John B. Watson
 Came up with tabula rasa: we are all born the same
and through conditioning we are who we are
 Little albert experiment
 Felt that psych should only focus on behavior
John Watson: Aversive conditioning
 Aversive conditioning (conditioning for negative
 Little albert experiment (11 months)
 Associates mouth with painful experience
 UCS-loud noise
 UCR-fear
 CS-rat
 CR-fear of rat
Second order conditioning
 Second order or higher order conditioning
 Once a CS elicits a CR, the CS can be used (as US) to
condition a response to a new stimulus
 Ex: dogs salivate to bell (first order conditioning)
 Light is paired with bell (second order)
 Light-salivation
Biology and classical conditioning
 Animals/ humans are biologically wired to make
certain association more easily than other
 Ex:
 Conditioned (learned) taste aversions (adaptive
-Fudge: shaped in squares and dog feces
-Bottle: labeled sucrose and cyanide
-Classical conditioning, but biologically
Operant conditioning
 Learning based on consequences
-association made between consequences and ones
 Thorndike’s law of effect
-positive consequences result in strong stimuli response
Negative consequences results in weakened stimulus
response connection-decreased behavior
Instrumental learning: consequence shapes behaviors
Classical vs operant conditioning
 Classical-stimuli
 Operant-consequences
B.F. Skinner
 Felt that external influences not internal thought
feeling influence behavior
 Something that you can test not unconscious
 What can lead to certain behavior
 Operant conditioning
 Most influential individual in the field
The skinner box
 Testing rewards and punishment
 Experiment on rats
Skinner’s reinforcement
 Reinforcement: a consequence that encourages a certain
 Positive (+) reinforcement: add something pleasant (treat
for a dog)
 Negative reinforcement (-) : remove something
unpleasant (take Advil to remove headache)
 Negative punishment (omission training): removes
something pleasant (being grounded)
 Positive punishment: adds something negative (hitting
dog with newspaper)
Learning by Operant Conditioning
 Shaping:
-reinforcing the steps used to reach a desired behavior
(single behaviors-press bar for food)
 Chaining:
-reinforcing a number of separate behaviors for a more
complex activity (obstacle course, salsa lessons)
Types of Reinforces
 Primary reinforces
-natural reinforces (food, water)
 Secondary reinforces
-things we’ve learned to value: (money)
 money= generalize reinforce
-can be used for anything
 Token economy
-tokens as a positive reinforcement
-cash in for other reinforces
-schools, mental institutions, prisons
Biology and operant conditioning
 Reinforces: effects can vary
-effect of reinforce can vary depending on animal, its
instincts, and situation
instinctive drift: -ignore rewards to follow
natural (instinctive) behavior
 Premark Principle
-if two activities-the one preferred can be used to
reinforce the one not preferred
Reinforcement shedules
 Reinforcement schedules=pattern of reinforcing
 Administered in 2 ways:
 Ratio-number of responses
 Interval-time
Reinforcement schedules
 FR (fixed ratio): reinforcement after set number of
 VR (variable ratio): reinforcement after varied
number of responses -lottery
 FI( fixed interval): fixed amount of time set before
reward behavior-every 2 weeks get a paycheck
 VI(variable interval): varied amount of time before
reward (avg time set)-pop quiz
Learning and extinction
 FR and FI=faster acquisition (learning), but faster
 VR and VI: slower learning but slower extinction
 Which of these four yields the highest rate of
 Why slower extinction with VR and VI?
-noticing a break in pattern is more difficult
- “always that chance”
Learning with punishment
 Escape learning
-to terminate an aversive stimulus: ex-to disrupt English
class as to “get out”
 Avoidance learning
-to avoid stimulus all together: ex-cut English class
There is a student that disruptive in class and gets
kicked out, he doesn’t want to be in class anyways so
getting kicked is what motivates him to keep doing it
Pitfalls of punishment
 According to behaviorists, what are potential pitfalls
of punishment
-tells only what NOT to do, not what to do
-creates anxiety which interferes with learning
-only suppresses behavior, doesn’t eliminate
-Physical punishment-aggressive behavior (correlation,
not causation)
Classical vs operant
 Similar
-both forms of associate learning
-both involve: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, discrimination
-both influenced by biology and cognition
 Differences
-classical: response is automatic, reward independent of
action, learning is part of the autonomic response (UCR)
-operant: response is voluntary, reward contingent on action,
learning is part of voluntary behavior
-classical conditioning-how all organism learn to adapt to
their environment
-practical applications for fears, phobias etc.
