Psychology is the scientific study of
A) Behavior
B) the Psyche
C) Sex & Aggression
D) Mental Processes
A) Behavior
Which of the following are the goals of
Psychology?
A) Describe, manipulate, control, and examine
behavior
B) Describe, explain, predict, and change behavior
C) Predict, control, examine and change behavior
D) Manipulate, control, explain, and change behavior
B) describe, explain, predict, and
change behavior
Applied research is conducted to study
A) How people apply knowledge in an educational
setting
B) Theoretical questions that may or may not have
real-world applications
C) The goals of psychology
D) A specific real-world problem
D) A specific real-world problem
A procedure to ensure that each
individual has the same probability as
any other of being in a given group is
called _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Random selection
Random assignment
Representative selection
Representative assignment
B. Random assignment
Only the experiment allows one to
investigate __________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Relationships
Correlations
Causation
The goals of psychology
C) Causation
The tendency of experimenters to
influence the results of their experiment
in an expected direction is called ____.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Experimenter bias
Control bias
Observational bias
Experimental bias
A) Experimenter bias
The experimental group in an
experiment is the group in which the
participants _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Do not receive the independent variable
Receive the dependent variable
Do not receive the DV
Receive the IV
D. Receive the IV
The first step in the scientific method is
_____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Forming a testable hypothesis
Developing a theory
Reviewing the literature of existing theories
Designing a study
C. Reviewing the literature of existing
theories
The total of all possible cases from
which a sample is selected is called the
__________.
A) subject pool
B) population
C) selection group
D) control group
B) population
Freud’s research is not well supported,
mostly because he used _______ as a
method of study.
A) naturalistic observation
B) case study
C) correlation
D) surveys and questionnaires
B) Case Study
The ______ variable is the variable that
is measured.
A) Independent
B) Intervening
C) Controlled
D) Dependent
D) Dependent
A hypothesis is derived from a ______.
A) idea
B) research paper
C) brainstorming
D) theory
D) theory
The three major parts of a neuron are
the _______.
A)
B)
C)
D)
glia, dendrites, and myelin
Myelin, dendrites, and axon
Dendrites, axon and soma
Axon, glia and myelin
C) dendrites, axon and soma
The major ions involved in the resting
and action potential are ________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Sodium and hydrogen
Hydrogen and potassium
DNA and RNA
Potassium and sodium
D) Potassium and sodium
Myelin, the fatty insulation surrounding
the axon, is required for ___________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Complex cognitive tasks
Complex motor tasks
Increasing the speed of the action potential
All of these options
C) Increasing the speed of the action
potential
The parasympathetic and sympathetic
are the major divisions of the
__________ nervous system.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Autonomic
Somatic
Central
Automatic
A) Autonomic
The major divisions of the CNS are
__________.
A) sympathetic and parasympathetic
B) somatic and autonomic
C) gray matter and white matter
D) brain and spinal cord
D) brain and spinal cord
The frontal, parietal, occipital, and
temporal lobes make up the ________.
A) brain
B) cerebral cortex
C) subcortex
D) brain stem
B) Cerebral cortex
This structure at the top of the brain
stem is involved in respirations,
movement, waking, sleep, and
dreaming.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Medulla
Pons
Cerebellum
Reticular formation
B. Pons
The __________ system prepares your
body to respond to stress.
A) central nervous
B) fight or flight
C) peripheral
D) somatic
B) fight or flight
The _____ serves as the major sensory
relay area for the brain.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Cortex
Hindbrain
B. Thalamus
The corpus callosum __________.
A) maintains your balance
B) keeps you breathing
C) connects your right and left hemispheres
D) is the center of your personality
C) connects your right and left
hemispheres
The limbic system is involved with
your __________.
A) ability to move and maintain posture
B) sense of touch and pain
C) basic bodily functions
D) emotional behavior
D) emotional behavior
The __________ is the brain structure
most associated with the formation of
new memories.
A) hypothalamus
B) thalamus
C) hippocampus
D) pituitary gland
C) hippocampus
___, ___, ___ are the three major
techniques for scanning the brain.
