Interact effectively with
Play Stages
• Solitary Play
Solitary play is the earliest play stage a child masters. Playing without any
regard for those around oneself. This kind of behavior is frequently
observed in young children where they are engrossed in their own toys and
do not have any interest in other children.
Solitary activities are set up for one child to play at there own pace with toys
they enjoy, with no demands of sharing with other children. A perfect
example of this is a child sitting on there own mouthing a favorite toy.
Solitary also consists of one on one (baby & carer) where your attention is
focused on them and them only. Activities such are ‘pee a boo’ are a good
example of one on one with children.
Play stages
• Parallel Play
Parallel play is where children are beginning to become curious of
interacting with other children but they are still a little unsure about it. They
will play alongside another child, whether it is in the sandpit, water play or
block corner, but they rarely cooperate in a task or engage in dramatic play
or formal games and they are learning to work with others. Children at this
stage also tend to imitate or comment on what another child is doing.
Examples of parallel play are:
A child playing in home corner playing with kitchen utensils and another
child is standing alongside absorbing what they are doing and the child
watching may comment and say ‘my mummy does that in the kitchen’.
Two children are playing at the sandpit but they are playing individually and
one might say ‘why don’t you try doing this’.
Play Stages
• Associative Play
• Associative play is where children play together in a similar activity
with little organization or responsibility. They are playing the same
game, but they are only working together for spasmodic periods of
• A perfect example of this form of play is where two or more children
are playing in block corner with the blocks, building the same thing,
talking with each other but not working together to create something.
Play Stages
• Co-operative Play
• Co-operative play is where children are now starting to work
together to play a game. They begin to communicate and discuss
how they will create something together as a team and the staff are
a perfect example for them to imitate team work or even just adults
in general.
• Children begin to follow social rules, empathy, turn taking, sharing
and taking responsibilities for guiding there own play.
• Two or more children are playing with blocks in block corner,
building the same thing, talking with each other and working
together to create something.
Interacting Positively with
Children are like sponges,
They absorb everything you do
and say.
Permissive approach
Passive carer; dominant child
Children freely behave as they wish
No structure to day or planning
No limits or consequences
Carer may bargain with child to get
desired result
• Conflict avoided
Implications for children
• Children don’t have guidelines as to
• Carer inconsistency
• Children feel insecure and out of control
Authoritarian Approach
Dominant carer; passive child
Children are told what to do, how and when
No choices are given
Compliance is forced, often involving threats,
punishments, sarcasm and anger
• Often involves unrealistic expectations
• Is consistent and same for all children
Implications for children
• Children don’t know why
• Anger for non-compliance indicates a lack
of acceptance for who the child is
• Huge impacts on self esteem
• Children copy this aggressive behaviour
Democratic Approach
Carer and child are equal partners
Assertive but respectful; co-operative and fair
Flexible limits and guidance
Reasons for guidelines are explained
Children are consulted and given choices
Uses I messages and natural & logical
• Need to understand development and know the
children well
Implications for children
• Children are guided toward autonomy
• Children encouraged make decisions;
given choices
• Children are aware of expectations
• Empowering children increases self
• Children learn self discipline
• Must be suited to child’s level of
What approach do you take?
• Permissive
• Authoritarian
• Democratic
Element one: Communicate
positively with children on an
ongoing basis.
• Proximity to the child
– Make eye contact
– Get down to the child’s level
– Ensure there are no physical obstructions
Communication with babies and
• When and how we respond to an infant’s first cries, babbles and
cooing will have an affect on the child’s overall language
development (Trust vs. Mistrust. Erickson)
• Responding to these first sounds will encourage further responses
from them – beginnings of two way conversation
• It is the same for non-verbal communication, such as facial
expressions (smiles, raised eyebrows) and gestures (touching or
stroking the child). The infant responds to these by mirroring your
actions and making cooing noises.
• Toddlers – usually independent and autonomous. Adult interaction
should be on request by the child and/or where the adult deems it
necessary (to positively guide behaviour or to act on a spontaneous
learning experience)
Communication with babies and
• Children of this age often venture away from constant adult
reassurance, however an adult needs to be close at hand to allow
them to experience these independent feelings
• Be sensitive to this stage of development and guide their use of
language to solve problems and to meet their needs and interests
• Toddlers still revert to non-verbal ways to communicate frustration
feelings by crying and using physical force. They may experience
difficulty expressing themselves adequately with language alone.
• Therefore, non-verbal communication may be commonly used in
conjunction with verbal communication
Communication with children
3-6yrs of age.
Children of this age have acquired skills to engage in turn-taking
conversation and can sustain a conversation for an extended period of time.
