CONTENTS
11-1 A vs. an
11-2 Count and noncount nouns
11-3 Noncount nouns
11-4 More noncount nouns
11-5 Using several, a lot of, many/much, and ...
11-6 Nouns that be count or noncount
11-7 Using units of measure with noncount nouns
11-8 Guidelines for article usage
11-9 Using the or Ø with names
11-10 Capitalization
1
11-1 A vs. AN
She is wearing a bracelet.
2
11-1 A vs. AN
(a) She lives in a cabin.
(b) He lives in an apartment.
(c) She lives in a large cabin.
(d) He lives in an old apartment.
a
an
consonants
vowels
a
an
= “one”
3
11-1 A vs. AN
(e) I had an uncle named Spiros.
(f) They have an ugly car.
(g) The inch is a unit of measure.
(h) He saw a unique building.
For words beginning with the letter u:
a
consonant sound
an
vowel sound
4
11-1 A vs. AN
(i) I will see you in an hour.
(j) This is a happy day.
For words beginning with the letter h:
a
pronounced “h”
an
silent “h”
5
11-1 LET’S PRACTICE
___
An ear.
a
an
___
A large ear.
___
An enormous ear.
___
A useful ear.
6
11-1 LET’S PRACTICE
___
A holiday.
a
an
___
A universal holiday.
___
A unique holiday.
___
An unhappy situation.
7
11-1 LET’S PRACTICE
___
An honest mistake.
a
an
___
A hateful comment.
___
An hour of exercise.
___
An unhappy experience.
8
11-2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS
Should we
buy some
furniture?
Yes. Let’s
buy a table
and four
chairs.
9
11-2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS
COUNT NOUN
SINGULAR
PLURAL
a table
one table
Ø tables
five tables
some tables
can be counted
can be preceded by a/an
has a plural form (-s or -es)
10
11-2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS
NONCOUNT NOUN
SINGULAR
Ø furniture
some furniture
PLURAL
Ø
Ø
one furniture
a furniture
furnitures
cannot be counted
is not preceded by a/an
does not have a plural form
11
11-2 LET’S PRACTICE
NOUN ?
We love to see movies.
count
?
noncount
12
11-2 LET’S PRACTICE
NOUN ?
I need some new jewelry.
count
?
noncount
13
11-2 LET’S PRACTICE
NOUN ?
Which utensil do you want?
count
?
noncount
14
11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS
The river is so beautiful.
All the scenery is beautiful.
15
11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS
INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE
(Count Nouns)
(Noncount Nouns)
(a)
letters
postcards
bills
advertisements
etc.
mail
16
11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS
INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE
(Count Nouns)
(Noncount Nouns)
(b)
grapes
bananas
apples
oranges
etc.
fruit
17
11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS
INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE
(Count Nouns)
(Noncount Nouns)
(c)
necklaces
rings
bracelets
pins
etc.
jewelry
18
11-3 LET’S PRACTICE
/
We have really old furniture__.
-s
-es
/
19
11-3 LET’S PRACTICE
She loves these pearl earring__.
s
-s
-es
/
20
11-3 LET’S PRACTICE
/ on
I keep all the information__
my PDA.
-s
-es
/
21
11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS
The oil refinery creates
lots of air pollution.
22
11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS
(a) LIQUIDS
soda
juice oil
lemonade
23
11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS
(a) LIQUIDS
soda
juice oil
lemonade
SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS
copper
cement silver gold
24
11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS
(a) LIQUIDS
soda
juice oil
lemonade
SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS
copper
cement silver gold
GASES
helium
smoke
oxygen
25
11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS
(b) THINGS THAT OCCUR IN NATURE
moonlight
sleet
fog
(c) ABSTRACTIONS
joy
enthusiasm
danger
26
11-4 LET’S PRACTICE
-s
-es
/
/ and happiness __
/ often go
Health __
together.
27
11-4 LET’S PRACTICE
/
Ginny has all the luck__.
Thing__
s always go well for her.
