Finding the World in
Washington State’s
Standards & Assessments
What the state should and can do to improve
international education
1
OVERVIEW

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What is international education and why should
the state support it?
What are our goals and how will we know if we
have achieved them?
What stands in our way and what trade-offs
must we make?
What are we currently doing and what could we
be doing better?
2
INTRODUCTION
What is international education and
why should the state support it?
3
Why is international education
important?
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NCSS Statement: Increased human interactions across borders
increases the potential for both cooperation and conflict.
 “The purpose of global education is to develop in youth
the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to live
effectively in a world possessing limited natural
resources and characterized by ethnic diversity, cultural
pluralism, and increasing interdependence.”
Adults’ understanding of the world often comes from their
secondary education
Participation in international education programs results in
greater global awareness and global concern.
World Affairs Council: “International education is basic
education.”
4
Reasons to be Concerned

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Many schools offer less instruction in about the
world today than they did in the past. This
decline is attributable to many of the recent
school reform programs, including the emphasis
on instruction and basic skills testing.
Minimal training of teachers in how to integrate
the world in their lessons.
5
Global Literacy
“Roughly two-thirds (65%) of those
with moderate or low interest in
international news say they
sometimes lose interest in these
stories because they lack the
background information to keep
up.”
- Pew Research Center
SOURCE: Nancy Bacon, World Affairs Council
6
OUR MEASURES OF
SUCCESS
What are our goals and how will we
know if we have achieved them?
7
Czarra’s Checklist, Part I
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What should students know and be able to do if they are to be
considered globally and internationally fluent?
What is the current state of international and global education in the
United States?
How can policymakers assess global and international education
efforts within their own schools, school districts, or states?
How can education policymakers create structures that support the
strengthening of a global and international perspective without
overwhelming current resources?
What policy mechanisms can be used to support the global and
international literacy of students within the current context of
standards and accountability?
Can these policies be used in such a way as to not overwhelm the
current standards and assessment systems?
8
Czarra’s Checklist, Part II
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Do students study and are they aware of global issues and
complexities?
Have students studied at least one other culture?
Do students have a general geographical, cultural, and historical
knowledge?
Do students study a foreign language or engage in cultural
exchanges?
Do students know and understand that cultures cross national
boundaries?
Can students recognize, analyze, and evaluate major events
and trends in American and world history and examine
how these events and trends connect to their own lives,
local communities, and the United States?
Are all of these goals of equal importance? Which are our
priorities?
9
Banks’ Recommendations
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Balancing Diversity and Unity
New Conception of Citizenship Education:
Multicultural Citizenship (Avoid cultural
hegemony & Balkanization)
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“Maintain attachments to their cultural communities as well
as participate effectively in the shared national culture.”
Students should feel the need to take action as
citizens to help solve the world’s difficult global
problems.
How can the state promote attachments to cultural
communities?
10
Today’s Survey Questions

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What are the 3 primary obstacles in the way of
addressing the international knowledge and skills gap
in the schools and educational institutions in our
state?
What recommendations do you have for overcoming
these obstacles?
What kinds of educational resources do you need to
promote international education where you engage
the community?
How important is it for Washington state to address
these issues?
How will our plan meet pedagogical goals while
addressing administrative & political constraints?
11
How will students show that they are ready to be citizens
in an international community? - CBA Scope & Sequence
12
How will students show that they are ready to
be citizens in an international community?
Students will…
 write research papers on events in Washington State,
US, & World History
 defend a position on a controversial issue using their
understanding of the Constitution and international
human rights
 analyze the economic effects of scarcity on
communities from around the world.
 investigate and propose solutions to environmental
problems
13
CHALLENGES
WE FACE
What stands in our way and what
trade-offs must we make?
14
Competing Reasons for International
Education

