Donelle Clements -Psychologist
Maggie Rafferty – Teacher ED
Janneke Jobsis-Brown – Therapist ED
Training Overview
• Introduction and Review of Behavior Management I essentials
Review of Functional Behavior Analysis
• Antecedent
• Behavior
• Consequence
Strategies to Teaching Positive Behavior
• Behavior Contracts
• Creative Childcare Interventions
• Shaping and Fading Behavior
Group Scenario Presentations
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Special Education Eligibility
Autism
Intellectually Disabled
(Formerly Mental
Retardation)
Emotional Disturbance
 An inability to use oral language for
appropriate communication,
a history of extreme withdrawal or
relating to people
 Significantly below
average general intellectual
functioning existing
concurrently with deficits
in adaptive behavior and
manifested during the
developmental period,
which adversely affect the
student’s educational
performance.
 Inability to learn which cannot be
explained by intellectual, sensory, or
health factors,
 Inappropriately and continued
impairment in social interaction from
infancy through early childhood
 An obsession to maintain sameness
 Extreme preoccupation with objects or
inappropriate use of objects or both
 Inability to build or maintain
satisfactory interpersonal
relationships with peers and teachers
 Inappropriate types of behavior or
feelings under normal circumstances
exhibited in several situations,
 A general pervasive mood of
unhappiness or depression, and/or
 Extreme resistance to controls,
 Peculiar motoric mannerisms and
motility patterns, and/or
 A tendency to develop physical
symptoms or fears associated with
personal or school problems.
 Self-stimulating, ritualistic behavior.
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Behavior
 Human Behavior
 Behavior is LEARNED
 Behavior is a function of the environment
Therefore…
 New behaviors can be taught
 Old behaviors can be unlearned
 We change behavior by changing the ENVIRONMENT
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ABA
 APPLIED
 Refers to the social significance of the behavior (of immediate
importance to the individual or society)
 BEHAVIOR
 Behavior is in need of improvement
 Behavior must be observable and measurable
 ANALYSIS
 Believability
 Demonstrates a functional relationship between behavior and
intervention

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controls the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a behavior
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Three-term Contingency
ANTECEDENTS
What happened immediately
preceding the behavior
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BEHAVIOR
CONSEQUENCES
What happened immediately
after the behavior
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ABC Data
 Antecedent
 Events or interactions that happen before the behavior
occurs: immediate or delayed/internal or external
 Behavior
 The behavior or sequence of behavior which occurred
 Consequence
 Events/interactions which happen after the behavior:
what one gets and what one avoids
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Functional Behavioral Assessment:
The ABC’S
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Immediate/Delayed
Medical
Physiological
Environmental
Interactional
Personal/Control
What a person
says or does
Social Attention
Tangible
Activity
Escape
Avoidance
Combinations
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Sample ABA Sheets
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Behavior Contract
 The behavior contract is a simple positive-
reinforcement intervention that is widely used by
teachers to change student behavior. The behavior
contract spells out in detail the expectations of student
and teacher (and sometimes parents) in carrying out
the intervention plan, making it a useful planning
document.
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Behavior Contract (continued)
 Because the student usually has input into the
conditions that are established within the contract for
earning rewards, the student is more likely to be
motivated to abide by the terms of the behavior
contract than if those terms had been imposed by
someone else
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Steps in Implementing a Behavior
Contract
 Staff decides which specific behaviors to select for the
behavior contract. When possible, staff should define
behavior targets for the contract in the form of
positive, pro-academic or pro-social behaviors.
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Included in contract
 a listing of student behaviors that are to be reduced or increased.
 The student's behavioral goals should usually be stated in positive,
goal-oriented terms.
 Also, behavioral definitions should be described in sufficient detail to
prevent disagreement about student compliance.
 The teacher should also select target behaviors that are easy to observe
and verify.
 For instance completion of class assignments is a behavioral goal that
can be readily evaluated. If the teacher selects the goal that a child "will
not steal pens from other students", though, this goal will be very
difficult to observe and confirm.
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Included in Contract
 a statement or section that explains the minimum
conditions under which the student will earn a point,
sticker, or other token for showing appropriate
behaviors.
 For example, a contract may state that "Johnny will add
a point to his Good Behavior Chart each time he
arrives at school on time and hands in his completed
homework assignment to the teacher."
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Included in contract
 the conditions under which the student will be able to
redeem collected stickers, points, or other tokens to
redeem for specific rewards.
 A contract may state, for instance, that "When Johnny
has earned 5 points on his Good Behavior Chart, he
may select a friend, choose a game from the playmaterials shelf, and spend 10 minutes during free time
at the end of the day playing the game."
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Included in contract
 bonus and penalty clauses (optional).
 Although not required, bonus and penalty clauses can
provide extra incentives for the student to follow the
contract.
 A bonus clause usually offers the student some type of
additional 'pay-off' for consistently reaching
behavioral targets.
 A penalty clause may prescribe a penalty for serious
problem behaviors; e.g., the student disrupts the class
or endanger the safety of self or of others.
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Included in contract
 areas for signature
 The behavior contract should include spaces for both
teacher and student signatures, as a sign that both
parties agree to adhere to their responsibilities in the
contract.
 Additionally, the instructor may want to include
signature blocks for other staff members
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Example Contracts
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CREATIVE CHILD CARE
INTERVENTIONS
“TOOLS FOR PARENTS AND CHILD CARE STAFF
(based on STEP – Systematic Training for Effective
Parenting, by Don Dinkmeyer)
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 Behavior is a student’s communication
 Behavior communicates special education needs and
one (primarily) of the following:




