Chapter 4 Nouns, pronouns, and the simple noun phrase Getting an Overview of Chapter 4 Look carefully at page 55. Wow. Now, remember, this is a reference book. You need to have read through to have a general understanding. But You are not trying to memorize the whole book. So, start by Reading page 55 carefully. Get a sense of how the chapter is organized and where the authors are taking us. Note any terminology that you do not understand. When you’ve done that reading, we’re ready to look at the essential information that you need to be sure you understand this chapter. Section Summaries • STOP! Don’t get impatient. You’ll 1. Page 64 Types of Nouns save time2.and being a Pageenergy 77 Types of by Determiners 3. Pages 84-85 Number and case in nouns smart4.reader. Page 92 Gender and the formation of nouns 101 Types of Pronouns • Go to each5. ofPagethe section summaries. PLEASE read through these summaries Read each carefully. Then, start And then continue with the here again. ClickPowerPoint to get a list of the Slides pages for the summaries. Check out “visible data” • Flip through the chapter to see where Table 4.1 (p. 65) Table 4.2 (p. 66) they put tables and/or figures. I expect Table 4.3 (p. 66) Table 4.4 (p. 67) a table or that anything they put into Table 4.5 (p. 76) figure is important information that Table 4.6 (p. 91) Table 4.7 (p. 93) they’ve given special So, looking Figure treatment. 4.1 (p. 67) Figure 4.2 (p. 72) ahead gives me some information about Figure 4.3 (p. 82) Figure 4.4 (p. 84) where to put my time and thought. After Figure 4.5 (p. 84) you’ve looked, click to4.6see Figure (p. 91)my list. Figure 4.7 (p. 93) Types of Nouns • Nouns as a word class…various sub-groups – Based on meaning: concrete vs. abstract – Based on grammar: count vs. noncount • As an ESL/EFL teacher, the most important information here is about count & noncount because forming noun phrases with them can be tricky. – So, let’s look at the top of page 57 and at section 4.2.2. Count & Noncount • Count Nouns – Singular • book, child – Plural • books, children • Noncount Nouns – Not singular & not plural – “this kinda stuff” • • • • • Rice Music Knowledge Homework News Culture & Counting • “Countability is partly a matter of how we view the world, rather than how the world really is.” (p. 57) • Words can be countable in other languages and not in English. – In Japanese, the word for “homework” is countable: Children turn in their homeworks. • Words can be countable in other version of English and not in U.S. English. – In Indian English, the word chalk is countable. Teachers can have 2 chalks. Lists of Noncount Nouns • Many words can be either count or noncount depending on their meaning: – I like coffee. (noncount) – I bought a coffee at Starbucks. (singular count noun) • However, most words have typical uses…used more as noncount than count or used more as count than noncount • Tea: typically used as noncount: “I like tea.” – – – – In Bank of English’s 450,000,000 words Tea is used 26,332 times! A tea = 922 times Teas = 1115 times Merrily we go along…. • You need to read carefully everything you can about But when we find turn the pagescount and getand to section B on Determiners noncount nouns We’re at a hugely important topic for • You ESL/EFL can just flip through the pages Teachers and Our Students. on other noun categories to know So….. Pageto 65give detailed what’s thereTurn buttonot attention right now. Determiners • Determiners determine noun meaning. For example, think about how the meaning of a noun like book changes with different determiners: – His book – Her book – That book • The basic noun phrase often involves the So, make a note combination: determiner + noun To remember • What to read here? The importance of – – – – Every single word of section 4.5 These sections Every single word of section 4.6 When you Settle down Every single word of section 4.7. Toshould read ask And anything that you do not understand you Thestudents. chapter. me about. This is important for you and your Determinersssss • • • • Why so many determiners? What’s going on? What are determiners really about? What is it that we are doing when we make selections from among this really large system of words? • Come on….come on….it’s on the tip of your tongue. There are a lot of different That is, determiners because we….. Because Determiners Determiners we have need ToLots be taught ofAre different & learned Meanings As ways we About want to control to make NOUN With NOUNs PHRASES! nouns! & Noun meaning Definite vs. Indefinite Generic vs. Specific • These terms are used to talk about the meanings of the various combinations of determiners and noun • The terms are used especially to separate out the meanings involved with the articles – Indefinite and specific: I bought an apple in the cafeteria. – Generic: An apple is a type of fruit. – Definite and specific: The apple on the table is for my lunch. – Generic: The apple is an important agricultural product. – Indefinite and specific: I bought some bread at the Market. – Generic: Bread is a staple food in many countries. Reference categories • • • Another way that linguists talk about meaning is to focus on meaning in context….and the ways that whole pieces of communication are tied together. As we communicate in speech and in writing… – – – sometimes we Two say things thatAssociated point ahead toTerms what’s coming next. Other sometimes we say things that point back to what happened or was said before. sometimes we talk about things that are happening right there as part of the Cohesion: how ties a at passage together: using conversation and grammar we kinda just point the person or object to indicate what we’re talking about. pronouns and other grammar to tie sentences together These different ways of making connections are talked about in terms of “reference.” Look at the A, B, C, etc., headings on pages 70-71 Coherence: conventional organization & culturaland expectations • It’s worthhow taking some time to learn this information these terms because theytie show up all over the place in linguistics and various other a passage together: the storyline related fields (socio, psycho, SLA, etc.) Anaphoric • Looking back…. – Pronouns are used for anaphoric reference. They connect back to previous nouns. • (like in these 2 sentences: they connects back to pronouns) – The is often used for anaphoric reference, too. • Look at the