Knowledge Audits and Mapping
Knowing the what, where, who, how and why…
25 May 2007
What Is Knowledge?
Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as
1.
Facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience
or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject;
2.
What is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information; or
3.
Awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation.
W IS
Kno
In fo
DAT
rm a
A
w le d
tio n
DOM
ge
W IS
DOM
w
Kno
le d g
e
rm
In fo
a tio n
DAT
A
Is Knowledge Manageable?
Knowledge itself is not manageable. What is manageable are the processes
necessary to encourage the sharing of knowledge and the development of
intellectual capital assets.
The implementation & management of processes requires a route map that
may be used by all members of the organisation to understand their roles
and responsibilities, their relevance within the organisation, and to access
the knowledge available to carry out those roles.
Where Does Corporate Knowledge Reside?
26%
Paper
Documents
42%
Employee’s
Brains
20%
Electronic
Documents
12%
Electronic
Knowledge Base
Salamander Organization Workforce Survey*
Knowledge By Contemplation…
Don’t forget, knowledge can also be gained or enhanced by contemplation or
introspection and by sharing content with others
What Is Knowledge Management?
Knowledge management (KM) is defined as:
“A multi-disciplined approach to achieving organisational
objectives by making the best use of knowledge“
Standards Australia HB275-2001.
KM is “the systematic processes by which knowledge needed for an
organisation to succeed is created, captured, shared, and leveraged.”
Melissie Clemmons Rumizen
KNOWLEDGE AUDITS
Presenter - Colette Raison
What Is A Knowledge Audit?
“Systematic investigation, examination, verification, measurement and
evaluation of explicit and tacit knowledge resources and assets, in order
to determine how efficiently and effectively they are used and leveraged
by the organisation”
Ann Hylton
“The systematic analysis of an organization's
information and knowledge entities and their
key attributes, such as ownership, usage and
flows, mapped against user and
organizational knowledge needs”
David Skyrme
Why Would You Conduct A Knowledge Audit?
Helps identify knowledge needs to support organisational goals:
•
Provides tangible evidence of the extent knowledge is effectively managed
(shared, leveraged etc)
•
Helps show what knowledge exists, where it is, and whether there are any
duplication or gaps
•
Reveals pockets of knowledge – e.g. untapped potential
•
•
Shows knowledge sources and any sinks or blocks
Provides information in order to tailor knowledge management initiatives
What we wanted…
what we made…
How Do You Undertake A Knowledge Audit?
1. Identify what knowledge exists
•
Identify explicit knowledge (e.g. snapshots corporate information)
•
Identify tacit knowledge pools (e.g. knowledge networks)
2. Identify where that knowledge resides
•
Shared drives, paper records, local gurus
•
Determine sinks, sources, flows, blockages
•
Map knowledge processes (way it is captured, shared, used & saved)
3. Identify what knowledge is missing
•
Assess corporate objectives, skills, competencies against best practices
•
Perform a gap analysis - who needs the knowledge & why
4. Report and recommend suggestions for improvement
What Is The Context For A Knowledge Audit?
PRO JECT
F o rtn ig h tly S ta tu s R e p o rts
R E P O R T IN G
SUCCESS
M E T R IC S
C O M M U N IC A T IO N
E x e c u tiv e B rie fin g
MANAGEMENT
N e w s le tte r C o n te n t
C o n tra c t
S ta te m e n t o f W o rk (S O W )
K n o w le d g e T ra n s fe r
T im e s h e e ts
K n o w le d g e A u d it C h a m p io n s
C o n s u ltin g G u id e lin e s
K n o w le d g e A u d it C h e c k lis t
F in a n c e & In v o ic in g
S ta k e h o ld e r M a n a g e m e n t
P e o p le , E q u ip m e n t & T o o ls
KNOW LEDGE
A U D IT
A u d it C o n c e p t M a p
A U D IT
DOCUM ENTS
D ra ft A u d it R e p o rt
F in a l A u d it R e p o rt
In te rv ie w q u e s tio n s
W o rk s h o p o u tlin e
A U D IT
TEM PLATES
A u d it q u e s tio n n a ire
O b s e rv e r h in ts & tip s
S ta k e h o ld e r A n a ly s is
S ta k e h o ld e r M e e tin g s
P ro je c t T e a m M e e tin g s
R is k M itig a tio n
P ro je c t S c h e d u le
E x e c u tiv e e n d o rs e m e n t
Is s u e s R e g is te r
In te n t S ta te m e n t
IN IT IA T E
ABCD Docum ent
P ilo t c o n c lu d e d
In te rv ie w s
A ll d o c u m e n ts to A g e n c y
O b s e rv a tio n s
In v o ic e P a y m e n t
S u rv e y s
PLAN
EXECUTE
W o rk s h o p s
C o n te n t a n a ly s is
A n a ly s is o f re s u lts
CLOSE
How Long Does It Take To Conduct An Audit?