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I am looking for attention
I want to feel powerful
I am angry and want revenge
I feel deeply inadequate
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Possible behavior where a student’s needs are attention:
 If misbehaving, student looks for adult reaction
(example “running away”)
 Even with help ,and what appears to be useful help,
the mistaken behavior persists
 Behavior persists even when adults deliver
consequences, lectures, express disapproval
 Student may not differentiate between positive and
negative attention
 Student may/may not want peer attention as well
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Possible behavior when a student’s need is to feel powerful:
 Insist on one way in face of evidence of new learning
being desirable
 Insist on one way in face of evidence that a different
behavior is desirable
 Often argumentative, and not “hearing/seeing” adult
input
 May act in ways indicating the student has a trauma
history (startles easily, needs to not be approached
from behind
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Possible behavior when student is angry and wants revenge:
 (This one is the most RARE, usually when we assume this is a
student’s primary motivation, we are wrong. The older the
student, the more common, rare. Do not be confuses, many
students are angry, but it is not the PRIMARY motivation for
their behavior)
 May violate boundaries, tries to trip others, pretend hits, snatches




items
May hold grudges
May plan opportunities for revenge o ranger outlet, will look for when
staff aren’t alert
Believes staff and peers are angry, when they are not
Likely to have been exposed to domestic violence
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Possible behavior for students who feel deeply inadequate:
 (This one is much more COMMON than we tend to realize)
 Express frustration at the beginning of a task
 May prefer to NOT be noticed, not receive one on one help
 May prefer to not work as part of a class group, or read aloud
 Avoids new work/academics
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 Determining if child is primarily misbehaving to
communicate:
 I am looking for attention
 I want to feel powerful
 I am angry and want revenge
 I feel deeply inadequate
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Creating Behavior Interventions and
Interactions based on this Determination
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Looking for attention tools
 Planned ignoring
 Positive attention for any appropriate behavior, or
absence of negative behavior
 Refusing to give negative attention
 Separate consequences and attention
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I want to feel powerful tools
 Cueing/signaling for “+” behavior
 Rehearsal of appropriate behavior
 Taking space by child; giving space by parents or child care staff
 When behavior is appropriate; give opportunity for leadership, or “king
for the day”
 Give chores and activities to do which help the child to feel important
 Be quick to respond to appropriate requests, and make a point of
responding to such requests
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I am angry and want revenge tools
 Matter of fact consequences/display of calm
 Remove potential “victim” when child begins to escalate
 Emphasis on consistency and clarity of behavior which is considered




angry or vengeful
Emphasize boundary concepts
Discussions about anger and control when calm
Identifying “what’s in it for me” aspects of dropping revenge behaviors
Consequences for negative behavior include doing something nice for
the person harmed (doing their chores, giving them a favorite item)
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I feel deeply inadequate tools
 Creating incremental (one small step at a time) success experiences
 Frequent practice of skills which child is successful with, this doubles




as a “flooding” behavior intervention for anxiety-filled experiences
Asking child to create non-verbal signals for “overwhelm” that are
understood by all
Identify strengths and weaknesses together, with emphasis on
strengths
Establishing goals and “what is success” together, keep visual display of
“goals reached” and “things learned”
Determine if child wants to usually try new feared experiences alone,
together, or different combinations
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Shaping of Problem Behavior
 Shifting topographies of behavior
 Accidental shaping/Accidental reinforcement
 How do we do this?
 Prompting
 Fading
 Reinforcement
 Extinction
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Shaping Example
 For example, John never does his math homework. You
would like to have him complete his homework on a
daily basis. You realize that if you wait for him to
complete his homework before you reinforce him in
some way, you may never (or infrequently) have the
opportunity to administer a positive consequence.
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Shaping Example
 John will write his name at the top of the
worksheet.
 John will complete one problem of his choice.
 John will complete five problems of his choice.
 John will complete either all the odd numbered
problems or all the even numbered problems.
 John will complete all problems except one.
 John will complete all problems.
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Prompting
 Stimuli provided before or during a behavior to
facilitate the performance of the behavior to access
reinforcement
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Types of Prompting
 Response Prompts
 Modeling/Imitation
 Verbal Prompts
 Gestural Prompts
 Visual Prompts
 Physical Prompts


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Partial
Full
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Fading
 Gradual removal of prompts until the behaviors occurs
in the presence without prompts
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