AP Psychology Review Created by David Silverman I WOULD STRONGLY RECOMMEND THAT YOU TAKE THE PRACTICE EXAMS BELOW. In addition, I would also recommend that you take the Barron’s practice exams in the back of your book. The Barron’s with the CD also contains additional practice exams. The more practice the better! http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/courses/213057.html http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/exam/exam_information/2088.htm l The 1999 and 1994 AP Psychology Exams Every FRQ (and rubrics with explanations) given since 2003. YOU SHOULD PRACTICE TAKING THE FRQ’S WE DID NOT GET TO IN CLASS!!! The resources I posted on the school website are INVALUABLE! Please refer to them as well as the powerpoints I created for the last three chapters. http://www.miamiartscharter.net/apps/pages/index.jsp?uREC_ID=548413&type =u Research Methods Basic vs Applied Research Basic research Basic research explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications. Applied research Applied research is conducted in order to solve practical problems. Hypotheses and Variables A hypothesis expresses a relationship between two variables. Variables are things that can change among the participants in the research. EX- Religion, stress level, and height are variables. The dependent variable depends on the independent variable. A change in the independent variable will produce a change in the dependent variable. In testing a hypothesis, researchers manipulate the independent variable and measure the dependent variable. A theory tries to explain something and allows researchers to come up with testable hypotheses to try to collect data that support the theory. Researchers have to both name the variables they will study and provide operational definitions of them. When you operationalize a variable, you explain how you will measure it. Sampling The goal in selecting a sample is that it is representative of a larger population. The definition of random selection is that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Stratified sampling allows a researcher to make sure that the sample represents the population on some criteria. EX- A researcher making sure that a study sample represents each race in the same proportion that it appears in the overall population. Experimental Method An experiment lets the researcher manipulate the independent variable and control for confounding variables. A confounding variable is any difference between the experimental and control conditions (except for the independent variable) that could affect the dependent variable. Assignment is the process by which participants are put into an experimental or control group. Random assignment means that each participant has an equal chance of being placed into any group. Situation-relevant confounding variables can also affect an experiment. The situations into which the different groups are put must also be equivalent, except for the differences caused by the independent variable. Making the environments into which the two groups are placed as similar as possible controls for situation-relevant confounding variables. Experiments Experimenter bias is an unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis. This can be eliminated by using a double-blind procedure. A double blind occurs when neither the participants or the researcher know the results. Experiments usually involve at least one experimental group and a control group. The experimental group is the one that gets the treatment (the independent variable). The control group is isolated. Even selecting the group of people to experiment on can affect the performance of that group. This finding is known as the Hawthorne effect. Correlational Method A correlation expresses a relationship between two variables without explaining the cause. Correlations can be either positive or negative. A positive correlation between two things means that the presence of one thing predicts the presence of the other. A negative correlation means that the presence of one thing predicts the absence of the other. Correlation does not imply causation. Naturalistic Observation and Case Studies Naturalistic Observation This implies observing their participants in their natural habitats without interacting with them at all. A study outside of a lab. The goal of naturalistic observation is to get a realistic picture of the subjects behavior so control is sacrificed. Case Studies The case study method is used to get a full detailed picture of the participants. Clinical psychologists often use case studies to present information about a person suffering from a particular disorder. The focus on a single individual or small group means that the findings cannot be generalized to a larger population. Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics describe a set of data. If you are researching what kinds of pets your schoolmates have, you could show that data by creating a frequency distribution that would tell you how many students had dogs, cats, pigs, etc Frequency distributions can be turned into line graphs called frequency polygons or bar graphs known as histograms. The y-axis (vertical) always represents frequency, while whatever you are graphing (pets) is graphed along the x-axis (horizontal). Measures of central tendency try to show the center of a distribution The mean is the average of all the scores in a distribution. To calculate the mean, you add up all the scores in the distribution and divide by the total number of scores. The median is the central score in the distribution. To find the median of a distribution, write the scores down in ascending (or descending) order. If there are an odd number of scores the mean is the middle one. If the distribution contains an even number of scores, the median is the average of the middle two scores. The mode is the score that appears most frequently. If two scores appear equally frequently than any other score the distribution is bimodal. Distribution Graphs When a distribution includes an extreme score (or group of scores) that is very high the distribution is positively skewed. When the skew is caused by a low score (or group of scores), the distribution is negatively skewed. A, symmetrical distribution; B, positively skewed distribution; C, negatively skewed distribution. Measuring Distribution Measures of variability try to show the diversity of the distribution. The range is the distance between the highest and lowest score in a distribution. The variance and standard deviation are closely related; standard deviation is just the square root of the variance. Both measures essentially relate the average distance of any score from the mean. The higher the variance and standard deviation, the more spread out the distribution. Z scores measure the distance of a score from the mean in units of standard deviation. Scores below the mean have negative z scores, while scores above the mean have positive z scores (page 64 in Barron’s). Approximately 68 percent of scores in a normal distribution fall within one standard deviation of the mean, approximately 95 percent of scores fall within two standard deviations of the mean, and almost 99 percent of scores fall within three standard deviations of the mean. Correlations A correlation measures the relationship between two variables A positive correlation= the presence of one thing predicts the presence of the other. This is graphed by a line sloping upward from left to right. A negative correlation= the presence of one thing predicts the absence of the other. This is graphed by a line sloping downward from left to right. When no relationship exists between two things, no correlation exists. The strength of a correlation can