Cooperative Language Learning (CLL)
Collaborative Learning (CL)
 Learning is;
 Dependent on socially
structured exchange of
information in groups.
 Motivated to increase
the learning of others.
 Also connected to
 U.S. Educator John
Dewey is credited with
prompting the idea of
cooperation on regular
and systematic basis.
 CLL prompted in 1960s
and 1970s as a response
to typical classroom
How cooperative groups differ
from typical classroom groups?
 In typical groups;
 One leader is chosen by
the teacher.
 Groups are
homogenious in nature.
 Each member has
his/her own product.
 Priority is get the job
 In cooperative groups;
 Leadership is shared by
all members.
 Group members are
chosen randomly.
 All members have one
single product.
 Priority is get the job
done with social skills
and by the help of every
Benefits of CLL
 Raise the achievements
of all the students.
Positive relationships
among students.
Healty social,
psychological and
cognitive development.
Cooperation rather than
Face to face interaction.
 Individual accountability.
 Social skill development.
In Second Language Teaching
 Learning is through
communicative interaction
in the classroom.
 Extension of CLT.
 Learning is learnercentered, not teacherfronted.
Thory of Language
 CLL has some basic premises on the
interactive/cooperative nature of language.
 There are 5 basic premises.
 1) born to talk
 2) conversation
 3) maxims
 4) learning of L1 maxims
 5) learning of L2 maxims
Theory of Learning
 Jean Piaget and Lev
Vygotsky  social
interaction in learning.
 Critical thinking 
Question Matrix
CLL also emphasizes cooperation rather than
competition in learning.
 Advantages of CLL in ESL
 Frequency and variety in second
language practice.
 Possibility for developing and
increasing language skills
 Chance for students to act as
resources for each other.
 Freedom for teachers to develope
new skills and activities.
 Positive social attitude
 Social support in learning
 The objectives of the CLL
 To develop critical thinking skills.
 To develop communicative competence through
interaction activities.
 Syllabus
 Cll doesn’t assume any particular form of language
syllabus since activities can be taught via cooperative
 Cll is the systematic and carefully planned use of group
based procedures thus Cll is an alternative to
teacher-fronted teaching.
Types of learnig and teaching activities
 Formal cooperative learning groups ensure that
students are actively part of the work of organizing
material, explaining it, knowing the summary it, and
integrating it into conceptual structures.
 Informal cooperative learning groups ensure that
students are cognitively processing the material being
 Cooperative base groups: The primary purpose is to
give members the support, help, encouragement, and
assistance so that each can progress successfully.
 The success of CLL is crucially dependent on the
nature and organization of group work and thanks to
the well-designed program in which the elements of
CLL is implemented carefully, the students have
chance to interact with each other and they are
motivated to increase each other’s learning.
 So when we look at a successful group based learning
in CL we will see
 Positive Interdependence
 Group formation
 Individual accountability
 Social skills
 Structuring and structures
 Positive interdependence happens when group
members realize that their success is linked with each
other. If everybody is ok in the group, the group will be
 Group formation is an important factor in creating
positive interdependence.
 In group formation:
 *size of the group, *assigning students to groups, and
*students roles in the group is important.
 Individual accountability exists when the
performance of each individual is assessed and the
results are given back to the group and the individual
in order to determine who needs more assistance,
support, and encouragement in learning
 Social skills determine the way students interact with
each other as teammates.
 Structuring and Structures refer to ways of
organizing students interaction
The teachers can enable students different interaction ways in
the group.
Learner’s Roles
Learning working cooperatively
Directing their own learning (compilation lifelong
** in pair working learner’s roles alternate as
-information sharers
Teachers’ Roles
 *Setting goals
 * planning ad structuring tasks
 * establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom
 *assigning the students to pairs
 As a facilitator:
Depending on the
problem evolve
•Gives feedback
•Redirecting the group
•Encourage the group t solve their
own problems
•Extending activity
•Encourage thinking
•Managing conflict
•Observing students
•Supplying sources
 Johnson et al sums teachers’ roles up as follows:
 Structuring the lesson, curriculum and sources
 Designing the lesson according to the unique
instructional needs, circumstances, curricula and
 Diagnosing the problems in groups and intervening
for effectiveness.
Role of the Instructional Materials
 Thanks to the materials students can work
 Same materials can be used but variations are required
 For students working in groups one set of materials is
needed for each.
 E.g. of carrying a cooperative writing lesson out:
 1) Teacher assigns the students to pairs.
 2) Students tell each other what they are planning to write. Student a
listens to student B’s ideas and they discuss it. The student A outlines
B’s ideas and gives him/her its written form.
3) The same procedure reversed for student B’s ideas.
4) Students research materials for their own writings.
5) Students work together to write the introduction. This is to ensure
that they have a clear start.
6) Students write their compositions individually.
7) After completing the compositions each student check his/her pair’s
composition making corrections and giving suggestions.
8) Students revise their own composition considering the pair’s
corrections and suggestions.
9) Students read their pair’s composition again and sign their names to
ensure that it is error free.
 Discussion groups, group work and pair work are useful in all
learning. These kinds of activities are used to increase the
participation. However, such activities are not necessarily
cooperative. In CLL, these activities carefully planned to
maximize interaction and contribution to each other’s learning.
 CLL can be used with other teaching methods and approaches.
 CLL has been researched and evaluated more than most
language teaching proposals. And research findings are generally
 However CLL is criticized for its use with learners of different
proficiency levels. In addition CLL teachers have much to do in
classroom environment.

Cooperative Language Learning