatic problems
• Often used in conjunction with other
types of medical treatment or
psychotherapy
Class Challenge
Conditioning the Instructor
21
Operant
Conditioning
Psych Sim 5.0
Maze Learning
Psych Sim 4.0
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Module 10 Presentation - Cathedral High School