A) PET, CAT, DOG
B) PET, CT, MRI
C) MRI, CAT, FSH
D) CT, MRI, NFL
B) PET, CT, MRI
Spontaneous recovery occurs when
_________ suddenly reappears.
A) your lost wallet
B) a previously extinguished response
C) an extinct instinct
D) a forgotten stimulus-response sequence
B) a previously extinguished response
A relatively permanent change in
behavior is __________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Learning
Conditioning
Behavior modification
Modeling
A) Learning
Once classical conditioning has
occurred, the CR may be elicited by
stimuli that are similar to the CS. This
is called _________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Generalization
Discrimination
Spontaneous conditioning
Replication of the effect
A) Generalization
Higher order conditioning occurs when
a(n) _________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Previously NS elicits a CR
NS is paired with a CS
NS is paried with and UCS
UCR is paired with a CS
B) NS is paired with a previous NS
Anything that causes an increase in a
response is a(n) __________.
A) conditioned stimulus
B) reinforcement
C) punishment
D) unconditioned stimulus
B) reinforcement
Anything that causes a decrease in a
response is a(n) __________.
A) conditioned stimulus
B) reinforcement
C) punishment
D) unconditioned stimulus
C) punishment
Negative reinforcement and
punishment are __________.
A) the same
B) the best ways to learn a new behavior
C) not the same because negative reinforcement
increases behavior and punishment decreases
behavior
D) not the same, even though they both decrease
behavior
C)
The information processing approach is
used by _________.
A) humanistic psychologists
B) behaviorists
C) functionalists
D) cognitive psychologists
D) cognitive psychologists
Gamblers continue to put their money
into slot machines because they pay off
__________.
A) on a variable ratio
B) at variable intervals
C) at fixed intervals
D) on a fixed ratio
A) on a variable ratio
If you reinforce your dog for sitting by
giving him a treat every third time he
sites, you are using a __________.
A) continuous schedule of reinforcement
B) random ratio reinforcement schedule
C) fixed interval reinforcement schedule
D) fixed ratio reinforcement schedule
D) fixed ratio reinforcement schedule
Individuals who believe they are unable
to control or escape from sources of
pain may develop __________.
A) Learned Helplessness
B) Panic Disorder
C) Depression
D) OCD
A) Learned Helplessness
What was Pavlov originally trying to
study?
A) Eating behavior of dogs
B) saliva processes
C) digestive system
D) meat powder
C) digestive system
Food, water and sex are examples of
A) Negative reinforcers
B) Secondary reinforcers
C) Positive reinforcers
D) Primary reinforcers
D) Primary reinforcers
Spontaneous recovery occurs when
_________ suddenly reappears.
A) your lost wallet
B) a previously extinguished response
C) an extinct instinct
D) a forgotton stimulus-response sequence
B) a previously extinguished response
Dolphin training is done via what
principle of learning.
A) continuous reinforcement schedule
B) Generalization
C) Discrimination
D) Shaping
D) Shaping
Developmental psychologists are NOT
interested in _____
a)fetal well-being
b) age-related differences
c) age-related similarities
d) life after death
d) life after death
Age at crawling, walking, and toilet
training is primarily dependent on the
_____
a) education level of the parents
b) specific training techniques of the child’s caretakers
c) maturational readiness of the child
d) genetic influences inherited from both mother and
father
c) maturational readiness of the
child
The period of life when an individual
first becomes capable of reproduction is
known as_____
a) the growth spurt
b) adolescence
c) puberty
d) the latency period
c) puberty
According to the language theory of
Noam Chomsky, _____.
A. Children are born “prewired” to learn language
B. Language development is primarily a result of
rewards and modeling of adult speed
C. Overgeneralizations of speech result from faulty
development of the LAD
D. Language development cannot be determined
a) Children are born “prewired”
to learn language
Harlow’s research with infant monkeys
and artificial surrogate mothers
indicates that ______.