-s
-es
/
28
11-4 LET’S PRACTICE
-s
-es
/
The project is going well.
/
We have made a lot of progress __.
/ has paid off.
Having patience __
29
11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND
A FEW / A LITTLE
We have new furniture.
We have a table and many chairs.
30
11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND
A FEW / A LITTLE
COUNT
(a) several apples
several
NONCOUNT
Ø
count nouns
31
11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND
A FEW / A LITTLE
COUNT
NONCOUNT
(a) several apples
(b) a lot of apples
a lot
Ø
a lot of fruit
count/noncount
32
11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND
A FEW / A LITTLE
COUNT
NONCOUNT
(a) several apples
Ø
(b) a lot of apples
a lot of fruit
(c) many apples
much fruit
many
count
much
noncount
33
11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND
A FEW / A LITTLE
COUNT
NONCOUNT
(a) several apples
Ø
(b) a lot of apples
a lot of fruit
(c) many apples
much fruit
(d) a few apples
a little fruit
a few
count a little
noncount
34
11-5 LET’S PRACTICE
CORRECT
INCORRECT
I hope to get several jewelries for my birthday.
INCORRECT
I hope to get some jewelry for my birthday.
CORRECT
35
11-5 LET’S PRACTICE
CORRECT
INCORRECT
That store has a few couches that I like.
CORRECT
We need many furnitures for our new house.
INCORRECT
We need a lot of furniture for our new house.
CORRECT
36
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
He did a lot of work today.
37
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(a) The jar is made of glass.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(b) Do you want a glass of milk?
(c) Barb has new glasses.
38
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(d) Jenn has blue hair !
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(e) There is a hair in your food!
39
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(f) These beams are made of iron.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(g) He bought a new iron.
40
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(h) That bulb produces a lot of light.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(i) Please turn on the light.
41
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(j) May I borrow some paper ?
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(k) I wrote a long paper for my PhD.
(l) He reads the paper
every morning.
42
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(m) This homework is taking so much time.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(n) She’s been sick many
times.
43
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(o) He only did a little work today.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(p) Cooking for his family is a work of love.
44
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(q) Brazil produces a lot of
coffee.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(r) I’d like a coffee with cream.
45
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(s) I eat a lot of chicken and
fish.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(t) I bought one chicken and one fish.
46
11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT
USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN
(u) I have experience
writing software.
USED AS A COUNT NOUN
(v) There are many experiences to enjoy
when traveling.
47
11-6 LET’S PRACTICE
a
some
Travis has ____
a chicken as a pet.
48
11-6 LET’S PRACTICE
a
/
/ cut once a month.
I like to get my hair __
49
11-6 LET’S PRACTICE
time
times
I tried to call my friend six ______.
times
50
11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT
NOUNS
She has a bowl of
cereal, a glass of
milk, and a piece
of fruit for
breakfast.
51
11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT
NOUNS
(a) He put some oil on the salad.
52
11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT
NOUNS
(a) He put some oil on the salad.
(b) He had three drops of oil on his salad.
53
11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT
NOUNS
(a) He put some oil on the salad.
(b) He had three drops of oil on his salad.
(c) He eats some toast with fruit every day.
54
11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT
NOUNS
(a) He put some oil on the salad.
(b) He had three drops of oil on his salad.
(c) He eats some toast with fruit every day.
(d) He had two pieces of toast with berries.
55
11-7 LET’S PRACTICE
I need a _____
bottle of vinegar.
bag
bottle
box
56
11-7 LET’S PRACTICE
bag
container of spaghetti. bottle
I have a _________
container
57
11-7 LET’S PRACTICE
bag
bottle
container
bag of tortilla chips.
I’d like to eat a _____
58
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
Please tell me a story.
You tell the best stories.
59
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
TO MAKE A GENERALIZATION
60
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS: A/an
(a) A computer is helpful for homework.
61
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS: A/an
(a) A computer is helpful for homework.
(b) An orange is round.