examples on page 70. You can see how the refers back….and thus helps to tie the passage together. That’s an example of grammatical cohesion. Cataphoric • This type of reference looks ahead….you say something that anticipates something new. • Check their examples on page 71 to see how the catapults the meaning ahead…and suggests that there’s more to come. Situational • The situations can be local and immediate: – In a classroom, we talk about the door, the chairs, the board, etc. – Larger settings: the sun, the moon, the president, the city council members • Nice example: – Take a look at #8 on page 71 when mis-communication takes place. That’s really nice to see because it does happen to us all the time when we assume that the context is shared when it isn’t. ESL/EFL teachers and students have similar experiences all the time! Number & Case & Gender • Number, case, & gender are old and traditional grammar terminology. • And these 3 terms are still very commonly used today to help us think about the characteristics of English. • However, because they were developed in analysis of languages like Latin and Greek the terms are not always a completely useful fit with English. So, we’ll proceed carefully. Number Number = count = singular or plural nouns & pronouns Regular count nouns: book, books Irregular count nouns: child, children Number in pronouns: I, we There’s contrast useful information about noun spelling for irregular plurals on pages 78-79. You do not need to memorize all that information although you probably know a lot of the words already. As an ESL/EFL/ESOL teacher, you do need to know that the categories exist and where to get the details to use for vocabulary development for your students! Case • Case involves – changes in form to indicate changes in grammatical function. For example, a language can have one version of a word for the subject of a sentence and another version of a word for the direct object. These are often called “subjective” or “nominative” and “objective” or “accusative” case. You’ll sometimes studies Pronouns have moreread case forms than nouns. – Other types are “dative” for linguistic indirect objects and “genitive” that the term “case” for thehe, “grammatical meaning” for use possessive forms. Subjective: she, I, we of forms. Just realize that the linguist NOTLook at – Well, now, what case forms do we me, haveusin does English? Objective: her, him, these think sentences: that Englishher, nouns Genitive: his,have my, case our forms • The teacher gave when the homework to the students. But that used in sentences • The students thanked themeanings teacher for the homework. noun phrases on the associated with Nouns havetake possessive or genitive case forms. – English nounssubject do not change form when they move from one or object position. Pat’s grammar students have questions about case. grammatical function to another. Subject forms are the same as object forms. – However, we do have noun forms for the possessive….the “genitive” case: • The teacher’s suggestions helped her students with their homework. Genitive & ESL/EFL/ESOL • You’ll have to teach students how to form and use the possessive. • They have to learn grammar and also Also, you’ll want to go to the BIG spelling and pronunciation. Longman Grammar of Spoken & Written English • So, read through examples To get morethe information to use and the In materials, and curricular headings to get lessons, a general senseplans. of the resources here. You’ll be coming back to these pages a lot in your teaching career. Of-phrase vs. Genitive • • • • Pages 82-85 are really really important. You and your students will struggle with this material. When to use ‘s? When to use of? Lots of what is in grammar textbooks is not accurate. You need to do some studying to be sure that you are teaching your students the real thing. The Longman grammars….the student grammar and the Big grammar…are based on research into how English is used. You can trust this information. Make a note To study This content! Grammatical Gender • Section D of Chapter 4 begins with this statement: “Gender is not an important grammatical category in English.” (p. 85) Those differences are • English pronouns have gender In the meaning of thebased words forms: she vs. he Not in anything to Do with grammatical GRAMMATICAL gender Forms. • There are no classes for nouns. • WHAT?!! What about the difference between man and woman or boy and girl? Isn’t that gender? Grammatical Gender & ESL/EFL/ESOL • You need to recognize when students from languages like French, Spanish, & Portuguese are having trouble with English because they are applying grammatical gender from their L1 to English. • You might see students from Chinese backgrounds struggling to keep the pronoun forms under control….using he when to mean she. It’s really more of a vocabulary development problem than a grammar problem. (Although keeping grammar and vocabulary separated is often not wise or necessary.) Gender Bias • You might need this information in your own academic writing since APA style requires that we avoid biased language in our academic writing. • You might also need to teach students how to use appropriate language in their academic writing and to understand the cultural values that lie behind these grammatical decisions. Noun Formation • Pages 88-91 are just the kind of material that we need to remember we can find in a reference grammar. • We can use this information for vocabulary development. • Be sure to notice the register differences that they have found. So that learning these words can be put into correct contexts. • Also pay a lot of attention to their frequency data. While there are many affixes on the lists on pages 89 and 90, Figure 4.6 suggests that we should focus our teaching on a much smaller list. Pronoun Types • What do you need to know? • You need to know the names for the types and some examples. • You need to know about the use of these forms in different registers. So look at the figures carefully and read the explanations that go with the figures carefully. Now What? • Read the chapter. • Listen to and read the other parts of my lecture on WebCT. • Do the quizzes. • Make notes about any of the information that might be important for your paper. • Email me with your questions. Remember that I want to hear about what you do NOT understand…your questions about the parts of the chapter that confuse you.