Unsurprisingly the time it takes for a Knowledge Audit depends on:
The size of the target population, their geographical location, and participation
The resources available (and their capability) to undertake the Audit
The budget allocated and the time allotted by Senior Management
The level of detail required
The focus required (e.g. current knowledge stocks and/or knowledge flows)
Answers to questions such as these also dictate the method/s to be used
As a guide – experienced and qualified knowledge auditors with an approved
budget, a participatory target audience, and using a variety of methods, may take
approximately 3 months to audit a branch < 50 people.
Case Study A – Large Organisation
Case Study A – Large Organisation
Large Government Department Branch About 100 people (mainly QLD and
ACT) who fulfil various administrative design roles (internal consultancy).
The challenge was to:
Complete a KM audit to identify the essential knowledge elements to
support a knowledge strategy; and
Highlight existing knowledge assets and thereby make them accountable
and relevant to organisational performance
The methods used were:
Initial research – Intranet & shared drive
Leveraged work by RMIT on a Government Senior Executive Survey and
used results from Senior Executives
‘Tick & flick’ electronic survey
Semi-structured individual interviews and observations
Case Study A – Large Organisation (FINDINGS)
The findings were:
Support for existing knowledge sharing & support initiatives
Need for additional ‘cross-team’ sharing
Need for improved tacit knowledge capture from leavers
Need for improved targeted training
Need for improved access to ‘experts’ and artefacts
Need for clarity of roles & responsibilities
Need for improved systems for collaboration, version control, archival procedures.
Case Study B – Small Department
Case Study B – Small Department
Small specialised team in a Government Department seen as a pilot site for
Knowledge Management
The challenge was to:
Complete a Knowledge Audit to identify gaps that could be addressed by
a knowledge strategy and some politically driven initiatives (e.g. CoPs)
Undertake the audit without using ‘Knowledge Management jargon’
The methods used:
Established Project Management procedures - scope, reporting, concepts
Undertook preliminary research & later Industry research
Developed and tested survey instruments
Conducted ‘As is - To Be’ workshops
Administered electronic questionnaire
Conducted individual semi-structured interviews
Analysed results (including performing a gap analysis)
Mapped processes & knowledge sources, sinks, flows
Case Study B – Small Department (FINDINGS)
The findings were:
Demonstrated support for a culture of knowledge sharing
Good personal knowledge networks – but not team ones
Some documentation of knowledge processes
Some problems associated with explicit knowledge (information)
management - version control, access, archival, search, publication,
catalogues
KNOWLEDGE MAPS
Presenter – Grant Brodie
What Are Knowledge Maps (K-Maps)?
Sometimes undertaking a Knowledge Audit is simply not enough. You also
need to VISUALISE the content in a meaningful (useful and useable) way for
both senior management and staff who are tasked with undertaking the work.
People often need to delve deeper and understand the importance and impact
of knowledge flows on business outputs and outcomes, they need to look at the
organisation’s processes and visualise the relationship with the final business
goals.
K-Maps help people understand and analyse the current state and ask
the important questions before moving forward. Questions like:
Does the current structure support active knowledge sharing?
- Are there information silos within the business?
- Is there evidence of duplication of effort within the business?
- Who are the subject matter experts and how can I find them?
- What should we be doing that we currently are not doing?
Why Would You Build A Knowledge Map?
The goals of knowledge maps are to:
Set out how outcomes are achieved (how things get done!)