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Prepare students to help solve problems that
cross national borders (e.g. nuclear proliferation)
Prepare students to compete and thrive in an
economy linked to other countries (e.g. careers
for the 21st century)
Prepare students to live, work, and cooperate
with people from other nations (e.g. fair trade)
15
Persistent Tensions in Social Studies
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Depth & Breadth
Content & Skills
Social Sciences & History
Current Events & History
Chronology & Case Study & Themes
Global Perspective & National/Local Understanding
Western & Non-Western
Realism & Optimism
Focus on Commonalities & Differences
Time (180 days x 45 minutes = 135 hours per year)
16
WASHINGTON
STATE’S VISION FOR
INTERNATIONAL
EDUCATION
What are we currently doing and what
could we be doing better?
17
Other States’ Visions of
International Education
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Michigan, New York, & several other states mandate some form of global
education
Massachusetts: recently added new areas of the world in its standards
Geography is now taught in schools throughout the country. (due to pressure
from National Geographic Society)
World history is now a requirement for graduation in about 20 states, and in
many places where it is not a state graduation requirement, districts have
added their own world history mandates.
Only a handful of states have clear, thoughtful standards in world history.
only a handful of states have clear, thoughtful standards in world history.
Connecticut & Michigan: International Education Commissions
Wisconsin: universities provide content training for teacher exchange
programs; created network of global educators
Wisconsin: created “Planning Curriculum in International Education” – how
to internationalize every subject area
18
Quiz on EALRs & Assessments
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What is your favorite EALR?
Which subjects have EALRs?
What percentage of Social Studies EALRs make
explicit reference to places outside of the United
States? What percentage of Social Studies EALRs make
explicit reference to the United States?
How many state laws relate to international education?
How long has Washington had EALRs? How long have
we had the WASL?
19
The Czarra Checklist, Part III
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Policy Statement on International Education? Emerging
Full-Time Person Devoted to International Education? No
Certification: Includes Global Literacy? No
Study-Abroad Programs? (Teachers & Students) Yes
Global Concepts in Standards? Yes
World Language Standards? Future
Proficiency in World Languages for HS Students? No
International Assessment Organizations? Future?
Integration Across All Educational Levels? Future?
Instructional Materials: International Issues & Diversity? No!
Coordinate Efforts of International Ed & Business Orgs? Some
Regular Professional Development to Promote International
Education? Future?
Are all of these goals of equal importance? Which are our
priorities?
20
Emerging Vision for International Education
in the Washington State Social Studies
Program

Two main goals of social studies program
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Civic Efficacy = the ability for students to participate as engaged, informed
citizens in the world.
Social Understanding = the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to live
effectively in a world characterized by ethnic diversity and cultural pluralism
CURRICULUM
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Determining what is truly essential for students to know about the world
“Near and Far” : comparative approach encourages looking at the rest of the
world throughout K-12
Acknowledging a Trade-off
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Depth Over Breadth: A program to promote enduring understanding of essential
learning, not the mentioning of a laundry list of content items needed to avoid cultural
illiteracy
Enduring Understandings/Skills Over Memorization of Content
ASSESSMENT