62
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS: A/an
(a) A computer is helpful for homework.
(b) An orange is round.
(c) A tornado can be dangerous.
63
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS: A/an
(a) A computer is helpful for homework.
(b) An orange is round.
(c) A tornado can be dangerous.
a/an + singular
count noun
generalization any, all, in general
64
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
PLURAL COUNT NOUNS: Ø
(d) Ø Computers are helpful for homework.
65
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
PLURAL COUNT NOUNS: Ø
(d) Ø Computers are helpful for homework.
(e) Ø Oranges are round.
66
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
PLURAL COUNT NOUNS: Ø
(d) Ø Computers are helpful for homework.
(e) Ø Oranges are round.
(f) Ø Tornadoes can be dangerous.
Generalizations:
no article
plural count
(Ø)
noun
67
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
NONCOUNT NOUNT: Ø
(g) Ø Exercise increases energy.
(h) Ø Fruit contains vitamins.
(i) Children need Ø attention.
Generalizations:
no article
noncount
(Ø)
noun
68
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
TO TALK ABOUT NON-SPECIFIC
PERSON(S) OR THINGS(S)
69
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS: A/An
(j) We have a computer at home.
(k) I brought an orange for dessert.
(l) There was a tornado in Kansas last week.
a + singular
count noun
one thing
(not specific)
70
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
PLURAL COUNT NOUNS: Some
(m) We have some computers at school.
(n) I brought some oranges for dessert.
(o) There were some tornadoes last week.
some + plural
count noun
things
(not specific)
71
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
NONCOUNT NOUNS: Some
(p) I need some exercise.
(q) The children would like some fruit.
(r) I think the cat needs some attention.
some (Ø) +
noncount
noun
Something,
not specific
72
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
THE SPEAKER AND THE
LISTENER ARE THINKING ABOUT
THE SAME SPECIFIC PERSON(S)
OR THING(S)
73
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS: THE
(s) Do you like the computer you bought?
(t) I enjoyed the orange you gave me.
(u) The tornado that hit yesterday was awful.
(v) The moon is full.
(w) The window is open.
(x) Are you in the garage?
the + noun
specific person(s)
or thing(s)
74
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
PLURAL COUNT NOUNS: THE
(y) The computers were expensive.
(z) I enjoyed the oranges you gave me.
(aa) The tornadoes that hit Mexico were awful.
(bb) The moons of Saturn are beautiful.
the + noun
specific person(s)
or thing(s)
75
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
NONCOUNT NOUNS: THE
(cc) The mail came early today.
(dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet.
(ee) The love of a mother is very strong.
(ff) The smog is bad this year.
76
11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE
NONCOUNT NOUNS: THE
(cc) The mail came early today.
(dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet.
(ee) The love of a mother is very strong.
(ff) The smog is bad this year.
the +
noncount
noun
something
specific
77
11-8 LET’S PRACTICE
a
an
the
Do you have
the recipe for
____
Mom’s lasagna?
78
11-8 LET’S PRACTICE
a
an
the
No, but I
have ___
a
recipe
from a
magazine.
79
11-8 LET’S PRACTICE
a
an
the
Too bad.
Mom
the
makes ___
best
lasagna.
80
11-8 LET’S PRACTICE
a
an
the
I do have ___
an
extra special
spaghetti
recipe that
you might
like.
81
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
The Himalayas are in Asia.
82
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(a) Ø Ms. Albert is on the phone.
She is waiting to speak to Ø Dr. Simmons.
83
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(a) Ø Ms. Albert is on the phone.
She is waiting to speak to Ø Dr. Simmons.
Ø Prime Minister Thompson was re-elected.
The
titled names.
84
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(b) I taught English in Ø Asia.
85
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(b) I taught English in Ø Asia.
Ø Australia is a large island.
86
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(b) I taught English in Ø Asia.
Ø Australia is a large island.
Over 20% of the earth’s land is in Ø Africa.
87
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(b) I taught Ø English in Asia.
Ø Australia is a large island.