Provide a simple common user experience of how business is organised
- how things operate at the all important task, activity, function levels
- how they provide the building blocks for delivering outputs and outcomes
Help people understand their roles and responsibilities
- help to make business lines ‘join up”
Make workflows visible to both managers and staff;
Deliver self service functionality to clients over the Intranet; and where
appropriate
Deploy a quality system for quality standards accreditation to satisfy
audit requirements as established by Government and / or legislation.
-
Business
Outcomes
How Do I…?
Understand What Is Best Practice
For Achieving The Branch Outputs
Understand How The Branch Outputs
Feed Into The Corporate Picture
Access Right Application When I Need To
Access To Associated Resources
K-Mapping
Understand How & Where
This Application Helps Me
To Achieve The Outcomes
Understand How & Where
The Correct Resource
Helps Me To Achieve The
Branch Outputs
Corp. Systems
Sources Of Knowledge
In its simplest form K-Mapping is the process of analysing tasks, activities, functions, outputs
and outcomes of an organisation or of a particular area of an organisation and understanding
the dependencies that exist.
TASK
ACTIVITY
TASK
TASK
ACTIVITY
What are the benefits?
TASK
TASK
ACTIVITY
FUNCTION
TASK
OUTPUT
OUTCOME

Enables a common
language across agencies

Assists you to
decompose outcomes

Draws an explicit link
between activities you
undertake with the
outcome being delivered

Identifies efficiencies,
deficiencies and
implications
TASK
TASK
ACTIVITY
FUNCTION
TASK
ACTIVITY
TASK
TASK
ACTIVITY
TASK
Tasks are the lowest
level of effort they
breakdown the
activities.
A cluster of tasks may
often seem unrelated.
Tasks can exist in
several clusters at the
same time.
Activities are
the major tasks
which support
and assist in
achieving the
work function.
Functions are the
largest unit of
business activity.
They represent major
responsibilities that
are managed by an
organisation/area.
An output is the
deliverable from
the function/s.
An outcome is
the end result
derived from
the output.
The following example highlights how K-Mapping (analysing tasks, activities, functions and
outputs) helps us to understand the dependencies that exist at each level which support the
achievement of a particular outcome (eg: maximising the re-sale value of a car).
TASKS
ACTIVITIES
FUNCTIONS
OUTPUTS
OUTCOMES
Change spark plugs
Change oil and water
>
Service the car
>
Check air in tyres
Maintenance
Replace worn tyres
Replace headlight bulb
>
Presentation
>
Polish paintwork
Vacuum interior
Wash wheels
>
Clean the car
A car that is:
 Well maintained;
 well presented; and
 mechanically sound
Replace faulty
or worn parts
Speedometer Cable
Clean windows
>
>
>
Car re-sale value
is maximised
E quities
R esearch
S tockbroking
M anagem ent
Institution F unds
A sset
F inancing
A dvisory &
R esearch
S pecialized
Leasing
S pecialist F unds
M anagem ent
S pecialized
Infrastructure
C apital
M anagem ent
E quity
C apital M arkets
M edia R elations
E quity
F inance
S ecurities
Lending
E xternal
M anag. F unds
Internal
M anag. F unds
C orporate
R estructures
H edge
F unds
T akeovers
S ecurities
T rading
M ergers &
A quisitions
R isk
M anagem ent
P roject
F inancing
T rading
Invest
B anking
M A C Q U A R IE B A N K
H IG H L E V E L K -M A P
F oreign S ponsored
T rust Listings
M anufact. & D istribut.
O f W holesale & R etail F inancial
P roducts
E quity
M arkets
F oreign E xchange
T rading & S truct.