be determined by a statistic called the correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficients range from −1 and +1 where −1 is a perfect, negative correlation and +1 is a perfect, positive correlation. The number 0 denotes the weakest possible correlation—no correlation— which means that knowing something about one variable tells you nothing about the other. A correlation may be graphed using a scatter plot. A scatter plot graphs pairs of values, one on the y-axis and one on the x-axis. Using various points to create a general line. EX below: number of hours of study per week could be plotted on the x-axis while GPAs could be plotted on the y-axis. Inferential Statistics The purpose of inferential statistics is to determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from where the sample was selected. How much a sample differs from the population is the sampling error. Some of the inferential statistical tests are t-tests, chi square tests, and ANOVAs. They all take into account both the magnitude of the difference found and the size of the sample. All these tests are indicated by a “p value”. The smaller the p value, the more significant the results. A p value of .05 is the cutoff for statistically significant results. A p value of .05 means that a 5 percent chance exists that the results occurred by chance. A p value can never equal 0 because we can never be 100 percent certain that results did not happen due to chance. Sensation and Perception Sensation and Perception Sensation- How are sensory receptors and nervous system receive information (stimulus) from the environment Perception- The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to recognize meaningful objects and events TYPES of PROCESSING Bottom Up Processing You notice something (your senses) and then you focus on it, access your memory that is related to it and fully process. Start by examining small details and putting them into a bigger picture Top Down Processing Opposite. See the total picture first, then your senses see the smaller details Types of Thresholds Absolute Threshold The minimum amount of stimulation for an organism to detect 50% of time Difference Threshold EX: When kids focusing on tv, they can’t always hear parents on the fist few attempts. However if the kids hear something that is more interesting than what they are viewing, they will “magically “ hear it, (like who wants Ice cream?) The minimum difference that a person can detect between2 stimulus required for detection 50% of the time EX: HD vs SD TV options Sensation Threshold- 2 stimulus must be different by a constant minimum percentage Sensory Adaptation You eat something hot or spicy, at first it is overwhelming but then it doesn’t feel as strong Weber’s law To perceive a difference between 2 stimuli they must differ by a constant percentage, not a constant amount Quarters shoes and envelopes example Signal Detection Theory How and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation (noise) Based on experience, fatigue level, expectations Subliminal Stimulation Focus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Cocktail Party Effect Below your level of awareness Selective attention Charlie Brown and Lucy (football) he never figures it out so his signal detection is weak The ability to listen to one person among many people talking Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity due to constant stimulation We don’t detect things we see all the time- Only drastic changes we are not used to We see the world as it is useful to us, not as it really is Vision WAVELENGTHS-One peak of one light wave to the next peak Hue- color- Short and long wavelengths change the hue (color) we see The rainbow displays the color hues in order from longest light waves to shortest waves. Roy.G.Biv All of the colorwaves together = white light (sunlight) Short wavelengths= high frequency, bluish colors, and high pitched sounds Long wavelengths= low frequency, reddish colors, and low pitched sounds Light wavelengths that are LONGER than visible light are infrared waves, microwaves, radio waves. We can’t see these. Intensity- correlates with the brightness of the colors we see The higher the wave the more intense (bright) the color is Saturation- by seeing differences in purity of light waves, we can see different shades of color. How deep the color looks. Vision- The Process STEP ONE: Gathering Light- Light reflects off of objects and is gathered by the eye. How we see color depends on light intensity (how much energy the light contains) and light wavelength (which affects the hue). STEP TWO: Within the Eye- Light enters through our cornea (our protective covering that helps focus light). Dialate- The pupil acts like a camera-is opened and closed by the muscles (iris). Opens to let light in and closes when less light is needed. Accommodation- The process of light entering through the pupil and being focused by the curved lens. Our eyes ability to focus, change size, and change depending on what we look at. Lens- changes shape to focus images onto the retina. It is a flipped image (your brain translates it correctly) Retina- Contains sensory receptors Optic Nerve- passes information from the eye to the brain STEP THREE: how light we sense is turned into the ability of our brain to perceive it Transduction- the transfer of one form of energy to another Light energy is transformed into electrical or neural energy that our brain interprets as light Light activates lights in retina. Cones- first layer of cells activated by and detect color, daylight, and well lit conditions. concentrated close to the retina. Rods- cells that are activated by and detect black, white, gray, twilight and low light. We have more Rods (120 million) than Cones (6-7million) and they are scattered. Blindspot- the area where we have no cones/rods Fovea- Center of the retina with the most cones. If enough Cones/Rods are activated-Bi-polar cells (which transmit messages to the ganglion cells) the next layer is activated (the ganglion cells). These cells send impulses to the LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus- a region in the thalamus). STEP FOUR: In the brain LGN sends to various lobes. The visual cortex of the brain receives these impulses. Vision Complications Myopia- Near sighted- nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant ones Hyperopia- faraway objects are seen more clearly than closer ones STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS Levels of Consciousness Dualism- believe that humans consist of thoughts and matter. Matter being everything that has substance (thought gives people free will and never dies) VS Monism- Disagree with dualists and believe that thought, matter, and everything are aspects of the same substance (thought dies with body) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mere Exposure Effect- the idea that being exposed to things (even when unaware) makes us prefer that stimuli over something we have never experienced. Priming- closely related to the above. People answering questions will respond more quickly and/or more accurately if they have been asked the question before. Blindsight- the experience when blind people actually can ‘see’ a path of a moving object. Thought to be another level of consciousness observing stimuli. Daredevil? The 5 Levels of Consciousness 1. Conscious Level- The information about yourself and your environment that you are aware of right now in each moment. 2. Nonconscious Level- Things our body does that we’re not usually aware of (nonconscious is controlling heartbeat, breath, etc). 3. Preconscious Level- Information that you aren’t thinking about in this moment, but could if someone prompted it (Ex- if someone asks you what your favorite childhood toy was). 