The Age of Ideologies in Europe
(1815-1871)
I. Europe After Napoleon
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
•
Almost every state in Europe sent a representative.
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Leading political figures from the four powers gathered in
Vienna to decide the fate of Europe.
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Austria – Clemens von Metternich
Russia – Czar Alexander I
Great Britain – Lord Robert Castelreagh
Prussia – Prince Karl Hardenburg
I. Europe After Napoleon
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
•
Most of Europe’s leaders hoped to nullify revolutionary and Napoleonic
reforms and restore the old order (pre-1789).
- Restored the original rulers in Spain and the Italian
states.
- Poland remained in the Russian Empire / a
concession for Russia’s role in defeating Napoleon
I. Europe After Napoleon
•
The Congress wanted to achieve postwar stability by establishing
secure states with guaranteed borders.
- France was returned to its 1790 borders
- The Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands, both
annexed by France, were united under the new kingdom of the
Netherlands.
- Prussia gained territory in Saxony
- Austria regained its Italian provinces of Lombardy and
Venetia
- The German Confederation was created to replace the Holy
Roman Empire which was dismantled
I. Europe After Napoleon
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France’s representative, Charles Talleyrand was able to convince the
Congress that France should remain a strong, respected country.
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The guiding principle of international relations at the Congress of
Vienna was balance of power.
•
Russian Czar Alexander I proposed a “Holy Alliance” of Christian
nations against revolutionary upheavals anywhere in Europe.
- Austria & Prussia agreed, Britain didn’t.
- Britain wanted to reserve the right to act according to its
interests, not anyone else’s.
•
The decisions made at Vienna ensured peace in Europe until 1850 and
no major wars until World War I (1914).
II. Ideologies
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a systematic body of concepts especially about
human life or culture.
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Secular beliefs
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Conservatism, Liberalism, Republicanism,
Socialism, Communism
II. Ideologies: Conservatism
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A desire to return to the conditions and social order that existed in
Europe prior to the French Revolution
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Rejected the French Revolution as a disaster and Napoleon as a tyrant.
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The Enlightenment, and its emphasis on pure reason, was rejected.
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A stable society should be based on the church, the state and the
family.
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Faith, history and tradition should replace reason and excessive belief
in individual rights.
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Change, if it comes, must be gradual and must take into account the
country’s history and traditions.
II. Ideologies: Conservatism
Political:
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Called for the return of hereditary monarchy wherever it
was overthrown.
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Constitutional government leads to chaos
•
Democracy, suffrage, were rejected.
•
Political decisions need to be made by the monarch and his
closest advisers.
II. Ideologies: Conservatism
Social:
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Called for a return of a social order with
strict class divisions / a system based on a
hierarchy similar to the 3 estates in prerevolutionary France
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Respect for rank and status must be reestablished.
II. Ideologies: Conservatism
Economic:
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Initially, most conservatives rejected the Industrial
Revolution because:
- they favored traditional societies based on
agricultural production
- Industrialization strengthened the
bourgeoisie and weakened the landed nobility
- the bourgeoisie owned the means of production
(labor, capital, banks, railroads, factories)
II. Ideologies: Conservatism
Religious:
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Favored an established, official and powerful
church: Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox.
•
The French revolutionary’s radical interpretation of
the Enlightenment led to the violence against the
Catholic Church
Conservative Thinkers:
Edmund Burke
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Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
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British politician, writer who
condemned the violence
and abuses of the French
Revolution
•
Wrote “Reflections on the
Revolution in France”
(1790)
II. Ideologies: Liberalism
•
Liberals were inspired by the Enlightenment
and the moderate gains of the French
Revolution.
•
Liberals were mostly from the middle class /
“bourgeois liberalism”
II. Ideologies: Liberalism
Political:
•
Favored governments based on written constitutions and separation of
powers
•
Supported either Republican government or constitutional monarchy
- Rulers should be elected by the people / should rule
in the interests of the people
•
Opposed absolute monarchy
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At first, favored only male property owners or “men with money”
having the right to vote. Towards the end of the 19th C. they
supported universal male suffrage.
