Interact effectively with children CHCIC1C Play Stages • Solitary Play • • • Solitary play is the earliest play stage a child masters. Playing without any regard for those around oneself. This kind of behavior is frequently observed in young children where they are engrossed in their own toys and do not have any interest in other children. Solitary activities are set up for one child to play at there own pace with toys they enjoy, with no demands of sharing with other children. A perfect example of this is a child sitting on there own mouthing a favorite toy. Solitary also consists of one on one (baby & carer) where your attention is focused on them and them only. Activities such are ‘pee a boo’ are a good example of one on one with children. Play stages • Parallel Play • • • • Parallel play is where children are beginning to become curious of interacting with other children but they are still a little unsure about it. They will play alongside another child, whether it is in the sandpit, water play or block corner, but they rarely cooperate in a task or engage in dramatic play or formal games and they are learning to work with others. Children at this stage also tend to imitate or comment on what another child is doing. Examples of parallel play are: A child playing in home corner playing with kitchen utensils and another child is standing alongside absorbing what they are doing and the child watching may comment and say ‘my mummy does that in the kitchen’. Two children are playing at the sandpit but they are playing individually and one might say ‘why don’t you try doing this’. Play Stages • Associative Play • Associative play is where children play together in a similar activity with little organization or responsibility. They are playing the same game, but they are only working together for spasmodic periods of time. • A perfect example of this form of play is where two or more children are playing in block corner with the blocks, building the same thing, talking with each other but not working together to create something. Play Stages • Co-operative Play • Co-operative play is where children are now starting to work together to play a game. They begin to communicate and discuss how they will create something together as a team and the staff are a perfect example for them to imitate team work or even just adults in general. • Children begin to follow social rules, empathy, turn taking, sharing and taking responsibilities for guiding there own play. • Two or more children are playing with blocks in block corner, building the same thing, talking with each other and working together to create something. Interacting Positively with Children Children are like sponges, They absorb everything you do and say. Permissive approach • • • • • Passive carer; dominant child Children freely behave as they wish No structure to day or planning No limits or consequences Carer may bargain with child to get desired result • Conflict avoided Implications for children • Children don’t have guidelines as to expectations • Carer inconsistency • Children feel insecure and out of control Authoritarian Approach • • • • Dominant carer; passive child Children are told what to do, how and when No choices are given Compliance is forced, often involving threats, punishments, sarcasm and anger • Often involves unrealistic expectations • Is consistent and same for all children Implications for children • Children don’t know why • Anger for non-compliance indicates a lack of acceptance for who the child is • Huge impacts on self esteem • Children copy this aggressive behaviour Democratic Approach • • • • • • Carer and child are equal partners Assertive but respectful; co-operative and fair Flexible limits and guidance Reasons for guidelines are explained Children are consulted and given choices Uses I messages and natural & logical consequences • Need to understand development and know the children well Implications for children • Children are guided toward autonomy • Children encouraged make decisions; given choices • Children are aware of expectations • Empowering children increases self esteem • Children learn self discipline • Must be suited to child’s level of development What approach do you take? • Permissive • Authoritarian • Democratic Element one: Communicate positively with children on an ongoing basis. • Proximity to the child – Make eye contact – Get down to the child’s level – Ensure there are no physical obstructions Communication with babies and infants • When and how we respond to an infant’s first cries, babbles and cooing will have an affect on the child’s overall language development (Trust vs. Mistrust. Erickson) • Responding to these first sounds will encourage further responses from them – beginnings of two way conversation • It is the same for non-verbal communication, such as facial expressions (smiles, raised eyebrows) and gestures (touching or stroking the child). The infant responds to these by mirroring your actions and making cooing noises. • Toddlers – usually independent and autonomous. Adult interaction should be on request by the child and/or where the adult deems it necessary (to positively guide behaviour or to act on a spontaneous learning experience) Communication with babies and infants. • Children of this age often venture away from constant adult reassurance, however an adult needs to be close at hand to allow them to experience these independent feelings • Be sensitive to this stage of development and guide their use of language to solve problems and to meet their needs and interests • Toddlers still revert to non-verbal ways to communicate frustration feelings by crying and using physical force. They may experience difficulty expressing themselves adequately with language alone. • Therefore, non-verbal communication may be commonly used in conjunction with verbal communication Communication with children 3-6yrs of age. • • • • Children of this age have acquired skills to engage in turn-taking conversation