4. Subconscious Level- Information that we are not aware that we know of but must exist based on behavior (examples above with mere-exposure effect and priming). 5. Unconscious Level- It is believed that that there are memories repressed in our mind that we can’t access. SLEEP Circadian Rhythm- the process of our metabolic & thought process for a 24 hours. Sleep cycle is part of this. Sleep Cycle- our typical sleep patterns within our circadian rhythm. We cycle through different sleep stages during the night and our brainwaves and levels of awareness change. Sleep onset- the beginning stages of falling asleep. Our brain is producing alpha waves. We are awake but drowsy and might experience hallucinations (like falling). Also in stage 1. Stages 1 and 2- Brains produce theta waves-in and out of wakefulness. Lasts about 1-5 minutes, and is 2-5% of a normal nights sleep. Stage 2 accounts for about 45-60% of sleep. Stages 3 and 4- Delta sleep- these are low and slow waves when we are a in a deep sleep and very unaware. Lasts around 15-30 minutes. Deepest stage of sleep- Delta sleep replenishes the body’s chemical supplies, hormones in children, and fortifying our immune system. We circulate through stages 1-4, when you are in Stage 1 your eyes twitch and are more easily woken (REM- rapid eye movement) 20-25% of a normal nights sleep. During this stage our brains appear as active as when we are awake. Detailed dreams usually happen in REM sleep More stress during the day=longer REM periods Sleep Disorders (or sleeplessness) Insomnia- trouble falling sleep. Most common (10% of population) Narcolepsy- more extreme sleeplessness that leads to unpredictable/uncontrollable sleep times. Very rare (.001%) of the population. Sleep Apnea- causes a person to temporarily stop breathing during sleep. When a person wakes and gasps for air (apparent with snorers)- just as common as insomnia. **Night Terrors- vivid nightmares that people don’t remember (nightmares are remembered). This usually happens in the first few hours of the night in stage 4 sleep **Somnambulism - sleep-walking and moving during REM **more common in young kids Dreams and Hypnosis Dreams- the series of story-like images we experience during sleep. Various theories… Sigmund Freud- interpreted dreams to attempt to uncover unconscious desires. Our “wish fulfillment”- acts out our unconscious desires during sleep. He believed that even during sleep our ego protected us in the unconscious mind (protected sleep) Manifest Content- literal content of our dreams (EX-showing up for school naked. The dream facts) Latent Content- unconscious meaning of the above (EX- could mean there are issues with vulnerability or anxiety about a deeper meaning, etc) Activation-synthesis Theory- sees dreams as a brain REM reactions (purely biological). Says dreams have no meaning. Information Processing Theory- sees the brain as processing information and dealing with stress from the day. Babies might need more REM sleep because babies learn so much new info each day. Hypnosis- There are three theories that attempt to explain the state of Hypnosis… #1 Role Theory- states that it is not an alternate state of consciousness at all. This theory believes some people are more easily hypnotized than others. This characteristic is called hypnotic suggestibility. More prone to being easily hypnotized. #2 State Theory- says that hypnosis involves entering points of consciousness and can fix ailments or alleviate pain. #3 Dissociation Theory- states that hypnosis causes us to divide our consciousness voluntarily. One part responds to hypnotist. One part retains awareness of reality. Started by researcher Ernest Hilgard. Psychoactive DRUGS -change brain chemistry FOUR COMMON CATEGORIES of Psychoactive Drugs: #1) Stimulants- speed up your body processes. Leads to high tolerance, withdrawal effects, anxiety, heart issues. EX: cocaine, nicotine, caffeine. #2) Depressants- slow down the body processes (regardless of the effects on perceived energy). Slows down motor control, reaction time, and coordination. EX: alcohol, anti depressants, tranquilizers, etc #3) Hallucinogens (aka psychedelics)- change the perception of reality. They don’t speed up or slow down body processes, but can cause short or long term vivid hallucinations. Effects are extreme and unpredictable. EX: LSD, peyote, mushrooms, etc #4) Opiates- act as agonists for endorphins and thus are powerful pain killers and mood elevators. Most physically addictive due to rapid change in brain chemistry. EX: similar to opium- morphine, heroin, etc DRUGS AND THE BRAIN Blood-brain barrier- Thick blood walls around blood vessels. Our brain’s natural defense systems from letting chemicals affect our brain. Drugs can bypass these barriers Agonists- molecules in drugs that bypass barrier by mimicking the body’s neurotransmitters. Antagonists- molecules that prevent the brain from using receptor sites. Tolerance- when your body starts to build up defenses to the chemicals and produces a need for more of that chemical in order to feel the same effects. Withdrawal- the symptoms and effects of a high tolerance when you remove the chemical and your body physically craves it. Withdrawal symptoms vary based on the drug (headache, sleeplessness, sweats) Learning Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov found that dogs learned to connect the sounds in the environment where they were fed with the food that was given to them. They began to salivate when they are hearing the sounds. The stimulus that evokes a response is the unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS). The US in this case is the food. Food creates the natural response of salivation. This response is called the unconditioned response (UR or UCR). Through repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus such as a bell, animals will come to associate the two stimuli together. Ultimately, animals will salivate when hearing the bell alone. Once the bell elicits salivation, a conditioned response (CR), it is no longer a neutral stimulus but rather a conditioned stimulus (CS) Learning occurs once the animals react to the CS without being shown the US. This learning is also called acquisition since the animals have acquired a new behavior. The process of unlearning a behavior is known as extinction. Extinction occurs when the CS no longer elicits the CR Animals conditioned to respond to particular stimulus will also respond to similar stimuli. The dogs may salivate to a number of bells, not just the one with which they were trained. This tendency to respond to similar CSs is known as generalization. Subjects can be trained, however, to tell the difference, or discriminate, between various stimuli. The unethical experiment conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner conditioned a little boy named Albert to fear a white rat. This is known as aversive conditioning. Whereas Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned with something pleasant (food), baby Albert was conditioned to have a negative response to the white rat. Aversive conditioning can also be used in healthy ways. To stop biting their nails, some people paint them with something horrible-tasting. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a kind of learning based on the association of consequences with one’s behaviors. Edward Thorndike was one of the first people to research this kind of learning with his cat experiment The hungry cat was locked in a cage next to a dish of food. The cat had to get out of the cage in order to get the food. Thorndike found that the amount of time decreased gradually; the cat didn’t seem to understand after success, how to get out. This meant that the cat learned the new behavior without mental activity but rather simply connected a stimulus and a response. Thorndike’s law of effect says that if the consequences of a behavior are pleasant, the stimulus-response (S-R) will be strengthened and the likelihood of the behavior will increase. If the consequences of a behavior are unpleasant, the S-R connection will weaken and the likelihood of the behavior will decrease. He used the term instrumental learning to describe his work because he believed the consequence was instrumental in shaping future behaviors. BF SKINNER B. F. Skinner is the best-known psychologist to research operant conditioning. Skinner invented the Skinner box to use in his research of animal learning. A Skinner box usually has a way to deliver food to an animal and a lever to press or disk to peck in order to get the food. The food is called a reinforcer, and the process of giving the food is called reinforcement. Anything that makes a behavior more likely to occur is called a reinforcer. Two kinds of reinforcement exist. Positive reinforcement refers to the addition of something pleasant. Negative reinforcement refers to the removal of something unpleasant. For instance, if we give a rat in a Skinner box food when it presses a lever, we are using positive reinforcement. However, if we terminate a loud noise or shock in response to a press of the lever, we are using negative reinforcement. The latter example results in escape learning. Escape learning allows one to terminate an aversive stimulus. If Davey creates a ruckus in the English class he hates and is asked to leave, he is using escape learning. Avoidance learning is when one tries to avoid the unpleasant stimulus altogether. An example of avoidance learning would be if Sammy cut English class. Reinforcement Primary reinforcers are, in and of themselves, rewarding. They include things like food, water, and rest. Secondary reinforcers are things we have learned to value like praise or the chance to play a video game. Money is a special kind of secondary reinforcer, called a generalized reinforcer, because it can be traded for virtually anything. One example of generalized reinforcers is known as a token economy. In a token economy, every time people perform a desired behavior, they are given a token. They are allowed to trade their tokens for any one of a variety of reinforcers. What serves as a reinforcer for some may not have the same effect on others. The idea that the reinforcing properties of something depend on the situation, is shown in the Premack principle. Reinforcement Schedules The most effective way of teaching a new behavior at first is by rewarding the behavior each time. This process is known as continuous reinforcement. Once the behavior is learned however, you can actually get higher response rates by using a partial-reinforcement schedule Also, the partial-reinforcement effect says behaviors will be more resistant to extinction if the animal has not been reinforced continuously. Reinforcement schedules differ in two ways: What determines when reinforcement is delivered—the number of responses made (ratio schedules) or the passage of time (interval schedules). The pattern of reinforcement—either constant (fixed schedules) or changing (variable schedules). A fixed-ratio (FR) schedule gives reinforcement after a set number of responses. For example, if a pigeon is on an FR-5 schedule, it will be rewarded after the fifth bar press. A variable-ratio (VR) schedule also gives reinforcement based on the number of bar presses, but that number varies. A pigeon on a VR-5 schedule might be rewarded after the second press, then the ninth press, then the third press, then the sixth press. A fixed-interval (FI) schedule requires that a certain amount of time elapse before a bar press will result in a reward. In an FI-3 minute schedule the pigeon will be reinforced for the first bar press that occurs after three minutes have passed. A variable-interval (VI) schedule varies the amount of time required to pass before a response will result in reinforcement. In a VI-3 minute schedule, the pigeon will be reinforced for the first response made after an average time of three minutes. Variable schedules are more resistant to extinction than fixed schedules. Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning The Pavlovian model of classical conditioning is known as the contiguity model because it states that the more times two things are paired, the greater the learning that will take place. Robert Rescorla revised the Pavlovian model to take into account a more complex set of circumstances. This model is known as the contingency model. Dog A is presented with a bell paired with food ten times in a row. Dog B also experiences ten pairings of bell and food. However, intermixed with those ten trials are five trials in which food is presented without the bell and five more trials in which the bell is rung but no food is presented. Once these training periods are over, which dog will have a stronger salivation response to the bell? Observational Learning People and animals learn many things simply by observing others. This observational learning is also known as modeling and was studied a great deal by Albert Bandura in formulating his sociallearning theory. This type of learning is said to be species-specific; it only occurs between members of the same species. Modeling has two basic components, observation and then imitation. There is a lot of research that indicate that children learn violent behaviors from watching violent television programs and violent adult models. Bandura, Ross, and Ross’s (1963) Bobo doll experiment illustrated this point. Latent, Abstract, and Insight Learning Latent learning (latent meaning hidden) was studied by Edward Tolman. Abstract learning involves understanding concepts such as tree or same rather than learning simply to press a bar or peck a disk in order to secure a reward. Latent learning is learning that becomes obvious only once a reinforcement is given for demonstrating it. Behaviorists had previously held that learning is evidenced by gradual changes in behavior, but Tolman conducted a famous experiment illustrating that sometimes learning occurs but is not immediately evidenced. Pigeons have learned to peck pictures they had never seen before if those pictures were of chairs. Wolfgang Kohler is well known for his studies of insight learning in chimpanzees. Insight learning occurs when one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem. Cognitive Psychology Memories Three-Box/Information-Processing Model- information passes through three stages before it is stored. First processed by our sensory memory, then info is encoded into our short term, finally some of that information is encoded into our long term memory Sensory Memory (aka iconic memory)- our split second holding tank for all our incoming sensory information (less than a second). George Sperling -experiment where he flashed a grid of nine letters for 1/20th of a second and asked participants to recall any of the rows. The participants could recall any of the rows perfectly. Explicit VS Implicit Memories- Explicit memories (aka declarative memories) -the ones we usually think of. They are the conscious memories of facts/events that we actively try to recall. Implicit memories (aka nondeclarative)- the memories that are unintentional & we might not realize them Photographic memory/Eidetic memory indicates that someone has very powerful & enduring visual images (EX: Psychologist Alexandra Luria studied a person that remembers a string of 15 numbers 15 years later). Levels of Processing Model - Think about memories like a processing model. Memories are either deeply (or elaborately) processed or shallowly (or maintenance) processed. The more and longer you study= the more likely you are able to recall it later. Memories: Short Term vs Long Term Short Term Memory (Working Memory) Long Term Memory are actively working-(the ones we are aware of in our consciousness). If we do nothing with these memories, they fade in about 10-30 seconds. Is said to have a ‘Magic Number’ limit of 7 items. To increase the ability to memorize more than 5-9 itemsthere are brain tools that people use permanent storage for memories. Scientists don’t think there is a limit on time or space in our long-term memory- so if a memory makes it there, it will most likely be there for life (although it can fade or decay). There are 3 formats… Mnemonic devices let people (BATD) (Never Eat Soggy Waffles) #1) Episodic Memory- memories of events, stored in chronological, sequential way. Ex: You remember the last time you went out on a date. Chunking- by chunking items on the list you have a better chance of remembering them. A grocery list clumped by meals is easier to remember than all of those individual items. #2) Semantic Memory- general knowledge of the world (stored as facts/meanings) Ex: You remember the difference between ‘then and than’ or ‘too and two’ Repeating/Rephrasing- the more times you repeat something, the higher chance of it turning into a long term memory. #3) Procedural Memory- memories of skills and how to perform them (even if they are complicated described in words) Ex: throwing a curveball, riding a bike Memory: Retrieval (getting info from memory) There are two types of retrieval: recognition and recall. Recognition the process of matching a current event with one already in your memory (Ex: Have I smelled this smell before?) Recall is retrieving a memory with an external cue (Ex: What does Uncle Nico’s cologne smell like?”) Studies show there are a variety of reasons why people wouldn’t be able to retrieve/recall some memories and not others Order/sequence of events can be one factor. (Hermann Ebbinghaus established that the order of the items is related to whether or not you will remember them). Primary effect- says we are more likely to recall items at the beginning of a list. Recency effect- says we are more likely to recall the most recent (end of list). When the two are meshed together (basically saying that the middle is most likely forgotten) is called the serial position effect (aka serial position curve). Context is also important- if you learn someone’s name first and then try to recall it later- it might be difficult. But if you hear that someone is a serial killer, you might remember their name more deeply Tip of the tongue phenomenon- You know someone’s name and it’s on the tip of your tongue but you can’t recall it immediately. Semantic Network Theory- Your brain is working through memories, qualities, etc….getting closer to recalling the name. Flashbulb Memories- powerful events or extreme memories that allow us to recall vivid context details. (Ex: Most people can recall what they were doing on September 11, 2001). Mood or emotional context also affects memory retrieval. Mood-congruent memory- a greater likelihood of recalling an item when our mood matched the mood we were in when the even happened. Ex- when you’re happy, you’re more likely to remember good times and the opposite. Memory: Forgetting Forgetting- sometimes memories fade. One cause is decay (forgetting because we don’t use the memory, or connect it to any new memories, for a long period of time).Another cause of forgetting is interference – when other information competes with the memories you’re trying to recall. Interference can happen in two different ways… Retroactive Interference- Learning new info interferes with recalling older info. EX: If you study for psych at 3:00 and sociology at 6:00, you might have trouble recalling psych the next day (fresh on the brain) Proactive Interference- Older information you already learned interferes with recalling new things. If you read a list of numbers in one order and then again in another, the old number order screws with your ability to remember the new list order. People with damage to their hippocampus have an inability to encode new memories (aka anterograde amnesia). They can still learn new things. Studies in animals indicate that this could be stored in the cerebellum. On the neurological level, research is focused on long-term potentiation. Neurons have the potential to strengthen connections between each other, especially the more the neuron fires and repeats the process. This could also be linked to long term memory Constructive Memory- the memories that our brain might create to fill in gaps. People have claimed to be able to recover memories in therapy when they have been repressed for years. Often not real- the brain creates these. Language: Elements and Acquisition Elements of Language- consists of phonemes put together to become morphemes (make-up words). The words are spoken in a particular order (Syntax.) Every language has its own syntax (grammar structure). EXwhere verbs are placed Phonemes- the smallest unit of sound used in language. English uses 44 phonemes. Various languages=various phonemes EX: Spanish speakers find the rolled-R phoneme natural, but others may have difficulty producing this sound Morphine the smallest unit of meaningful sound. It can be words,( like a or an) or part of words,( like the prefix ‘pre’) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Language Acquisition- how language learning reflects and predicts our development. When babies are learning language, they go through the same basic stages in order to master language. #1) The first stage -at 4 months old. Babies babbling could represent a baby experimenting with different phonemes, and learning what sounds they can produce. All babies are capable of producing any phoneme from any language when they are born As language learning progresses, we lose this ability and strengthen the phonemes in our native language. This is also why it could be easier for babies to learn a secondary language starting at infancy. #2) Babbling progresses into utterances where babies imitate the words their caregiver is speaking is called the holophrastic or one word stage. This is when babies speak single words and it usually happens around their first birthday Language: Cognition Benjamin Whorf -thought that the language we use might control and or limit our thinking. This is called the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Studies show the effect of labeling on how we think about people, objects, or ideas. Although few studies show that the language we speak has a drastic impact on what we are able to think about and comprehend. Thinking, Creativity, and Problem-Solving Thinking and Creativity Algorithms- is a rule that guarantees the right solution by using a formula for thinking (or a foolproof method). Ex- you realize that a password is a two letter combination, you can build an algorithm to go through the combos to eventually guess it. Extreme Beliefs: Extreme confidence when you are wrong is called overconfidence. Two concepts are closely related to overconfidence are: Belief Bias- When your beliefs force you to overlook opposing evidence. Belief Preservation- When your beliefs force you to overlook opposing evidence. You continue to believe even after your evidence is proved wrong Heuristics- is a rule of thumb. Something that is generally true but not always. EX- you have to guess at a 5 letter password. You start with words that you know (pet names, etc). It’s a decent guess, sometimes true. Availability Heuristic- Judging a situation based on similar situations that come to mind. Basing judgments