II. Ideologies: Liberalism
Social:
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Defended the natural rights of individuals to liberty,
equality, and property.
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Government’s role is limited to protecting basic rights such
as freedom of thought, speech, and religion.
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Males should be equal under the law.
•
Hereditary privileges (except property) should be
eliminated.
II. Ideologies: Liberalism
Economic:
•
Welcomed the Industrial Revolution
- Liberalism was a “bourgeois” ideology and the Industrial Revolution
benefited first and foremost the bourgeoisie.
•
Supported “laissez-faire economics / minimal government regulation of the economy
- Strong faith in “free market capitalism”
- Their ideas of private ownership of the means of production and
maximizing profits conflicted with socialists who felt that
workers should control the means of production and profits should be
more equitably distributed
- Adam Smith –The Wealth of Nations (1776) –"from the experience of all ages
and nations, I believe, that the work done by free men comes cheaper in the end
than that performed by slaves."
II. Ideologies: Liberalism
Religion:
•
Believed in separation of church and state
•
Opposed the establishment of an “official”
church.
•
Freedom and equal status for religions.
II. Ideologies: Nationalism
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Loyalty and devotion to one's nation or country, especially as above loyalty to
other groups or to individual interests.
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Shared religion — along with common ethnicity, political heritage, and history
— are factors that draw people together in nationalist movements.
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The desire for national independence in a country under foreign domination.
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Early nationalism in Europe was tied to liberalism.
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Nationalism led to:
- unification of Italy & Germany (1860-1871)
- the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire (1804-1918)
- the establishment of the “Dual Monarchy” (Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867)
- conflict between European nations that led to World War I
•
Extreme nationalism = FASCISM – Nazi Germany
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
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Most of the political turmoil of the nineteenth century was a struggle between
liberals who wanted to preserve and spread the gains of the French Revolution
and conservatives who wanted to return to the old, pre-1789 order.
•
Nationalists and liberals joined together to fight for the independence of their
countries from foreign rule.
•
Socialists joined the political struggles against both liberals and conservatives
in 1848 to fight for economic equality and the rights of the working class.
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
Revolutions of 1830:
France
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Louis XVIII issued a constitution upon his return after Napoleon’s abdication – Charter of French
Liberties.
•
His brother, Charles X (1824-1830) rejected the Charter, suspended parliament, limited the right to
vote and restricted the press
•
Liberals and radicals took to the streets to demonstrate against Charles X. / When violence broke out,
Charles X fled to England.
•
Radicals wanted a Republic / Liberals preferred a constitutional monarchy.
- Louis Philippe was chosen as a compromise king. He was from the ruling family (Bourbon)
but was a supporter of the French Revolution up until 1792.
•
Under Louis Philippe, the upper bourgeoisie benefited (like in first revolution up until 1792)
- wealthy males were given the right to vote but most people still could not vote or run for
office / 170,000 out of 3o million people could vote – 5-6% of the pop.
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
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Les Miserables, the play based on Victor Hugo’s book, is set in Paris
during the Revolution of 1830.
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
Revolutions of 1848 –
“The year of Revolution.”
France
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•
•
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•
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Louis Philippe’s government became increasingly corrupt.
French liberals denounced Louis’s government / called for extended
suffrage.
French radicals wanted the end of monarchy and a new republic.
French socialists called for an end to private property and “national
workshops”.
The economy was in a recession.
Government tries to prevent public meetings and silence critics.
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
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Royal troops clashed with demonstrators in Paris. People were killed.
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Louis Philippe abdicates the thrown and escapes to England.
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The liberal, radical and socialist leaders of the revolt proclaimed the
Second Republic (First – 1792-1804)
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Liberals clashed with socialists.