 Skinner
-definitive insight into learned behavior
-practical applications abound
 Both asserted that learning occurs w/o though (cognition)
 Only focused on observable behavior
Cognitive learning
 How could cognitive argue that cognition is influential
in both classical and operant conditioning
 -classical: CS triggers anticipation of UCS
 -operant: awareness that responses=consequences
and thus acts to max the reinforcement
Cognitive learning
 Observational learning
-aka modeling
-mirror neurons (frontal lobe/neural basis for observational
-Albert Banduras: Bobo doll experiment
social learning theory (species specific)
antisocial BEHAVIOR (Bobo doll experiment: two dolls in diff
rooms, one acted upon aggression other nice, see response in
students )
Implications for TV and youth?
Cognitive learning
 Latent learning (“hidden”)
 Learning that is not directly observable
 Tolman’s Rat maze study
-group 1: rewarded every time reached goal
-group 2: no reward when reached goal
-group 3: no reward 1st 10 days, reward on 11th
 finding: Latent learning (3rd group learned cognitive map
in 1st trial, bur didn’t show it until reward)
 thus learning takes place without reinforcement
Cognitive Learning
Insight learning (aha!)
Sudden grasp of problem
Wolfgang Kohler: Chimpanzees
Sudden insight, not gradual strengthening od S-R
Memory process 3 steps
 Encoding: processing of info into memory system
(typing on a computer)
 Storage: retention of encoded material over time (to
hit save)
 Retrieval: getting the info out of storage (opening a
The stage processing model
 Sensory memory: held for a few sec according to the
sensory impact on our organs (glow sticks)
 Short-term memory (working memory)
 Long-term memory
Sensory memory
 Immediate recording of sensory info
 “Split sec holding tank”
 Most stimulus no encoded
-selective attention: only pay attention to certain
 Sensory memory registered as:
-iconic (split sec vanishing picture)
-echoic (4 sec sounds)
Short term memory (working
Memory that holds a few items briefly
Limit: seven digits/ items (plus or minus 2)
Info is stored into long-term, or forgotten
Lasts 3-12 sec
 Shirt term, or working memory has 3 parts:
-acoustics codes: encoding sound
-visual codes: how you see the letters
-semantic codes: meaning
Long term memory
 Permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory
Flashbulb memory
 An extreme emotional moment or event
 Somehow branded into long-term memory
 Where were you when?
-you heard about 9/11
-your first kiss
-first car accident
 2 ways:
-automatic processing
-effortful processing
 Automatic:
-unconscious encoding
-location, time and frequency
-retracing steps to find your keys
-also becomes automatic with practice
 Effortful processing
-attention/ conscious effort
-studying for a test
-through practice effortful can become automatic
Factors that influence
 Spacing effect
-encode info better if in increments over time
 Serial positioning effect
-tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list
-primary effect: remember 1st words, items
-regency effect: remember last items, words
 Next-in-line effect
-don’t remember what someone has said if we are next..
 Self-reference effect
-we encode better when issue relates to us
Encoding strategies
Can enhance memory …
 Mnemonic devices
 Any learning technique that aids memory
-uses imagery, semantics to remember…
 Acronyms:
 Parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division,
addition, subtraction
“Please excuse my dear aunt Sally”
Storage and short- term memory
 Last usually between 3 to 12 seconds
 Limit: 7 (plus or minus 2) chunks of info
 We recall digits better than letters .