Children of this age love to discuss topics that appeal to their intrinsic
interests, thoughts and opinions
This age group is better at expressing themselves
They have begun to imitate many “adult phrases” and sometimes
inappropriate language is used
Communication with children
3-6yrs of age.
They are easily influenced and may imitate actions and language of their
family members, friends and the media
Children expand their vocabulary through association and assimilation (i.e..
Repeating prior experiences and adapting what they have learned to new
Allow children to become involved in decision making when setting up an
inviting, stimulating and interesting environment. They will respond to the
learning environment and will want to be involved. This all helps with
language acquisition.
Non-Verbal communication
Non Verbal Communication
Pat on the head
Thumbs up
Body language
What considerations do we need to take into account with
the above actions in regards to age and culture?
Ensuring Non gender, stereotypes
or bias are not advocated.
• What are some examples of media and gender stereotype casting?
• What bias have you seen displayed by children in your care?
• How would you respond to a child saying to an African American
child “I’m not sitting next to you, your dirty”.?
Element two: Promote positive
• Positive guidance techniques
Give do’s rather then don’ts
Involve the child in what the outcome is
Reflective listening
Provide guidelines/rules and limits
Remain positive
Short and clear communication (Relevant Key words)
Allow children the opportunity to work through the situation.
Place praise on the process and growth of the child/group
(Contribution list)
Age related behaviours
Extending the truth
Discuss the different ages
that these behaviours may
be more dominate and why?
Element two: Promote positive
• What are some positive rules and limits?
• Why cant we just say no?
• Why is choice important when interacting with
• Why do we need to follow children’s leads?
In class assessment tasks
• Element one
– Task Two
• Element two
– Task One
– Task two
Google for further research
Basic Needs (Abraham Maslow)
Moral stages of development (Erickson)
Bonding and attachment (Mary Ainsworth)
Play stages (Parten's Stages of Social
Element 3: Collaborate with
children about their interests
• What is Collaboration?
• Johnny approaches his teacher and asks
to play with the water trough outside. His
teach replies no it’s to cold today!
Please present a collaborative
response to Johnny request.
Element 3: Collaborate with
children about their interests
• How can encourage collaboration?
– Open ended questions
– Show real interest
– Reflective listening
– Encouraging opinions
– Role modelling
– Providing the appropriate resources
Element 3: Collaborate with
children about their interests
• How can we do this in everyday
– When
– Who
– Why
– What
– Where
– How
I don’t know how do you think
we can?
Element 3: Collaborate with
children about their interests
• Active Listening what dose it look like?
• Effective communication, what is it?
• Let’s put effective communication and active
listening to the test!
– Chinese whispers
Element 3: Collaborate with
children about their interests
• When and what would we collaborate on
with children?
Indoor /outdoor play
Where they sat
Where they had lunch
What story they would like
Element 3: Collaborate with
children about their interests
• Reflect onTasks one and two
Element 4: Respect similarities and differences
and encourage children to respect these
• Why is it important to discuss children’s likes and
dislikes, and how do we use these as a resource to talk
about differences?
• In small groups write down different ways for
children to discuss their likes and dislikes.
Element 4: Respect similarities and differences
and encourage children to respect these
• How can an environment encourage
acceptance of others?
Element 4: Respect similarities and differences
and encourage children to respect these
• Why are all children different?
• Nature vs. Nurture
– Genetics vs. Environment
• Socio cultural aspects
– Lets debate
Element 4: Respect similarities and differences
and encourage children to respect these
• In pairs discuss similarities and differences
– Personality Likes/dislikes
– Appearances
– Background
– Family
– Community
– Food likes/dislike
– Hobbies/interest
Identify where or why these developed/originated
Element 5: Support children in learning
about the decision making process
Asking questions
Reflection on past experiences
Encouraging cause and effect
Encouraging exploration
Open ended activities
Self help shelves
Choose one of the points on the left
and write how it would foster
the decision making process?
Element 5: Support children in learning
about the decision making process
• From the mystery box pick some resources and create an activity
that involves problem solving.
Document in groups
• How the activity encourages problem solving
• What age group it would be suitable for and why
• Where the activity could lead to
• What prior knowledge and future knowledge could it relate to
Element 5: Support children in learning about
the decision making process
• How would we do this in small groups, whole group, and
individual discussion?
Role play-In groups of 4
• Mum dad, baby, dog
• Create a play script and implement it
What did you have to work through?
• Roles, resources, context, turn taking, where to start and
Element 5: Support children in learning
about the decision making process
Why would the following things affect you?
Physical environment
time available and
staff ratio
In groups document one
idea for each one.

Interact effectively with children