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Pro-socialist workers took to the streets in Paris against the liberal
government. The liberals, supported by the army and peasants, killed
1,500 protesters.
- As a result, major antagonism between the working class and
the bourgeoisie.
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
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Newly formed National Assembly created a constitution that provided for a strong
president and a legislature.
- Gave the right to vote to ALL men – the first time in history this
happened.
- 9 million Frenchmen voted as opposed to 200,000 before 1848.
- A proposal to extend suffrage to women lost 899-1.
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Louis Napoleon was elected / nephew of Napoleon
Bonaparte.
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Was very popular with all Frenchmen.
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1852 – ended the Second Republic by naming himself
Emperor Napoleon III.
- his rule led to rapid economic development
- renovated Paris to create wide boulevards.
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
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“When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold.” – Clemens von Metternich
Revolutions of 1848
(continued)
Austria
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Student-led demonstrations for political reform in Vienna turned violent / Metternich
resigned and escaped to England.
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Nationalist uprising in Hungary demanding autonomy. The Slavs (Czechs, Slovaks,
Croatians) demanded more representation in parliament.
•
Emperor Ferdinand promised a constitution, an elected parliament, and the end to
censorship.
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With the help of Russian forces, the Hungarian uprising was crushed.
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When serfdom was abolished at the end of 1848, peasant lost interest in the revolution.
III. Political Upheavals:
Conservatives vs. Liberals
Results of the Liberal Revolutions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(1789-1848):
None of the uprisings led to immediate gains
Rulers used military force successfully to crush
rebellions.
Revolutionaries were split into different groups
with different agendas
Revolutionaries did not have mass support
Aristocracy remained a powerful class
In the long-term, the revolutions contributed to
democratic and social reforms in European states
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalist Revolts
vs. Ottoman Empire
1.
Serbia (1804 – 1817)
* Led by Djordje Petrovic (Karadjordje), the Serbs fought the
Turks.
* Serbs wanted to unite Serbia, Montenegro, BosniaHerzegovina in an independent state.
* Received substantial help from Russia. Russia then made
peace with the Ottomans as a result of Napoleon’s attack.
*1815 – Milos Obrenovic led the Serbian campaign.
* Serbs gained autonomy in 1833. Independence will come in
1878 as a result of Russo-Turkish War.
Second Serbian Uprising Against Turks
with Prince Milos Obrenovic, 1815.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalist Revolts
vs. Ottoman Empire
2. Greece (1820-1830)
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Alexander Ypsilanti, a Greek general in the Russian army, led an
unsuccessful revolt for independence.
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The Turks retaliated by killing the Greek patriarch. They destroyed
churches under their control, massacred the men and sold the
women into slavery.
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Greeks gained the support from the Britain, France, and Russia.
- Greece was the source of Western Civilization (Britain & France)
- Greece (Byzantine Empire) was the source of the Eastern Orthodox
Church (Russia)
Greek War of Independence
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On March 25, 1821 the bishop Germanos of Patras raised the Greek flag at the Monastery of
Agia Lavra in Peloponnese and the started the War of Independence against the Turks.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalist Revolts
vs. Russia
1.
Poland (1815-1830)
* Czar Alexander I ruled in Poland as a limited monarch. It had a
constitution (the only subject of the Russian Empire to have one), an
elected parliament, and freedom of speech, press, religion.
* Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander, began curtailing these rights.
* The Polish Uprising of 1830 was crushed by Russian troops.
* The Poles rose up again in 1863 against increasing Russian
repression. They were crushed again.
* Poland gained its independence in 1918 as a result of the collapse of the
Russian Empire.
Famous Polish Nationalist:
Adam Mickiewicz (1798-1855)
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One of Poland’s most famous writers.
Polish patriot that wrote about the
struggles that Poles faced for
independence.
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Born in Lithuania.