 Remember: there is no one single compartment for
memory in our brain
 Long term-potentiation
-leading theory for LTM (long term memories)
-neural networks strengthen memory
-neural connections gradually strengthen through rehearsal
over time (memory strengthened)
-nerve cell’s genes produce synapse strengthening proteins/
enabling LTM formation
 Critical memory (injury=impairment)
-left=vertical memory
-right= visual/location
 Processes LTM, then stores elsewhere in cerebral
 Ex: if library=our brain, librarian=hippocampus
 Emotional memories
-images, smells, sounds
 Hippocampus and amygdala work together to form
-hippo=conscious memory of event
-amygdala=emotional memory form the senses
Retrieval recall vs recognition
 Recognition; multiple choice
 Recall; long response
Retrieval cues
 Memory = web of associations
 Priming “strand or web of associations that leads to a
specific memory”
Factors that influence retrieval
 Context effect
-retrieval is more effective when retrieving in some
location as experienced
 Tip of the tongue effect(TOT)
-temporary inability to retrieve specific names of info
-usually remedied by semantic cues
Conditions that affect memory
 Mood-congruent theory
-the tendency to recall memories consistent with our
current mood
 State - dependent theory
-recalling events encoded while in a particular state of
-ex: if you hide money while you are drunk, you are
most likely to remember where you hid it when you are
3 ways we forget
 Encoding failure
 Storage decay
 Retrieval failure
 Don’t encode what we don’t need
 Not encoding/ no LTM
Storage decay
 Memory storage decays over time
 Lack of rehearsal accelerates decay
 Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve
-step decline of retention over 1st 3 days, then levels
Retrieval failure
 Proactive interference
-new info is messed up by the old info
 Retroactive interference
-old info is messed up by new learning
Retrieval failure
 Psychoanalytic theory-Freud’s theory of repression
-we push away uncomfortable memories
-contradicts theory that emotions/stress hormones
strengthen memories
Research studies
 Memories bend and change over time, and are often
 Youngest and oldest (5-75) are most susceptible
-frontal lobe: matures slowly and decays quickly
 Research studies
 Elizabeth Loftus (over 200 experiments)
-how wording influences our memory
 Cornell University-Space Shuttle Disaster
-recollections on day after and 3 years later
-2/3 were totally wrong as to whom with, where etc.
Misinformation effect
 About how fast were the vehicles going where they
slammed into each other
 When they ran into each other?
 Forgetting source of a memory
 Where did they hear that?
 One of the frailest parts of our memory
Types of amnesia
 Anterograde
-remember everything before the accident, but not
after (50 first dates)
 Retrograde Amnesia
-remember everything after the incident, but not before
(the vow)
Organizing our thoughts
(making cognitive sense out of our
 Cognition
 Concept
 Category hierarchies
 We from concepts by…
-prototypes: dog-first kind of dog that pops into your
Problem solving with cognition
 Cognitive problem solving
-algorithms: always leads to right answer
-heuristics: saves you time, shortcut
Limitations of heuristic judgment
 Heuristic problem solving: hugely useful, but
sometimes leads us astray..
 Availability heuristic: how we tend to judge things
what we are exposed the most (why we develop
fears of airplanes, than driving cars)
 Representative heuristic:
Limitations of heuristic judgments
 Overconfidence
 Belief bias: only pay attention to things we believe on
 Belief perseverance (confirmation bias): only focus on
what confirms our beliefs
 Framing
Obstacles to problem solving
 Confirmation bias
 Fixation
-mental sets/ rigidity: we fall victim into using the
same problem solving because it has worked in the past
-functional fixedness: we cant use an object
differently that what it is made for
Creativity and cognition
 Positive correlation between both
 Creativity: ability to create something new and useful
 Types :
-convergent thinking
-divergent thinking
Key component to humans thoughts
 What component distinguishes language from other
of communication?
-words (spoken, written or signed)
Language structure
 Phonemes :
-smallest unit of sound in language
-40 English language
 Morphemes :
-smallest units of meaning
-prefixes, suffixes
 Grammar semantics and syntax)
 Grammar: system of rules that govern language
-semantics: the study of meaning for morphemes words
-adding -ed suffix=past tense
-Syntax: rules for combining words into sentences
-adjectives comes before nouns
Language development
4 m-babbles speech sounds
10- babbles household language
12-one-word stage
24-two-word stage (telegraphic speech)
24+- rapid development into complete sentences
Theories of language development
 Skinner vs. Chomsky
 Skinner
-language= operant conditioning (nurture)
-association: pairing objects with words
-imitation: words and syntax modeled by others
-reinforcement: praise
 Chomsky
-language occurs naturally (nature)
-Language acquisition device: brain is prewired for universal grammars-thus
ready to learn any languages (switches will be set to specific language)
-surface structure: organization of language
-deep structure: meaning
Lang development
 Babies- a built in readiness to learn grammatical rules
 Critical period
-childhood: best/only time to master certain elements of
2nd language: those who learn it best
(Chomsky: LAD-grammar switches set early)
-Learning window-closes gradually after the age of 7
-Hearing children/deaf children :parallel results
-No language as child/ language learning capacity never fully
Bilingual advantage
More advanced in school
Better at following complex directions
Demonstrate better mental flexibility
Tend to perform better on tests of creativity
Motivation and emotion
Motivational theories and concepts
 Motives-needs, wants, desires leading to goal
directed behavior
 Drive theories-seeking homeostasis( internal balance)
 Incentive theories-regulating by external stimuli
 Evolutionary theories-maximizing reproductive
Theories of motivation
 Instinct theory (fixed action patterns) : the theory
that all behaviors will be determined by innate factors
and biologically based behaviors that generally lead
to survival
-the term instinct was becoming overused, so the
psychologist changed the phrase they use to fixed…..