D evelopm ents &
A sset M anagem ent
Interest R ate &
C redit D erivatives
S truct. & T rading
P roject F inancing
& S ecuritisation
P erform ance
Incentive F unds
S tructuring
& P lacem ent
S ecurity O f
R etail F inancial
S ervices
W heelchair A ccess
T axi S ervice
D eploym ent
O f N ew S ervices
C om m unity R elations
D eploym ent
N ew T echnologies
B rand & M arketing
D eploym ent
N ew S ystem s
Internal C om m s
M arketing
D elivery
N ew S ystem s
E C om m erce
D evelop. E xisting
B usiness S ystem s
R eputation & B rand
P rotection
P rivate
B anking
W holesale
P roperty Invest
E xecutive W ealth
M anagem ent
D evelop. O f
Joint V entures
S trat. F inancial
P lanning
P rovision Invest &
D evelop. F inance
O nline
S tockbroking
R elationship
B anking
Infrastruct. & P rivate
E quity F unds
Listed &
U nlisted F unds
Investm ent
P lanning
Investm ent
Lending
Infrastructure
S upport
M acquarie B ank
F oundation
C ash, F ixed Incom e, C urrency &
P rop. F unds
M anagem ent &
D evelop A ssets
F ull S ervice
S tockbroking
M ortgage
O rigination
& F unding
T echnology
Infrastructure
M acquarie B ank
S ports
Internat. F unds M gt
Joint V entures
C orp, S uper & Indiv
F unds M anagem ent
T reasury
O perations
G lobal F unds
M anagem ent
C om m odity &
E nergy F inance
P hysical & D erivatives
S truct & T rading
Treasury &
C om m od
Financing
& Leasing
P rivate P ortfolio
M anagem ent
W holesale
E quity R aising
F utures, E xecution
A nd C learing
C om m odity, E nergy
& F inance. P rod
D ebt / T ransaction
S tructuring
N ew S ector
Innovation
D ebt
A rrangem ents
G overnm ent
R elations
R eal
E state
Funds
M gt
Investm ent
A dvisory
S ervices
M A C Q U A R IE B A N K
B U S IN E S S O U TC O M E S
(1,2 & 3)
C redit C ards
P ersonal
Loans
B anking &
S ecurity
Financial
S ervices
R isk
M anagem ent
C orp
C om m s
B anking
S olutions
1: P R O FIT - Increase profit grow th (increase after tax profit)
2: E P S G R O W TH - Increase earnings per share (Increase share price)
3: D IV ID E N D G R O W TH - Increase ordinary dividends (returns to shareholder)
C orp
C om m s
Invest.
Banking
K-Maps And Future State Scenarios…
U N C L A S S IF IE D
F U T U R E S T A T E S C E N A R IO
ID E N T IF IC A T IO N
R IS K A S S E S S M E N T
S im o n M a th e so n is a n
A n a lyst w ith in th e xxx
T a skfo rce .
TREATM ENT
B ria n T im m o n s is a n
A n a lyst w ith in th e xxx
T a skfo rce .
S im o n th e
Id e n tific a tio n A n a ly s t
B ria n T im m o n s is a n
A n a lyst w ith in th e xxx
T a skfo rce .
B ria n th e A n a ly s t
B ria n th e A n a ly s t
W EEK 1 – W EEK 4
W EEK 1
W EEK 7 – W EEK 11
Event 1
Event 5
Event 7
Event 11
E v e n t 1 5 – T w o W e e k s L a te r
Event 19
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
E v e n t 8 – O n e W e e k L a te r
E v e n t 1 2 – T w o W e e k s L a te r
Event 16
E v e n t 2 0 – O n e W e e k L a te r
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
Event 3
Event 9
Event 13
Event 17
Event 21
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
Event 4
Event 10
Event 14
E v e n t 1 8 – O n e W e e k L a te r
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
REFERRAL
E S C A L A T IO N
xxxx
Event 2
IN T E L L IG E N C E M A N A G E M E N T
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
EVENT
1
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
J15
J16
J17
J18
J19
J20
J21
C O R E B U S IN E S S – s y s te m s a n d to o ls u s in g th e In te llig e n c e M a n a g e m e n t fra m e w o rk to s u p p o rt o u r d e c is io n m a k in g
IN F O R M A T IO N / C O N T E N T / D O C U M E N T M A N A G E M E N T – a rc h ite c tu re a n d re p o s ito rie s c o m p ris in g th e In te llig e n c e M a n a g e m e n t fra m e w o rk
V E R S IO N 0 .9
QUESTIONS?
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KM 101 - Knowledge Audits and Mapping