Spent 1824-1829 living/socializing
with Russian intelligentsia in Odessa,
Moscow, St. Petersburg.
•
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After the failed Polish Uprising
(1830), lived mostly in Paris.
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Tried to organize Polish Legions
against the Russians.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalist Revolts
Belgium:
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1815 – Congress of Vienna united Belgium and Holland to create a strong
barrier against France to the north.
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Belgians did not want to be united with Holland:
- different ethnic backgrounds / different languages
- Belgians are Catholic / Dutch are Protestant
- Belgian economy was based on industry / Dutch based on
shipping/trade
- Belgian student uprising was supported by Britain and France.
Established independence in 1831 with a liberal constitution.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalism and Unification
1.
Italy (1815-1860)
- Most of the northern Italian states were under Austrian
occupation.
- Italian nationalists were disappointed that an independent
state was not created at the Congress of Vienna.
- Through wars of liberation in the north and south,
Italy was unified in 1860.
- The Italian Kingdom was unified under Viktor
Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia.
- Rome was made the capital of Italy in 1871.
III. Leaders of Italian Unification
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•
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Giuseppe Mazzini – “father of Italian nationalism” / wanted Italian unification under a
Republican government.
Camilo Cavour – Prime Minister of Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel. Achieved Italian
unification with Victor Emmanuel II as the King.
Giuseppe Garibaldi – “professional revolutionary” / liberated and unified southern Italy /
preferred a united Italy under Republican government but most important to him was a
UNIFIED ITALY.
Victor Emmanuel II – King of Sardinia and the first King of a unified Italy.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalism and Unification
2. Germany
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“Germany” in the form of the Holy Roman Empire began disintegrating as a
result of the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
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Napoleon put an end to the Holy Roman Empire in 1804.
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The two strongest German states that emerged from the Holy Roman Empire
were Austria and Prussia.
- both Austria and Prussia are ethnically identical. Both speak
German. Their difference is religious: Austria is mostly Catholic /
Prussia is mostly Lutheran.
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As a result of the Congress of Vienna, a German Confederation, composed of
38 German states (not including Prussia and Austria) was formed. Austria
and Prussia competed with each other to unite all of the German states into 1
country.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalism and Unification
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Prussia led the process of unification. First step, economic unification:
- The Zollverein (1830’s) Prussia established an
economic union for the German Confederation (minus Austria)
similar to today’s EU / dismantled trade barrier and instituted a
single currency.
- The Zollverein was extremely successful in
promoting economic development and
industrialization.
- Based on the economic union, many German liberals wanted
political unification based on a constitutional government. They
failed to achieve this in 1848.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalism and Unification
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Prussian Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck wanted
German unification ONLY to strengthen Prussia
and its Kaiser, Wilhelm I (Hohenzollern Dynasty.)
- Bismarck promised Liberals an
economic policy that would favor
business. But no liberal constitutional
government. They agreed.
•
Through a series of wars (vs. Denmark, Austria,
France), German unification was achieved in 1871.
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalism and Unification
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The German Empire, also known as the
Second Reich, was established.
- First Reich = Holy Roman Empire (800-1804)
- Second Reich = The German Empire (1871-1918)
- Third Reich = Nazi Germany (1933-1945)
Leaders of German Unification
(1848-1871)
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
Kaiser Wilhelm I (1797-1888)
German Unification (1871)
III. Political Upheavals:
Nationalism and Unification
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Immediately after unification, German economic and military power
was equal to Great Britain and France.
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Social reforms from (1871-1912) established the most generous
government-sponsored welfare programs of that time period:
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universal healthcare
universal education
unemployment insurance
pensions for retired workers
sick leave / workman’s compensation
Since the establishment of a unified Germany, the country has had one
of the strongest economies in the world.
German Unification: Then and Now
German Unification (1989)
Germany (1949-1990)
East & West Germany (1949-1989)
Unified Germany (1990-)
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The Age of Ideologies in Europe (1815