Over 20% of the earth’s land is in Ø Africa.
The
names of continents.
88
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(c) Madrid is the capital of Ø Spain.
Ø Chile has some beautiful mountains.
Ø Madagascar is a small country.
The
names of most countries.
(d) The Dominican Republic is a small country.
There are windmills in the Netherlands.
The United States has 50 states.
The
a few countries.
89
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(e) I love Ø Paris in the spring time.
Ø New York has wonderful museums.
We visited Ø Johannesburg last winter.
The
names of cities.
90
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(f) The Mississippi River is very wide.
The most important river that feeds the Black
Sea is the Danube.
The
rivers, oceans & seas.
(g) Ø Lake Vostok is the largest lake in the world.
A large lake in Canada is Ø Lake Huron.
The
names of lakes.
91
11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES
(h) We saw the Virunga Mountains in Africa.
The Andes Mountains are in South America.
The
names of mountain ranges.
(i) Ø Elbrus Mountain is in Russia.
A beautiful mountain in Alaska is
Mount Denali.
The
individual mountains.
92
11-9 LET’S PRACTICE
The
___ Mediterranean Sea is located
to the north of ___
Ø Africa.
Ø
the
93
11-9 LET’S PRACTICE
Ø Professor Keely teaches in ___
the Czech
___
Ø
Republic. She loves working in ___
Prague.
Ø
the
94
11-9 LET’S PRACTICE
It is illegal to climb ___
the Himalayas
in ___
Ø Bhutan.
Ø
the
95
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
Barbara Barns studied business
at Brac University in Bangladesh.
96
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
1. The first word of a sentence.
(a) There are no clouds in the sky.
It is a beautiful day.
97
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
1. The first word of a sentence.
(a) There are no clouds in the sky.
It is a beautiful day.
Capitalize = a BIG letter,
not a small one
98
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
2. The names of people.
(b) Jimi Hendrix was a rock musician
in the 60’s.
99
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
3. Titles used with the names of people.
(c) Dr. Gilroy lives near me.
Were you in Professor Gilroy’s class?
COMPARE
I saw a professor.
I saw Professor Gilroy.
100
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
4. Months, days, holidays
(d) Zoe’s birthday is in December.
She was born on a Saturday.
It was on New Year’s Eve.
spring
summer
fall/autumn
winter
not
capitalized
101
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
5. The names of places: city, state/province,
country, continent
(e) Ottawa is the capital city of Canada, which
is in North America. It is in the province
of Ontario.
102
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
6. The names of school courses
(f) Professor Mackey teaches my
Women’s History course.
103
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
7. The titles of books, articles, movies
(g) My favorite movie is Shirley Valentine.
My favorite book is The Sweetest Dream.
104
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
8. The names of languages and nationalities
(h) I speak Spanish.
I love Mexican food.
105
11-10 CAPITALIZATION
CAPITALIZE
9. The names of religions
(i) Buddism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam,
and Judaism are some of the major
religions of the world.
One of my friends is a Muslim, and the
other is a Buddhist.
106
11-10 LET’S PRACTICE
Should the underlined word be capitalized?
Boxing day is a holiday in canada.
yes
no
107
11-10 LET’S PRACTICE
Why should the underlined word be capitalized?
Boxing Day is a holiday in canada.
first in sentence
person
holiday
place
course
book
language
108
11-10 LET’S PRACTICE
Should the underlined word be capitalized?
Boxing Day is a holiday in canada.
yes
no
109
11-10 LET’S PRACTICE
Why should the underlined word be capitalized?
Boxing Day is a holiday in Canada.
first in sentence
person
holiday
place
course
book
language
110
11-10 LET’S PRACTICE
Should the underlined word be capitalized?
I taught information Systems 202.
yes
no
111
11-10 LET’S PRACTICE
Why should the underlined word be capitalized?
I taught Information Systems 202.
first in sentence
person
holiday
place
course
book
language
112
PHOTO CREDITS
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Images used under license from:
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• Clipart, Inc.
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