and can sustain a conversation for an extended period of time. Children of this age love to discuss topics that appeal to their intrinsic interests, thoughts and opinions This age group is better at expressing themselves They have begun to imitate many “adult phrases” and sometimes inappropriate language is used Communication with children 3-6yrs of age. • • • They are easily influenced and may imitate actions and language of their family members, friends and the media Children expand their vocabulary through association and assimilation (i.e.. Repeating prior experiences and adapting what they have learned to new experiences) Allow children to become involved in decision making when setting up an inviting, stimulating and interesting environment. They will respond to the learning environment and will want to be involved. This all helps with language acquisition. Non-Verbal communication Non Verbal Communication Smile Wave Pat on the head Thumbs up Symbol Body language Pointing Clapping What considerations do we need to take into account with the above actions in regards to age and culture? Ensuring Non gender, stereotypes or bias are not advocated. • What are some examples of media and gender stereotype casting? • What bias have you seen displayed by children in your care? • How would you respond to a child saying to an African American child “I’m not sitting next to you, your dirty”.? Element two: Promote positive behaviour • Positive guidance techniques – – – – – – – – – – Give do’s rather then don’ts Redirect Involve the child in what the outcome is Reflective listening Provide guidelines/rules and limits Consistency Remain positive Short and clear communication (Relevant Key words) Allow children the opportunity to work through the situation. Place praise on the process and growth of the child/group (Contribution list) Age related behaviours • • • • • • • • • • • Hitting Pushing Pinching Pulling Biting Snatching Tantrums Swearing Extending the truth Throwing Sneaking Discuss the different ages that these behaviours may be more dominate and why? Element two: Promote positive behaviour • What are some positive rules and limits? • Why cant we just say no? • Why is choice important when interacting with children? • Why do we need to follow children’s leads? In class assessment tasks • Element one – Task Two • Element two – Task One – Task two Google for further research • • • • Basic Needs (Abraham Maslow) Moral stages of development (Erickson) Bonding and attachment (Mary Ainsworth) Play stages (Parten's Stages of Social Play) Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests • What is Collaboration? • Johnny approaches his teacher and asks to play with the water trough outside. His teach replies no it’s to cold today! Please present a collaborative response to Johnny request. Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests • How can encourage collaboration? – Open ended questions – Show real interest – Reflective listening – Encouraging opinions – Role modelling – Providing the appropriate resources Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests • How can we do this in everyday situations? – When – Who – Why – What – Where – How I don’t know how do you think we can? Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests • Active Listening what dose it look like? • Effective communication, what is it? • Let’s put effective communication and active listening to the test! – Chinese whispers Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests • When and what would we collaborate on with children? • • • • • • • Activities Indoor /outdoor play Where they sat Where they had lunch What story they would like Projects Safety Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests • Reflect onTasks one and two Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differences • Why is it important to discuss children’s likes and dislikes, and how do we use these as a resource to talk about differences? • In small groups write down different ways for children to discuss their likes and dislikes. Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differences • How can an environment encourage acceptance of others? Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differences • Why are all children different? • Nature vs. Nurture – Genetics vs. Environment • Socio cultural aspects – Lets debate Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differences • In pairs discuss similarities and differences – Personality Likes/dislikes – Appearances – Background – Family – Community – Food likes/dislike – Hobbies/interest Identify where or why these developed/originated from Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making process • • Choice Asking questions – – – – – • • • • • • • • Who What Why how When Reflection on past experiences Exploring Science Encouraging cause and effect Encouraging exploration Open ended activities Self help shelves Discussions Choose one of the points on the left and write how it would foster the decision making process? Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making process • From the mystery box pick some resources and create an activity that involves problem solving. Document in groups • How the activity encourages problem solving • What age group it would be suitable for and why • Where the activity could lead to • What prior knowledge and future knowledge could it relate to Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making process • How would we do this in small groups, whole group, and individual discussion? Role play-In groups of 4 • Mum dad, baby, dog • Create a play script and implement it What did you have to work through? • Roles, resources, context, turn taking, where to start and end… Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making process Why would the following things affect you? – – – – – – – Physical environment equipment time available and staff ratio budget space OHS In groups document one idea for each one.