Drive reduction theory
 Drive theory: the idea that a physiological need
created a state of tension ( a drive) motivating an
organism to satisfy their needs
-states that a person will eat food as a result of a drive
of hunger
-aims for homeostasis or biological balance
Theories of motivation
 Cognitive social learning theory: our behavior is determined by 2
1) the expectations of meeting a goal
2) the personal value of the goal
-locus of control: our belief that we control the outcome of our
own lives-instinisic vs. extinistic control
 Psychodynamic theory: our motivation comes from the deep,
dark parts of our unconscious minds (the id)
-we have 2 basic needs
1) Eros- desire for sex
2) Thantos- aggression and destruction
Maslow’s hierarchy / humanistic
 Maslow argued that humans behave to satisfy
specific types of need. He broke them into 5
1) biological: hunger, thirst, warmth
2) Safety: avoid danger
3) Attachment: wanting to belong to something
4) Esteem: seeing oneself as competent and effective
5) Self-actualization: being all that you can possibly be
(achieving your goals)
Maslow’s hierarchy
 Maslow said that there is a natural hierarchy or rank
to the need human haves
 Before one of the higher needs can be full filed the
need on the levels below must be met, at least some
-most needs are met at a rate of about 85% before a
person can move onto a higher need
Marlow pyramid pic
The motivation of hunger and eating:
biological factors
 Brain regulation
-lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus
-periventricular nucleus
 Glucose and digestive regulation
-glucostatic theory
 Hormonal regulation
-insulin and lepton
The motivation of hunger and eating
environmental factors
 Learned preference and habits
-when, as well as what
 Food-related cues
-appearance, odor, effort required
 Stress
-link between heightened arousal/ negative emotion
and overeating
Types of Motivation of achievement
 Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior because of
promised reward or threats of punishments
 Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior for its own
sake and to be effective (read a book because you want to)
 Achievement motive=need to excel
-work harder
-Delay gratification
-pursue competitive careers
-situational influences on achievement motives
-thematic apperception test (TAT)
Theories of emotion
 James-Lange
-feel afraid because pulse is raising
 Cannon-bard
-thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the
autonomic nervous system
 Schacter’s Two-factor theory
-look to external cues to decide what to feel
 Evolutionary theories
-innate reactions with little cognitive interpretation
Psychological theories of emotion
 Cognitive appraisal theory: the thought that we look
back on a situation and consciously decide how we
should feel about the situation
-ex: grades, papers
 Opponent process theory: theory that we trigger one
emotion by suppressing its opposite emotion
-ex: drugs- the highs experienced by some drugs are
replaced with los (withdrawals). Eventually ppl take
drugs no for the highs, but to avoid the lows
Yerkes-Dodson Law
 Yerkes-dodson law A theory that a degree of
psychological arousal helps performance, but only to
a certain point. Too much or too little arousal can
decrease performance. Also known as the inverted U
Responding to stress physiologically
 Physiological response
-fight-or-flight response (decide to fight or flee stress)
-Seley’s general adaptation syndrome
1) alarm
2) resistance
3) exhaustion
 Brain-body pathways in stress-sympathetic adrenal medullary (SAM)
-hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA)
PICTURE Figure 13.6
Types of conflict that cause stress
 Approach-approach: 2 positive things from which to
 Approach-avoidance: decide between a positive or a
 Avoidance-avoidance: 2 negative things from which to
decide from
Responding to stress behaviorally
 Behavioral response: coping-emotion focused
-frustration-aggression hypothesis
-catharsis: relieve
 Defensive Coping-ego defense mechanisms-Freud
 Constructive Coping-problem focused
Effects of stress
 Impaired task performance
 Burnout: antecedent-components-consequences
 Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD)-effects on
hippocampus (cortisol)-prevalence of traumatic
 Reaction to traumatic stress
 Psychological problems and disorders
Developmental psychology
Prenatal stages
 3 phases
-germinal stage= first 2 weeks
conception, implantation, formation of placenta
-embryonic stage= 2 weeks-2 moths