The Pivotal Role of Assessment in Achieving our Goals for International
Education
21
OSPI, the Legislature, &
International Education
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The State’s 4 Educational Reform Goals
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Course Requirements
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Goal I:Read with comprehension, write with skill, and communicate
effectively and responsibly in a variety of ways and settings;
Goal II: Know and apply the core concepts and principles of
mathematics; social, physical, and life sciences; civics and history;
geography; arts; and health and fitness;
Goal III: Think analytically, logically, and creatively, and to integrate
experience and knowledge to form reasoned judgments and solve
problems; and
Goal IV: Understand the importance of work and how performance,
effort, and decisions directly affect future career and educational
opportunities.
US History, Washington State History, & Contemporary World Problems
International Education – several exchange programs
Are the goals of international education compatible with
the state’s education reform goals?
22
What makes international education
essential for all students?
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What international aspects of
students learn?
What international aspects of
students learn?
What international aspects of
all students learn?
What international aspects of
all students learn?
civics must all
history must all
geography must
economics must
23
The World in the EALRs – Explicit
& Implicit References
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Explicit References (see next four slides)
Implicit References: Virtually all of the EALRs
could include study of the world outside our
nation’s borders (social studies & other subject
areas)
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H2.1. Compare and contrast ideas in different places, time periods, and
cultures, and examine the interrelationships between ideas, change, and
conflict.
G3.3 Examine cultural characteristics, transmission, diffusion, and
interaction.
24
History EALRs
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H 1.3.2 Examine the development of different cultures in
Washington State, U.S., and world history
WH1.2.2 Compare and contrast elements of culture (e.g.,
society, government, economy, technology, arts, ideas, and
beliefs) in the following contexts: Ancient history (prehistory –
600): River civilizations, Greece, Rome, China World History
(600-1600): Medieval Europe/Renaissance, Islam, African
Kingdoms, Meso-America, Japan
WH1.2.3 Identify and analyze major concepts, people, and
events in world history from 1600 to the present including:·
Global expansion and encounter (1450-1770)· Age of
Revolutions (1750-1914)· Causes and consequences of WW1
and WWII (1870-1989)· Emergence and development of new
nations (1945-present)· Challenges to democracy and human
rights (1900-present)
25
What role should World History
play?
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Should students learn about the development of
world civilizations as they relate to the history of
the United States?
Should students learn about world history as it
relates to their own cultural background?
Should students only learn history that relates to
current problems?
Why is it essential for all students to learn world
history?
26
Civics EALRs
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C3.1 Understand how the world is organized
politically and how nations interact
C3.2 Recognize factors and roles that affect the
development of foreign policy by the United States
C 4.1 Understand individual rights and their
accompanying responsibilities including problemsolving and decision-making at the local, state,
national, and international level
C 4.2 Identify and demonstrate rights of United
States citizenship related to school, local, state,
national, and international issues
27
How should we teach Civics?

Should students learn to value our democratic
ideals?
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Should students learn to compare and contrast
our government with other governments and
weigh the pros and cons of each?
28
Geography EALRs
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G1.2.3a Explain why different places of the world
have particular physical and human characteristics
G2.3.2 Examine the Pacific Northwest as part of
the Pacific Rim region and describe similarities and
differences among Pacific Rim countries with
regard to oceans, landforms, trade, and culture
G2.3.3 Analyze how cultural and physical features
define the Pacific Rim as a region
29
How should we teach geography?

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Should students learn to memorize as many
countries, continents, and capitals as their brains
can hold?
Should they learn how the geography of various
regions affects how people live, work, govern
themselves, etc…?
30
“Despite the devastating 9/11 attacks on the
U.S. and the subsequent media spotlight on the
Middle East and Central Asia, 83% of young
Americans could not
find Afghanistan
on a world map.”
- National Geographic survey
SOURCE: Nancy Bacon, World Affairs Council
If students were able to correctly label a map of the Middle East & Central Asia,
what would that tell us about their ability to be responsible citizens? Should
locating places on a world map be a primary goal of international education?
How many places? Which places?
31
Economics EALRs
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E 2.3.3b Analyze how prices coordinate
production and exchange in domestic and
international markets
E2.4.1a Explain how various forms of
investment affect individuals and societies in
neighborhoods, communities, and countries
32
Economics EALRs
Should students learn to understand the
benefits of trade and capitalism?
OR
 Should they learn to compare and contrast
various economic systems evaluating the pros
and cons of each?