A. The most important factor in infant development is a
loving environment
B. Attachment is not essential to normal development
C. There is no significant difference in the choice of wire or
terrycloth mothers
D. The most important variable in attachment may be contact
comfort
d) The most important variable in
attachment may be contact comfort
Schemas are cognitive structures that
contain organized ideas about the world
and _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
Expand or differentiate with experience
May assimilate new information
May accommodate new information
All of the above
d) All of the above
Egocentrism is present in which of
Piaget’s stages of cognitive
development?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Preoperational and formal operational
Preoperational only
Sensorimotor and preoperational
Sensorimotor only
a) Preoperational and formal
operational
According to Piaget, an infant acqures
_____ when he or she understands that
people and things continue to exist
even when they cannot directly be seen,
heard, or be touched.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Conservation
Reversibility
Egocentrism
Object permanence
d) Object permanence
By age _____ most children are
capable of communicating adequately
in their native language.
A.
B.
C.
D.
2
5
7
8
b) 5
Chomsky’s language acquisition device
(LAD) is _____.
A. A child’s inborn ability to learn language
B. A device given to deaf children to help them learn
language despite their hearing loss
C. Learned in infancy when parents use “baby talk” to
stimulate its development
D. The ability of some children to acquire many languages
easily
a) A child’s inborn ability to learn
language
_____ is the basic, inborn dispositional
quality that appears shortly after birth
and characterizes an individual’s style
of approaching people and situation.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Personality
Trait theory
Character
temperament
d) Temperament
The positive or negative resolution of
eight developmental challenges is
characteristic of _____ theory
A.
B.
C.
D.
Freud’s psychosexual
Freud’s psychoanalytical
Maslow’s heirarchical
Erikson’s psychosocial
d) Erikson’s psychosocial
According to Erikson, the inner conflict
during which an individual examines
his or her life and values and makes
decisions about life roles is called a (n)
_____ crisis.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Midlife
Climacteric
Integrity
Indentity
d) identity
Moral judgment is self-centered and
based on obtaining rewards or avoiding
punishment in this stage of moral
development
A.
B.
C.
D.
Preoperational
Preconventional
Conventional
Postoperational
b) preconventional
A temperamental style that works best
in period of famine is _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Attached
Extroverted
Difficult
Imprinted
c) difficult
According to Erikson, intimacy is the
result of the successful completion of
this stage of development
A.
B.
C.
D.
Infancy and toddlerhood
Junior and senior high school
Young adulthood
Middle adulthood
c) Young adulthood
The _____ theory of aging suggests
that it is natural and necessary for
people to withdraw from their roles in
life as they age in order to prepare
themselves for death.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Kubler-Ross
Secondary process
Developmental
Disengagement
d) Disengagement
Compared to people who show a lack
of obvious grieving, people who exhibit
intense initial grief work through the
bereavement process _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Faster
No faster
Much slower
Moderately slower
b) No faster
The four stages of grief begin and end
with _____ and _____ respectively.
A.
B.
C.
D.
numbness; yearning
Numbness; disorganization and despair
Resolution; yearning
Numbness; resolution
d) numbness; resolution
_____ refers to the chromosomal, gonadal,
hormonal, and anatomical aspects of being
male or female.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Gender identity
Sex
Gender role
Gender
B. Sex
_____ refers to the psychological,
social, and cultural meanings added to
biological maleness or femaleness.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sex differences
Gender
Sexual role
Gender role
B. Gender
Sex: Gender:: _____
A.
B.
C.
D.
Biological:psychological/sociocultural
Psychology: biology
Sociocultural: biological
Chromosomal: anatomical/biological
A. Biological :
Psychological/sociocultrual
Your psychological perception of yourself
as either male or female is called you
_____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sex perception
Perceptual gender
Sex role
Gender identity
D. Gender identity
If a person is erotically attracted to member
of their same sex, that individual is called
_____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Unisexual
Gender confused
Gay, lesbian or homosexual
Transexual or homosexual
C. Gay, lesbian or homosexual
Which of the following is
INCORRECTLY matched?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Transvestite: homosexual
Transsexual : Bisexual
Sexual orientation : gender identity
All of the above are INCORRECT
D. All of the above are INCORRECT
The belief that children actively create
internal rules about appropriate gender
behavior is consistent with _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Biopsychosocial theory
The androgyny hypothesis
Social learning theory
Cognitive developmental theory
D. Cognitive developmental theory
Jesus was a carpenter, a teacher, a healer. He
was strong and nurturing. He was idependet,
warm and caring. This blend of masculine and
feminine traits makes him a prototype for the
concept of
A.
