Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) Collaborative Learning (CL) Learning is; Dependent on socially structured exchange of information in groups. Motivated to increase the learning of others. Also connected to individual accountability. History U.S. Educator John Dewey is credited with prompting the idea of cooperation on regular and systematic basis. CLL prompted in 1960s and 1970s as a response to typical classroom groups. How cooperative groups differ from typical classroom groups? In typical groups; One leader is chosen by the teacher. Groups are homogenious in nature. Each member has his/her own product. Priority is get the job done. In cooperative groups; Leadership is shared by all members. Group members are chosen randomly. All members have one single product. Priority is get the job done with social skills and by the help of every member. Benefits of CLL Raise the achievements of all the students. Positive relationships among students. Healty social, psychological and cognitive development. Cooperation rather than competition Positive interdependence. Face to face interaction. Individual accountability. Social skill development. In Second Language Teaching Learning is through communicative interaction in the classroom. Extension of CLT. Learning is learnercentered, not teacherfronted. Thory of Language CLL has some basic premises on the interactive/cooperative nature of language. There are 5 basic premises. 1) born to talk 2) conversation 3) maxims 4) learning of L1 maxims 5) learning of L2 maxims Theory of Learning Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky social interaction in learning. Critical thinking Question Matrix CLL also emphasizes cooperation rather than competition in learning. Advantages of CLL in ESL Classrooms; Frequency and variety in second language practice. Possibility for developing and increasing language skills Chance for students to act as resources for each other. Freedom for teachers to develope new skills and activities. Positive social attitude Social support in learning DESIGN The objectives of the CLL To develop critical thinking skills. To develop communicative competence through interaction activities. Syllabus Cll doesn’t assume any particular form of language syllabus since activities can be taught via cooperative learning. Cll is the systematic and carefully planned use of group based procedures thus Cll is an alternative to teacher-fronted teaching. Types of learnig and teaching activities Formal cooperative learning groups ensure that students are actively part of the work of organizing material, explaining it, knowing the summary it, and integrating it into conceptual structures. Informal cooperative learning groups ensure that students are cognitively processing the material being taught. Cooperative base groups: The primary purpose is to give members the support, help, encouragement, and assistance so that each can progress successfully. The success of CLL is crucially dependent on the nature and organization of group work and thanks to the well-designed program in which the elements of CLL is implemented carefully, the students have chance to interact with each other and they are motivated to increase each other’s learning. So when we look at a successful group based learning in CL we will see Positive Interdependence Group formation Individual accountability Social skills Structuring and structures Positive interdependence happens when group members realize that their success is linked with each other. If everybody is ok in the group, the group will be successful. Group formation is an important factor in creating positive interdependence. In group formation: *size of the group, *assigning students to groups, and *students roles in the group is important. Individual accountability exists when the performance of each individual is assessed and the results are given back to the group and the individual in order to determine who needs more assistance, support, and encouragement in learning Social skills determine the way students interact with each other as teammates. Structuring and Structures refer to ways of organizing students interaction The teachers can enable students different interaction ways in the group. Learner’s Roles Learning working cooperatively Directing their own learning (compilation lifelong learning) PLAN-MONITOR-EVALUATE ** in pair working learner’s roles alternate as -tutors -checkers -recorders -information sharers Teachers’ Roles *Setting goals * planning ad structuring tasks * establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom *assigning the students to pairs As a facilitator: Interacts Teaches Refocuses Questions Clarifies Supports Expands Celebrates Empathizes Depending on the problem evolve •Gives feedback •Redirecting the group •Encourage the group t solve their own problems •Extending activity •Encourage thinking •Managing conflict •Observing students •Supplying sources Johnson et al sums teachers’ roles up as follows: Structuring the lesson, curriculum and sources cooperatively. Designing the lesson according to the unique instructional needs, circumstances, curricula and students. Diagnosing the problems in groups and intervening for effectiveness. Role of the Instructional Materials Thanks to the materials students can work cooperatively Same materials can be used but variations are required For students working in groups one set of materials is needed for each. Procedure E.g. of carrying a cooperative writing lesson out: 1) Teacher assigns the students to pairs. 2) Students tell each other what they are planning to write. Student a listens to student B’s ideas and they discuss it. The student A outlines B’s ideas and gives him/her its written form. 3) The same procedure reversed for student B’s ideas. 4) Students research materials for their own writings. 5) Students work together to write the introduction. This is to ensure that they have a clear start. 6) Students write their compositions individually. 7) After completing the compositions each student check his/her pair’s composition making corrections and giving suggestions. 8) Students revise their own composition considering the pair’s corrections and suggestions. 9) Students read their pair’s composition again and sign their names to ensure that it is error free. Conclusion Discussion groups, group work and pair work are useful in all learning. These kinds of activities are used to increase the participation. However, such activities are not necessarily cooperative. In CLL, these activities carefully planned to maximize interaction and contribution to each other’s learning. CLL can be used with other teaching methods and approaches. CLL has been researched and evaluated more than most language teaching proposals. And research findings are generally supportive. However CLL is criticized for its use with learners of different proficiency levels. In addition CLL teachers have much to do in classroom environment.