How should the EALRs be revised?
33
The World in the Social Studies
Frameworks
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Numerous explicit references to the cultures,
countries, and regions beyond our borders
Efforts to have students make regularly compare
and contrast what they know locally with people
and their experiences outside of the United
States
34
K-12 Scope & Sequence in the Social
Studies Frameworks
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K = Self (Near & Far; Now & Then)
1st = Home (Near & Far; Now & Then)
2nd = Neighborhood (Near & Far; Now & Then)
3rd = Community (Near & Far; Now & Then)
4th = Washington State History (local tribal history)
5th = US History (Colonial Period & Independence)
6th = Ancient Civilizations & World Geography
7th = World History (600-1600); Washington State History
8th = US History & Government (19th Century)
9 & 10th = World History (1600 to Present)
11th = US History & Government (20th Century)
12th = Contemporary World Problems
35
ASSESSMENT
How will we know if we have
succeeded?
36
The Role of Assessment
 Do
we need a state-mandated social
studies assessment to ensure that
students are learning about the rest of
the world?
37
What would a social studies assessment system
look like and how would it improve teaching
and learning?
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Classroom-Based Assessments (CBAs) at all 3
benchmarks.
Classroom-based assessments enable students to study
a topic deeply and present their understanding in a
more authentic, valid way.
An assessment system based on classroom-based
assessments would create a scope & sequence for
student learning of essential skills and conceptual
understandings.
38
CBA Scope & Sequence
C ivics
P ublic
C ontroversial
E conom ics
G overnm ent and E conom ic Factors
G eography
E conom ic
Its Functions
S ystem s
Issues
H istory
H um an
S patial
H um an-
H istorical
H istorical
M ovem ent:
R elationships
E nvironm ental
R esearch P roject
Interpretation
C ulture & the
Interactions
E nvironm ent
The Tasks
S tudents w ill…
E lem entary
S tudents w ill…
S tudents w ill…
S tudents w ill…
Form ulate their own D evelop a bill and
E xplain the
D em onstrate ways Trace the
positions on a
econom ic effects of in which people
take it through the
S tudents w ill…
m ovem ent of a
S tudents w ill…
S tudents w ill…
C om pare and
D eterm ine how the C onstruct a thesis
contrast the spatial environm ent
S tudents w ill…
about an issue,
S tudents w ill…
U se artifacts to
construct a written
public controversial law m aking process scarcity on
m eet econom ic
people and explain arrangem ent of two influences the
person, problem , or historical account.
issue.
developm ent of
event using
evaluating the
individuals and
needs and wants
the causes and
different cultures.
purpose of the bill.
com m unitiesin
individually and
effects of that
culture and how
evidence from
W ashington.
collectively
m ovem ent.
hum ans im pact
sources.
their environm ent.
M iddle
S chool
Form ulate their own E valuate how
E xplain the causes C om pare and
S elect a current or
Illustrate how
Investigate two
C onstruct a thesis
U se artifacts to
positions on a
and effects of a
historical culture
people could
groups of people
about an issue,
construct a
checks, balances,
contrast the
public controversial and core
current or historical m ethods two
and describe the
develop in an area
living in sim ilar
person, problem , or coherent historical
issue addressing
econom ic problem . historical or
interrelationships
given to them on a
environm ents and
event using
constitutional rights, are represented in
dem ocratic values
contem porary
am ong the
m ap
determ ine the
evidence from
and responsibilities. a current or
societies (in
m ovem ent of
relationship
sources.
historical, state or
W ashington S tate) peoples, goods,
between hum ans
federal event.
have used to m eet and the natural
and the
the sam e econom ic environm ent.
environm ent.
interpretation
needs
H igh S chool
Form ulate positions A nalyze an event
E xplain the
C om pare and
E xplain hum an
on an issue
involving checks
econom ic factors
contrast several
addressing
and balances -
of an econom ic
different econom ic
constitutional
evaluating the
A nalyze how two
Identify a problem
C onstruct a thesis
U se artifacts to
settlem ent patterns regions cooperate
related to the
about an issue,
construct a
related to an issue
and conflict with
hum an im pact on
person, problem , or historical
event using
problem , and
system s and
and evaluate the
each other based
the environm ent
issues, court cases, philosophical
com pare and
identify an ideal sy
im pact of the
on spatial patterns
propose a solution . evidence from
and governm ent
contrast potential
stem .
environm ent.
policy.
im plications.
solutions.
sources.
interpretation and
m ake new historical
insights.
39
Why Classroom-Based Assessments?

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CBAs enable students to demonstrate that they have met
the Essential Academic Learning Requirements at the 5th,
8th, and high school benchmarks in an authentic, valid way.
The CBA models have been developed by teachers and
thus, serve to empower the profession.
CBAs promote flexibility and creativity in the classroom
while ensuring accountability to the EALRs.
CBAs seek to promote best practices in Social Studies
(History Day, Model UN, Project Citizen, International
Baccalaureate)
CBAs seek to minimize the administrative burden put on
districts and schools.
40
Which is a better way to assess students’
understanding of world history? –
What is essential?