formation of vital organs and systems
-fetal stage= 2 months –birth
bodily growth continues, movement capability begins,
brain cells multiply
Early emotional development :
 Separation anxiety
-the strange situation and patterns of attachment
1) anxious-ambivalent
2) Avoidant
3) secure:
 Developing secure attachment:
-bonding at birth (contact comfort)
-cultural factors
 Evolutionary perspectives on attachment
Parenting styles
 Authoritarian: strict parent
 Permissive: I’m too busy, do whatever you want
 Authoritative: firm but understanding, sets
boundaries but allows child input
Stage theories of development
 Stages theories: 3 components
-progress through stages in order
-progress through stages related to age
-major discontinuities development
 Erik Erikson
-eight stages spanning the lifespan (figure 11.8)
-Psychosocial crises: determining balance between
opposing polarities in personality
Stage theories: cognitive
 Jean Piaget
-Assimilation/ accommodation
-4 stages and major milestones
1) sensorimotor: object permanence
2) Preoperational: centration, egocentrism
3) Concrete operational: decentration, reversibility,
4) Formal operation : abstraction, abstract thoughts
Development of moral reasoning
 Kohlberg
-reasoning as opposed to behavior
-moral dilemmas
-measured nature and progression of moral reasoning
-3 levels of each 2 sublevels
1) Preconventional-punishment/ native reward
2) Conventional – good boy/ authority
3) Postconventional social contact/ individual principles and
-Longitudinal studies (research issues (use of males) reasoning vs
Carol Gilligan
 Critique Kohlberg’s work
 Kohlberg used most men
 Argued that males and females view morality in terms of
broad principles like justice and fairness
 Women are taught to view morality in terms of
responsibility towards an individual and a willingness to
help others
 For women, compassion is a stronger factor when making
a moral decision
 Helps explain why men and women regard morality of a
particular situation in contradictory ways
 Pubescence-growth spurts
-10-12 in fem 12-14 males
 Puberty
-secondary sex characteristic
-primary sex characteristics
-menarche (menstruation)
-sperm production
Maturation: early vs. late
-sex differences in effects of early maturation
Adulthood and old age
 Life spam: max age possible for member of a given
 Life expectancy: the number of years that an evg
members of a species is expected to live
 Menopause: the end of menstruation and fertility
Aging and intellectual functions
 Alzheimer’s disease
-a progressive disorder that strikes older ppl, causing
memory loss and other symptoms
 Fluid intelligence: includes inductive reasoning and spatial
ability, ability to reason speedily and abstractly, declines
steadily throughout middle and late adulthood
 Crystalized intelligence: includes verbal ability and numeric
ability, one’s accumulated knowledge, skills and ability
Death and dying
 Elizabeth kubler-ross 5 stages in approaching death:
1) Denial: shock
2) Anger: release of bottled up emotions
3) Bargaining: seeking in vain for a way out
4) Depression: final realization …
5) Acceptance
 Openness
a) Imaginative vs. down-to-earth
b) Preference for variety vs. preference for routine
c) Independent vs. conforming
 Conscientiousness
a) Well organized vs. disorganized
b) Careful vs. careless
c) Self-disciplined vs. weak willed
 Agreeableness
a) Softhearted vs. Ruthless
b) Trusting vs. suspicious
c) Helpful vs. uncooperative
 Neuroticism
a) Worried vs. calm
b) Insecure vs. secure
c) Self-pitying vs. self-satisfied
 Extraversion
a) Social vs. retiring
b) Fun-loving vs. sober
c) Affectionate vs. reserved
5 factor
model of
Psychodynamic perspectives
 Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Structure of personality
-ID: pleasure principle
-EGO: reality principle
-Superego: morality
Levels of awareness
 Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
 conflict
-sex and aggression
-defense mechanisms
Defense mechanisms
1) reaction formation
2) projection
3) rationalization (intellectualization)
4) displacement
5) sublimation
6) repression
Personality development
 Carl Jung : analytical psychology
1. Personal and collective unconscious
2. Archetypes
3. Introversion/ extroversion
 Alfred Adler: individual psychology
1. Striving for supierioty
2. Compensation
3. Birth order
Evaluating psychodynamic
 Pros:
1. The unconscious
2. The role of internal conflict
3. The importance of early childhood
 Cons
1. Poor testability
2. Inadequate empiric
3. Sexist views