of personal experiences. EX- you think your neighborhood is dangerous because you have seen the crime but a stranger doesn’t get that impression. Representiveness Heuristic- Judging a situation based on similar case studies. EX- The community assumes someone doesn’t commit suicide because it is against that person’s religion and most people in that community don’t believe in suicide. Common Mistakes in Problem Solving Rigidity (aka mental set)- falling into mental thought patterns. If you normally use a certain way to problem solve, you might miss a new way to look at it. Functional fixedness- is an example of rigidity. It’s the inability to see an object. Ex- a group of students see on car stuck in the mud. Only one student thinks to use the car jack to lift the car out of the mud to put wooden planks under it. Most are thinking of only using a car jack to change a tire. Confirmation Bias- When someone wants something to be true and they ignore contradiction evidence while problem solving. Ex- if a cigarette company is paying for a ‘study’ then the ‘research’ might be looking for ways to avoid certain answers. This hinders truth. Framing- refers to the way a problem is presented/ positioned. Ex- if you tell a class “only half of my students pass this test” vs “almost all of my students ace this test”- you change the students expectations for the test… and possibly their ability to solve. Motivation and Emotion Motivations-‘why people do what they do’ Motivations are the feelings or ideas that cause us to act towards a goal. They can be obvious/conscious or subtle/indirect. THEORIES ON MOTIVATION Drive Reduction Theory –says our physiological/biological needs motivate us. A need is a requirement for survival (eat, sleep) Homeostasis- the state that our body seeks (a balanced internal state). When we are out of homeostasis, we start having needs that drive us. Primary Drives- biological needs like thirst Secondary Drives- learned drives that help support the primary drives (making money in order to eat or buy shelter) Arousal Theory- says that we seek levels of excitement (arousal) and we can be motivated to get to these levels. Yerkes- Dodson Law- shows the relationship of performance to level of arousal.- Depending on an individual’s optimum levels- these needs vary. Someone with high optimum levels are drawn to high excitement behavior (motorcycles, sky diving), where someone with low levels might get just as excited about reading a book. Opponent Process Theory- (similar to Arousal Theory) says that most people are at an average baseline state. Then we feel motivations, stray from this and those actions have an effect. This theory is used to explain addictive behaviors. Incentive Theory- Sometimes behaviors aren’t pushed by a need but rather pulled by a desire with rewards and punishments EX- If you know that you will get better grades if you study alone- than you are motivated to study alone (even if it’s less fun) Maslow’s Theory (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)- Abraham Maslow pointed out that not all needs are created and weighed equally. He used his Hierarchy of Needs to predict how people prioritize their needs. Physiological needs (hunger, thirst, sex)- base of pyramid Safety (need to feel safe and get out of danger) Belongingness and love (needing to be accepted) Esteem needs- gaining approval and recognition Self-actualization- fulfill unique potential (top of pyramid) Motivations- Hunger Motivation Biology (physiology) of Hunger Part of the hunger feeling is the stomach being inflated or not. The other part is monitored in the hypothalamusregulating chemistry (including the ratio of glucose/insulin) and tells us when to feel hunger. Laternal hypothalamus- (the hunger center) is stimulated and it activates the feeling of hunger. When this gets damaged in animals they need to be forced to eat or they will starve (late to dinner so you’re HUNGRY) Ventromedial hypothalamus- is stimulated to turn OFF the feeling of hunger. This makes us stop eating. When this gets damaged in an animal, they continue to eat without feeling full. The brain goes back and forth between stimulating these two areas. (On and off switch for hunger). When our brain uses our weight, metabolism, and other factors to figure out which signals to send the hypothalamus, this is called set point theory. Metabolic Rate- how quickly our body uses energy. People with high metabolic rates burn and use more energy than someone with low rates. Psychology of Hunger- we get affected by internal and external motivations that trigger hunger outside of our physiology. The Garcia Effect- taste aversion….negative experiences can create associations that effect hunger EX: food from our own culture don’t sound gross to us but might sound unappealing to other cultures Three Most Common Eating Disorders Bulimia- binging and purging. Purging can include laxatives, vomiting, or excessive exercise. Damaging teeth, the esophagus, intestines and stomach. Anorexia Nervosa- Anorexics starve themselves (to below 85% of their normal body weight) by refusing to eat. Damages internal organs, hair/skin quality, and reproductive health. Obesity- People diagnosed with obesity are severely overweight (often by 100 or more pounds) and have serious health problems as a result. Motivations- Social Social Motivation- these are motivations that are dependent on our culture and environment. The attitudes and the goals of people around you highly effect your motivations. Achievement Motivation Vs Optimum Arousal- Some have high both (they can overlap) Achievement Motivation means you are doing something for yourself (meeting a goal, gaining a skill) Arousal Motivation doing something for the feeling (the feeling we may get from a roller coaster). Extrinsic Motivation Vs Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivations- rewards that we get for accomplishing something (a kid gets a sticker) Intrinsic Motivations- rewards we get internally (feeling good, proud, or excited without a reward) Management Theory- Intrinsic/Extrinsic motivations explain how people manage others Theory X- Managers believe that employees will only work for reward, incentive, or bonus. Or when threatened with punishment Theory Y- Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work, so policies should encourage intrinsic motivation. Motivations- Conflicts Amongst Motives CONFLICT between Motives- ‘when you can’t make a decision’ Approach-Approach Conflicts- When you have two desirable outcomes but they still conflict. EX- You have to pick one of two delicious items on a menu Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts- The opposite of the above- when you have to choose between two undesirable outcomes. EX- Your route home will either take an hour or you have to go through construction and rush-hour. Approach –Avoidance Conflicts- When there is mixed reasoning on an option. In some ways it sounds appealing and some ways it doesn’t. EX- You’re lactose intolerant but ice cream sounds delicious. The taste of ice cream is appealing but the effects on your body are not. Multiple Approach –Avoidance Conflict- When the decision making process involves many appealing or unappealing options. EX- choosing schools considers cost, programs, proximity to home/friends/boyfriend/girlfriend, etc Emotions and Stress Theories on Emotions- our emotions are entwined with our motivations. Emotions influence motivations. There are many theories on emotional states… James-Lange Theory- by William James and Carl Lange- stated that we feel emotions because of biological changes caused by stress. (EX: the wolf jumps out of the woods, Little Red Riding hood heart starts to race- she starts to feel the emotion of