NAEP Question:
 The opening of diplomatic relations between the United States and China's
communist government occurred during the presidential administration
of A) Harry S Truman B) John F. Kennedy C) Lyndon B. Johnson D) Richard
M. Nixon
Classroom-Based Assessment Prompt
 By the end of 11th grade, students will identify a conflict and use what they have
learned in social studies to examine the causes and effects of the conflict. In this
examination, students will identify:




Participants
Time and place in which conflict occurred
Basic causes of the conflict
The student will use inquiry and information skills, critical thinking skills
and group process skills to examine and analyze the conflict through the
four social studies factors: history, geography, civics, and economics. The
student will complete an essay to argue which factor was the dominant
influence in the conflict using evidence from each of the four strands to
support her/his position. The final essay will include a timeline and a
visual display (map, graph, chart, etc.) that help to illustrate the conflict
and support the thesis.
41
Which is a better way to assess students’
understanding of civics? –
What is essential?

NAEP Question:


Two countries both claim that an island in the Pacific Ocean belongs to them. The countries
are preparing to go to war with each other over this issue. What is the United Nations able to
do to help end the conflict? A) Send weapons to both sidesB) Disarm the militaries of both
countries C) Arrange for diplomatic negotiations between the two countriesD) Force all
other countries to stop trading with the two countries
Classroom-Based Assessment Prompt
By the end of 8th grade students will…
 Select a controversial national or international issue relating to our democratic ideals (liberty,
justice, equality, life, common good, rule by law, pursuit of happiness, diversity, popular
sovereignty).
 Identify and gather information on the different viewpoints on the issue.
 Identify the rights and responsibilities of people with different points of view in addressing the
issue.
 Summarize the various points of view and then civilly critique those viewpoints in a public forum
 Describe one way to resolve the issue in a way that balances individual rights with the common
good.
 Write a personal position paper on the issue and argue that the position is worthy of thoughtful
consideration using evidence and data from the research
 Form your own opinion on the issue
 Present a written persuasive position statement supported with evidence.
42
Which is a better way to assess students’
understanding of geography? –
What is essential?

NAEP Question:


When the warm ocean current El Niño replaces the cooler Peruvian, or
Humboldt, current along the coast of Peru, the supplies of anchovies on which
sea birds feed decrease. As a result, the number of sea birds roosting on the
coastal islands decreases.
15. In Peru, the developments described have an impact on A) the money
earned from tourists who visit its beaches B) the ability of ships to dock at its
ports C) warm weather in coastal areas D) the export of anchovies
Classroom-Based Assessment Prompt:

By the end of 11th grade, the student will independently investigate the
complexities and interdependencies inherent in the relationship between human
and natural systems. They will identify a problem or issue relative to the human
impact on the environment. They will compare and contrast the responses to the
issue/problem of at least two different cultural perspectives. They will propose a
solution and/or predict the future development of the situation, consistent with
both sets of cultural values and institutions, if left unresolved. Students will
present their findings in an oral or written presentation.
Which assessment is more reliable? Which is more valid?
Are both measures equally important?
43
Which is a better way to assess students’
understanding of economics? –
What is essential?

NAEP Question:
Why are businesses in two different countries most likely to trade with each other?
 A. They know that although one business will be hurt from trading, the other will
be better
 off, and they both hope to be the winner.
 B. Businesses are unable to sell their products in their own countries.
 C. Each business expects to be better off as a result of the trade.
 D. Their respective governments require them to do so.