B.
C.
D.
Transgenderism
Androgyny
Heterosexuality
Bisexuality
B. Androgyny
Havelock Ellis used _____ to study
human sexuality.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Prostitutes
His family
Himself
All of the above
C. Himself
Kinsey and his associates used the _____
method to study human sexuality.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Case study
Correlational
Experimental
Survey
D. Survey
Masters and Johnson researched the _____
aspects of human sexuality.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Physiological
Cultural
Genetic
Psychological
A. Physiological
This is NOT in Masters and Johnson
sexual response cycle.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Desire phase
Excitement phase
Orgasm phase
Resolution phase
A. Desire phase
During the _____ phase, pleasurable
sensations peak and the body discharges its
accumulated sexual tension in a burst of
muscular contractions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Male climacteric
Female climacteric
Orgasm
All of the above
C. Orgasm
The discharge of semen and seminal fluid
from the penis during orgasm is called
_____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
The human race
The survival of the swiftest
The fantastic voyage
An ejaculation
D. An ejaculation
A homosexual orientation appears to be
the result of _____.
A. Seduction during childhood or adolescence by an
older homosexual
B. A family background that includes a dominant
mother and a passive, detached father
C. A hormonal imbalance
D. Unknown factors
D. Unknown factors
The current position of the American
Psychiatric Association and the American
Psychological Association is that
homosexuality _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Is not a mental illness
Can be reversed with aversion therapy
Can be reversed with psychoanalytic therapy
All of the above
A. Is not a mental illness
Anxiety is experienced by nearly everyone,
and is not a mental disorders unless _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
You experience it more than once per month
Its chronic intensity disrupts your life
you family has a history of anxiety disorders
other people begin to notice your symptoms
B. Its chronic intensity disrupts your
life
According to learning theory, anxiety
disorders are most likely caused by _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Modeling and imitation
All of the above
D. All of the above
A major depressive disorder is BEST
characterized by _____.
A. Frequent melancholia, prolonged blues, or prolonged grief
B. A long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with
functioning, pleasure, and life interests
C. Any depression of mood that also includes suicidal
thoughts
D. Recurring or persistent episodes of depressed mood, with
or without psychotic thinking and suicidality
B.
Someone who experiences episodes of
mania or cycles between mania and
depression has a _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Disruption of circadian rhythms
Bipolar disorder
Manic-depressive syndrome
Cyclothymia disorder
B. Bipolar disorder
Seligman found that when faced with a
painful situation from which there is no
escape, animals and people enter a state of
helplessness and resignation. He called this
_____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Autonomic resignation
Helpless resignation
Resigned helplessness
Learned helplessness
D. Learned helplessness
_____ refers to “split mind”, while
_____ refers to “split personality”
A.
B.
C.
D.