fear). Cannon-Bard Theory- by Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard (contradicted above) Stated that similar physiological effects can happen from different types of stress. EX: how do we know that her heart is just racing out of fear? It could be leading to excitement or joy or love. Two-Factor Theory- by Stanley Schachter- states that emotion depends on both the interaction between two factors (biology and cognition). EX: if Red’s already afraid- the wolf jumping out would scare her more than someone who was at a resting state. This shows that both our cognitive labels on the event (is the wolf scary?) and our physical response (were we already out of breath?) are effecting emotions. Non-verbal Expressions of Emotion Stress can refer to the things/events/people in our life causing the emotion (stressors) or it can refer to how we respond to that (stress reactions). Measuring Stress Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)- Our response patterns to many different physical and emotional stresses is very consistent. STRESS STAGES: Alarm Reaction- heart rate increase, blood starts moving. Nervous system activated Resistance- The body remains physically ready (our body can keep releasing hormones to extend this period) Exhaustion- Our physiological system is worn out by the stress and our bodies are more susceptible to disease. Developmental Psychology How behaviors begin and how they change throughout our life- The most commonly researched topic amongst psychologists Scientists isolate these similarities and differences with identical twins. Nature (genetic factors) vs nurture (environmental factors) is highlighted Research Methods- there are two types of studies with developmental psychology Cross Sectional Research Uses participants of different ages to compare how certain variables may change over the life span. This gives the researchers people to test in all age brackets. The only problem is taking into consideration cultural effects and how historical events may skew results. Longitudinal Research Takes place over a long period of time. It takes the same group of people and observes them over time. This can take decades if you are watching people every few years. This isolates the experiences and the age range, and still shows any development. Prenatal Influences Genetics- hereditary traits passed along via our biologic parents Thomas Bouchard-By studying identical twins who were separated at birth and raised by different families, Bouchard could see which similarities might emerge despite a different family environment. "Jim twins" -BOTH married/divorced a Linda, remarried a Betty, had police training and worked part-time with law enforcement. They had identical drinking and smoking patterns, and both chewed their fingernails. Their first-born sons were James Alan and James Allan. Prenatal Influences: Teratogens Teratogens- chemicals and agents that cause harm if ingested or contracted by the mother during the fetus stage. The placenta is built to filter out some things, but teratogens can get through the barrier and heavily affect the way the fetal brain develops. One example is alcohol. Children of alcoholic mothers are at high risk of FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). FAS can lead to small, malformed skulls or mental retardation. Fetal alcohol effect is similar but to a less degree. Moderately heavy drinkers during pregnancy might give the babies learning disabilities or behavioral problems. Other examples are cocaine, heroin, and other drugs that the baby actually is born addicted to because of the mother’s chemical addiction has become their own. Motor/Sensory Development Reflexes- are automated responses to specific stimuli. early on scientists thought that humans were born without reflexes. Now we know that even babies are born with a set of reflexes. The 5 reflexes that humans are born with (some we lose as we grow and others we keep) Rooting Reflex- When a baby is touched on the cheek, it will turn his/her head towards that side to seek to put that object in his/her mouth. Sucking Reflex- When an object is placed in an infant’s mouth, he/she will suck on it. The rooting reflex and the sucking reflex help babies eat) Grasping Reflex- If an object is placed into a baby’s palm or foot pad- the fingers or toes will try to grasp the object Moro Reflex- When startled, a baby will fling his/her limbs out and retract into a small shape. Babinski Reflex- When a baby’s foot is rubbed, he/she will stretch toes Parenting Theories Attachment Theory- as a baby grows and becomes used to their environment and parents There are two significant researches that advanced theories on attachment- Harry Harlow- 1960s: He raised baby monkeys with two wire statues that were supposed to resemble mother monkeys. One had the bottle and would feed the monkeys, but the other one was covered in a soft material. The baby monkeys preferred the softer choice. This showed that importance of physical comfort. It also proved the ones that were ‘raised’ by the wiry one were more stressed. And that all monkeys had long term behavioral effects due to lack of attachment. Mary Ainsworth- Ainsworth did experiments by putting human infants into new situations. Their parents would leave and return after a period of time. 3 results Infants with secure attachments (66%)- confidently explore the novel environment, are distressed when parents leave, and come to the parents when they return. Infants with avoidant attachments (21%)- resist being held by the parents and they explore a novel environment. They don’t go to the parents for comfort when the parents return. Infants with anxious/ambivalent attachments or resistant attachments (12%)- have ambivalent reactions. They stress when they leave but resist comfort when they return. Parenting Styles- the way parents focus their style of parenting can affect development Authoritarian parents- set a strict standard for behavior and apply punishments for violation to these rules. Obedience is valued more than rationale behind standards. No arguing or discussion required. Permissive parents- do not set any guidelines for kids or the guidelines are always changing. The rules are not consistent or strongly enforced. Authoritative parents- have set, consistent standards for behavior but start discussing them when the kids are old enough. They encourage independence and praise as often as punish. Sigmund Freud- 5 psychosexual stages Freud said that if we don’t resolve significant conflict in our lives during one of these stages that we may become fixated in that stage. This means we might remain preoccupied with the behaviors associated with that stage. Some argue that these are outdated 1. Oral Stage (birth-1.5 years)- Infants pleasure through their mouths. They put everything in their mouths. So people that get stuck in this stage might over-snack, smoke, pick their nails. 2. Anal Stage (1.5-3 years)- this stage develops during toilet training. If someone gets stuck in this stage, they become overly controlling (anal retentive) our out of control (expulsive) 3. Phallic Stage (3-6 years)- Babies realize their gender and this causes conflict in the family. Freud described this process as the Oedipus complex (when boys resent their father’s relationship with their mother’s) Electra complex when girls resent their mothers relationship with their fathers 4. Latency Stage (6 years - puberty)- Freud thought children go through (a short latency stage, or period of calm between 6-puberty- where there is low psychosexual activity)...most psychologists don’t regard this as a separate stage. 