Classroom-Based Assessment Prompt

The student will identify, research, and explain the economic factors that have
contributed to a current or historical economic problem, and compare and
contrast potential solutions. Students will present a cost/benefit analysis of each
potential solution, identify a realistic solution, and defend that solution in a poster,
speech, written paper, or some other mode of presentation appropriate for the
complexity of the work.
44
CBA Scope & Sequence
C ivics
P ublic
C ontroversial
E conom ics
G overnm ent and E conom ic Factors
G eography
E conom ic
Its Functions
S ystem s
Issues
H istory
H um an
S patial
H um an-
H istorical
H istorical
M ovem ent:
R elationships
E nvironm ental
R esearch P roject
Interpretation
C ulture & the
Interactions
E nvironm ent
The Tasks
S tudents w ill…
E lem entary
S tudents w ill…
S tudents w ill…
S tudents w ill…
Form ulate their own D evelop a bill and
E xplain the
D em onstrate ways Trace the
positions on a
econom ic effects of in which people
take it through the
S tudents w ill…
m ovem ent of a
S tudents w ill…
S tudents w ill…
C om pare and
D eterm ine how the C onstruct a thesis
contrast the spatial environm ent
S tudents w ill…
about an issue,
S tudents w ill…
U se artifacts to
construct a written
public controversial law m aking process scarcity on
m eet econom ic
people and explain arrangem ent of two influences the
person, problem , or historical account.
issue.
developm ent of
event using
evaluating the
individuals and
needs and wants
the causes and
different cultures.
purpose of the bill.
com m unitiesin
individually and
effects of that
culture and how
evidence from
W ashington.
collectively
m ovem ent.
hum ans im pact
sources.
their environm ent.
M iddle
S chool
Form ulate their own E valuate how
E xplain the causes C om pare and
S elect a current or
Illustrate how
Investigate two
C onstruct a thesis
U se artifacts to
positions on a
and effects of a
historical culture
people could
groups of people
about an issue,
construct a
checks, balances,
contrast the
public controversial and core
current or historical m ethods two
and describe the
develop in an area
living in sim ilar
person, problem , or coherent historical
issue addressing
econom ic problem . historical or
interrelationships
given to them on a
environm ents and
event using
constitutional rights, are represented in
dem ocratic values
contem porary
am ong the
m ap
determ ine the
evidence from
and responsibilities. a current or
societies (in
m ovem ent of
relationship
sources.
historical, state or
W ashington S tate) peoples, goods,
between hum ans
federal event.
have used to m eet and the natural
and the
the sam e econom ic environm ent.
environm ent.
interpretation
needs
H igh S chool
Form ulate positions A nalyze an event
E xplain the
C om pare and
E xplain hum an
on an issue
involving checks
econom ic factors
contrast several
addressing
and balances -
of an econom ic
different econom ic
constitutional
evaluating the
A nalyze how two
Identify a problem
C onstruct a thesis
U se artifacts to
settlem ent patterns regions cooperate
related to the
about an issue,
construct a
related to an issue
and conflict with
hum an im pact on
person, problem , or historical
event using
problem , and
system s and
and evaluate the
each other based
the environm ent
issues, court cases, philosophical
com pare and
identify an ideal sy
im pact of the
on spatial patterns
propose a solution . evidence from
and governm ent
contrast potential
stem .
environm ent.
policy.
im plications.
solutions.
sources.
interpretation and
m ake new historical
insights.
45
Limitations of OSPI’s Role

Locally controlled state



Importance of In-Service Training
Need more information



For Professional Development
What OSPI cannot do



Where are languages being taught?
How are schools meeting the EALRs related to the rest of the world?
Resources


Contemporary World Problems can be interpreted many different ways
Cannot politically advocate
Cannot implement state curriculum adoption
No Child Left Behind: 43% of students are in schools that did
not meet Adequate Yearly Progress
46
Next Steps




Classroom-Based Assessment Development &
Implementation
Grade Level Expectations
Coordination with Groups Creating
Instructional Materials
Data Collection on International Education in
Washington State
47
The Importance of Unity Among the
State’s Social Studies Advocates
Financial Literacy
Holocaust Education
Environmental Education
History Day
Geography Education
International Education
Civic Education
CBAs
?
48
The Importance of Unity Among the
State’s Social Studies Advocates
READING
SCIENCE
The Arts
MATHEMATICS
Health/Fitness
HEALTH CARE
THE ECONOMY
CHILD CARE
Social Studies
WRITING
Technical Education
CORRECTIONS
49
Ideas? Answers?
Contact Information
 [email protected]
 (360) 725-6351
 www.k12.wa.us/curriculuminstruct/SocStudies
 Washington State Council for Social Studies
listserv:

www.learningspace.org/socialstudies
50
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Finding the World in the EALRs