Psychosis; neurosis
Insanity ; multiple personality
schizophrenia ; dissociative identity disorder
paranoia; ; borderline
C. Schizophrenia ; dissociative identity
disorder
Schizophrenia is associated with _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Withdrawal from others
Withdrawal from reality
Delusions and hallucinations
All of the above
D. All of the above
This is the term for sensory perception that
occurs in the absence of an external
stimulus.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Delusion
Illusion
Hallucination
Flight of ideas
C. Hallucination
This is a thought disturbance characterized
by mistaken beliefs that are maintained in
spite of strong evidence to the contrary.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cognitive disruption
False premise
Delusion
Illusion
C. Delusion
This is an example of an emotional
disturbance in schizophrenia.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Exaggerated laughter
Rapidly fluctuating between fear and euphoria
A complete lack of emotional expression
All of the above
D. All of the above
_____ symptoms of schizophrenia refer to
“excess” behaviors such as hallucinations,
whereas _____ symptoms refer to
“deficits” such as flattened emotions or loss
of activity.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Alpha : beta
Type a : type b
Hyperactive ; hypoactive
Positive ; negative
D. Positive ; negative
This disorder is triggered by stress and
characterized by amnesia, fugue or multiple
personalities.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Dissociative disorder
Displacement disorder
Disoriented disorder
Identity disorder
A. Dissociative disorder
Egocentrism, lack of a conscience,
impulsive behavior, and charisma are
characteristic of _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Bart Simpson
Beavis and Butthead
Politicians in general
Someone with an antisocial personality disorder
D. Someone with an antisocial
personality disorder
Using therapeutic techniques to improve
psychological functioning and promote
adjustment to life is known as _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Eclectic therapy
psychoanalysis/psychodynamic therapy
Psychotherapy
Counseling
C. Psychotherapy
Which of the following is NOT one of the
five common areas of concern for all
psychotheapy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Disturbed thoughts
Biomedical disturbances
Disturbed emotions
Disturbed sleep
D. Disturbed sleep
Disturbed thoughts, disturbed emotions,
disturbed behaviors, disturbed interpersonal
and life situation and biomedical
disturbances are characteristic of _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Every mental disorder
The types of problems addressed by psychotherapy
Normal individuals
All of the above
B. The types of problems addressed by
psychotherapy
This is an approach to psychotherapy in
which the therapist combines techniques
from various theories to find the
appropriate treatment for the client.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Multimodal
Multidimensional
Biopsychological
Eclectic
D. Eclectic
If a therapist believes that problem
behaviors are caused by chemical
imbalances or other disturbances in the
nervous system, they are lively to use
_____ to treat the problem.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Biomedical therapy
Drugs or electroconvulsive shock
Psychosurgery
Any of the above
D. Any of the above
Mood stabilizers are most often used to
treat _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Bipolar disorders
Major depression
Anxiety disorders
Psychotic disorders
A. Bipolar disorders
A biomedical treatment that is based on
passing an electrical current through the
brain is called _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
EMT
ECT
EKG
EFG
B. ECT
In psychoanalysis, free association
refers to _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Unproductive session for which the client is not charged
A thought process which has no underlying cause or motivation
Reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its content
Purposefully bizarre and disconnected associations
C. Reporting whatever comes to mind
without monitoring its content
In dream analysis, a psychoanalyst will
look for the _____ meaning that underlies
the _____ content.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Conscious; unconscious
Latent; manifest
Dramatic; mundane
Countertransferential; transferential
B. Latent; manifest
Which of the following is an example of
psychoanalytic resistance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Arriving on time for an appointment
Arriving early for an appointment
Arriving late or canceling an appointment
Each of these options may or may not be actual
resistance
D. Each of these options may or may
not be actual resistance
Interpretation in psychoanalysis _____.
A. Is the analyst’s explanations of a patient’s free
associations, dreams, resistance, and transference
B. Is the analyst’s presentation of the patient’s problems in a
new light or manner
C. Must occur at the right time to be effective or useful
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
The process by which the therapist and
client work to change destructive ways of
thinking is called _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Problem-solving
Self-talk
Cognitive restructuring
Rational recovery
C. Cognitive restructuring
In Ellis’s RET, the letters ABC
represent _____.
A. Actualization of self, mental and physical
behavior, coping reactions
B. Authenticity, becoming, choice
C. Activating event, belief system, emotional
consequence
D. Analyzing, believing, creating
C. Activating event, belief system, emotional
consequence
The belief that humans have personal
freedom to make choices and that they are
responsible for the choices they make
characterizes the _____ approach to
therapy.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Psychoanalytic
Humanistic
Learning
Gestalt
B. Humanistic
The main focus in behavior therapy is to
increase _____ and decrease _____.
A. Positive thoughts and feelings; negative thoughts
and feelings
B. Adaptive behaviors; maladaptive behaviors
C. Coping resources; coping deficits
D. All of the above
B. Adaptive behaviors; maladaptive
behaviors
An important component in systematic
desensitization is _____.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Relaxation training
Aversion conditioning
Operant conditioning
Assertiveness training
A. Relaxation training
In aversion therapy, _____ compete (s) with
pleasurable associations someone
experiences when they engage in a
maladaptive behavior, like drinking.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Positive punishment
Negative associations
Parasympathetic arousal
Negative punishment
B. Negative associations
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The three major parts of a neuron are the