5. Genital Stage (puberty- older)- where we remain for the rest of our lives. Sexual pleasure is the genitals and fixation in this stage is what Freud considers normal. Erik Erikson-A Neo-Freudian (believed in basic Freud theory but adapts to fit observations) Erikson created the psychosocial stage theory. It consists of 8 stages that center on a specific social conflict. 1. Trust VS Mistrust (birth to 1 year)- A baby’s first social experiences are based on need fulfillment. We learn whether or not we can trust the world. We must trust our caregivers (crying, feeding, etc) and if we do/don’t will affect the rest of our lives 2. Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt (1-3 year)- babies start to exert their will over their own bodies. The favorite word is ‘NO!’ -demonstrating our attempt to control ourselves and others. Potty training is thought to be an early effort at gaining this control. Erikson thought this would affect how we control our own body and emotional reactions for the rest of our life. 3. Initiative VS Guilt (3-6 years)- Curiosity sets in. We trust those around us, feel in control of ourbodies, and start to try to understand the world and problem solving. If people were scolded during this curiosity stage that they will feel guilty or ashamed for asking questions later. 4. Industry VS Inferiority (6 years- adolescents)- The beginning of formal education. By 1st grade we are expected to perform and ‘work’ is elevated. During games, sports, and school- students start to compare their work their peers. This can create an inferiority complex- when someone feels anxiety about performance in general. Erikson believed this could have been due to being behind during these years. 5. Identity VS Role Confusion (late adolescents- into 20s)- we discover what social identity we are most comfortable with. Trying to fit into different social groups and different types of identities/roles. If this stage wasn’t healthy, it could lead to an identity crisis later in life. 6. Intimacy VS Isolation (20s-40s)- we start to establish stable identities and figure out how to balance efforts (work, school, friends, family, self improvement, fun). Trying to figure out which relationships are platonic and which are not are also part of this stage. 7. Generativity VS Stagnation (40s-60s)- We start to become more critical with our choices and our life. We ask the questions about whether or not we are creating the world we want for the rest of our life . If we don’t address this, we might end up with Cognitive Development: How children think and evaluate the world Jean Piaget- created the most famous cognitive development theory (debated today) Was working for Alfred Binet (creator of the 1st intelligence test) when he started noticing interested behavior from the kids during testing. He started watching the behavior or the children over their intelligence. He described that children view the world through schemata (cognitive rules we use to interpret the world) Some criticized him for underestimating children (or getting the stage timing off). He also relied heavily on spoken language to evaluate children. Assimilation- the process where we normally incorporate our experiences into existing schemata. Sometimes information doesn’t fit into pre-existing schemata Piaget’s: Cognitive Development Theory STAGE ONE: Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years) - babies start to explore through their senses. One major challenge during this stage is object performance- when babies start to look for certain objects or acknowledge they exist once something is beyond their sensory range. STAGE TWO: Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)- gaining experiences gives kids the ability to understand symbols. This starts language (the most important part of this stage). We begin to learn to represent the world with language. In this stage, children are egocentric in their thinking (they can’t think about the world through anyone else’s perspective). STAGE THREE: Concrete Operations Stage (8-13 years)- start to think more logically about complex relationships. We start to demonstrate knowledge of concepts of conservation (the realization that properties of object remain the same when their shapes change) STAGE FOUR: Formal Operations Stage (12-adulthood)- the final stage of adult reasoning. Not all of us reach this in all areas of thought. Piaget thought only people that could handle abstract thinking could get to this stage. One example of abstract thinking is hypothesis testing- to test for this, someone might ask a child ‘how would you be different if you were born on a planet that had no light?’ A child in the previous stages would have trouble answering this because of no real world models exist to fall back on. Someone in Formal Operations stage could extrapolate from this hypothesis and reason that the beings on earth might not have/need eyes, etc. We gain the ability to think about the way we think (aka metacognition) where we can evaluate our thought process Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg- Studied the morality aspect of development. Kohlberg’s focus was on how our ethics changed throughout our lifetime. He studied this by asking children to think about moral situations, including the Heinz Dilemma. A man named Heinz had to make a moral decision about whether to steal a drug he can’t afford in order to save his wife’s life. He categorized his responses into three categories Preconventional- (0-9)the youngest children made the decision based on punishment avoidance. Their reasoning was egocentric, (only focused on themselves) so they would tell Heinz not to steal so he didn’t have to go to jail Conventional- (10-15) at this stage made a moral choice based on how others would view them. Children will try to follow standards so family, peers, society will think they are a good person. They may tell Heinz to steal the bread to save his wife and become a hero Postconventional- (16-death)These children evaluate a choice by looking at the pro’s and con’s, or rights and wrongs, of their choices. Their self defined ethical principles might be involved in their final decision on each case they examine. They may say that Heinz should steal the bread because the right to life outweighs the store owners property. Gender and Development - research based on the differences between males and females. Different cultures encourage/discourage certain gender roles EX- in one culture holding hands might be feminine, in others masculine, in some platonic, in others non platonic. Psychological perspectives that try to explain how gender roles developed: Biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory- concentrates on the nature element in the nature/nurture combination that produces our gender role. Children learn through society (and are often curious) about the obvious differences between genders. Psychodynamic Theory- Freud perspective that boys, unconsciously, compete with their fathers for their mother’s attention (and vice versa w/ girls and dads). Proper development occurs when the child realizes that this is not a realistic competition and that they can seek qualities from their parents in significant others. Psychodynamic theories have more historical purpose and less to do with current research, They are widely known but no longer ‘active’ Social Cognitive Theory- concentrates on the effects of society and how society accepts genders to develop. This looks on how we treat the genders differently. EX- we accept rough play from boys but not girls. References This powerpoint presentation was adapted using information from the Barron’s AP Psychology 5th edition prep book. Weseley, Allyson, Robert McEntarffer, and Robert McEntarffer. AP® Psychology. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron's Educational Series, 2014. Print.