Classroom
Instruction
that Works:
9 Strategies
for Successful
Student
Learning
Presenter:
Dr. Lori Langer
de Ramírez
[email protected]
www.MisCositas.com
Introductions…
1. What’s in a name?
2. “One thing you
wouldn’t know
about me just
by looking…”
Lori – named after mom’s student
Langer – from Dad
Ramirez – from my husband
de – I’m old-fashioned, I guess!
? – I write books in my spare time…
How is our SCHOOL world changing?
Individual effort…
56%
56%
…vs. cooperative learning and collaboration…
The uses of technology…
56%
21st Century Skills
• thinking critically
• solving complex,
multidisciplinary,
open-ended
problems
• creativity
• entrepreneurial
thinking
• innovative use
of knowledge, information & opportunities
21st Century Skills
Communicating and
collaborating with
teams of people
across cultural,
geographic and
language boundaries
Research-Based Instruction
• Robert Marzano,
Debra Pickering,
and Jane Pollock
reviewed hundreds
of studies on
instructional
practices that have
proven to effect
student
achievement.
9 Essential Strategies (Part 1)
1. Identifying Similarities and Differences
2. Summarizing and Note Taking
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing
Recognition
4. Homework and Practice…
9 Essential Strategies (Part 2)
5. Nonlinguistic Representations
6. Cooperative Learning
7. Setting Objectives and Providing
Feedback
8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
9. Cues, Questions, & Advance Organizers
Identifying Similarities and Differences
• Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying
similarities and differences enhances students’
understanding of and ability to use knowledge.
• Asking students
to independently
identify similarities
and differences
enhances students’
understanding of
and ability to use
knowledge.
Identifying Similarities and
Differences
• Representing similarities and differences in graphic or
symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and
ability to use knowledge.
• Identification of
similarities and
differences can
be accomplished
in a variety of
ways. The
identification of
similarities and
differences is a highly
engaging activity.
Suggested Teaching Strategies:
Identifying Similarities and Differences
• COMPARING: the process of identifying similarities and
differences between or among things or ideas
Comparing with a Comparison Matrix
Suggested Teaching Strategies:
Identifying Similarities and Differences
• CLASSIFYING: the process of grouping things that are alike
into categories on the basis of their characteristics
Classifying with a Web Format
Suggested Teaching Strategies:
Identifying Similarities and Differences
• CREATING METAPHORS: identifying a general or basic
pattern in a specific topic and then finding another topic that
appears to be different but has the same pattern
Suggested Teaching Strategies:
Identifying Similarities and Differences
• CREATING
ANALOGIES—
identifying relationships
between pairs of
concepts, identifying
relationships between
relationships
Identifying Similarities and Differences: Try it!
What items do you want to compare? What characteristics do you want to compare?
How are the items similar and different based on the characteristics?
Characteristics
Things
To be
Compared
Place an 'X' in the box to indicate if an item possesses that characteristic.
How are they alike? How are they different?
Summarizing and Note Taking
• To effectively summarize, students
must delete some information,
substitute some information, and
keep some information.
• To effectively delete, substitute, and
keep information, students must
analyze the information thoroughly.
• Being aware of the explicit structure
of information is an aid to
summarizing information.
• Provide opportunities for students to
summarize key content.
• Teach students how to process
information for their own note taking.
Summarizing and Note Taking: Use summary frames and
other organizers to assist students who learn visually.
Summarizing and Note Taking: Sequencing Events
Summarizing and Note Taking:
Informal outlines and webbing
Suggested Teaching Strategies:
Rule-Based Summarizing
• Summary Rule # 1: Use the Single Strike Out To take
out material that is not important for your understanding.
• Summary Rule # 2: Use the Double Strike Out To
take out words that repeat information.
• Summary Rule # 3: Replace lists of things with one
word that describes the things in the list (example:
replace ‘apples, oranges, and limes’ with ‘fruit’)
Highlight these words in red.
• Summary Rule # 4: Find the topic sentence, and
change the word color to green. If you can’t find the
topic sentence, make one up and change to green.
Summarizing and Note-Taking: Try It!
Here’s What, So What, Now What
This is a great way to help students summarize a reading, a news
article, and generate a discussion of information to help you plan for
instruction. Ask students to write about their thoughts and share
with another person or group:
Here’s What: Describe one very important concept/skills that
you learned during this lesson.
So What:
How can you practice or use this concept/skill
so you will know that you understand and
remember it.
Now What:
How can you use this concept/skill to help you
in the classroom?
Reinforcing Effort
and Providing Recognition
• Not all students realize the
importance of believing in effort.
• Students can learn to change
their beliefs to an emphasis
on effort.
• Rewards do not necessarily
have a negative effect on
intrinsic motivation.
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
• Reward is most effective when it is contingent on
the attainment of
some standard
of performance.
• Abstract symbolic
recognition is more
effective than
tangible rewards.
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
What are some subject-specific ways to reinforce effort
and provide recognition for your students?
Homework and Practice
• The purpose of homework should be identified
and articulated.
• Establish and
communicate a
homework policy.
• Design homework
assignments that clearly
articulate the purpose
and outcome.
Homework and Practice
• Parent involvement in homework should be
kept to a minimum.
Homework and Practice
• If homework is assigned,
it should be commented on.
• Vary the
approaches
to providing
feedback
on homework
assignments.
What is your homework policy?
Nonlinguistic Representations
• Nonlinguistic representations
should elaborate on the preexisting knowledge or the
newly introduced knowledge.
• A variety of activities to
produce nonlinguistic
representations should be
used…
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Creating graphic representations
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Making physical models
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Generating mental pictures
When you read or listen to others
read, you should paint pictures in
your head. Imagine
sizes, and
colors,
.
Consider all the details and paint
a picture in your imagination.
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Drawing pictures and pictographs
Nonlinguistic Representations:
Engaging in kinesthetic activities
What are some nonlinguistic activities
that connect to your subject area?
Generating
mental
pictures
Making
physical
models
Drawing pictures
and pictographs
Engaging in
kinesthetic activities
Creating graphic
representations
through organizers
Cooperative Learning
• Organizing groups based on ability should be
done sparingly.
– Students of low
ability perform worse
when they are placed
in homogeneous groups.
– Students of high ability
perform only marginally
better when
homogeneously grouped.
– Middle ability students
benefit most.
Cooperative Learning
• Tasks given to cooperative groups
should be well structured.
• If students do not have sufficient
time to practice skills independently,
cooperative learning is being
overused.
• Cooperative groups
should be kept
small in size—3 or
4 members.
• Cooperative
learning should be
applied consistently
and systematically,
but not overused.
Working in groups of three…
Partner #1 should share
with the group some
Cooperative Learning
activities that you
have used/or would like to
use in your subject area.
Partner #2 should
take notes about
what Partner #1 shares.
Using the notes, Partner #3
should tell a member from
another group about the
Cooperative Learning
activities that were shared.
Setting Objectives
and Providing Feedback
• Instructional goals narrow a students’
focus.
• Instructional goals should not be too
specific.
– Goals stated in behavioral objective format
are not as effective as goals stated in more
general formats.
Setting Objectives
and Providing Feedback
• Students should
be encouraged
to personalize
the teacher’s
goals, adapting
them to their
personal needs
and desires.
Setting Objectives
and Providing Feedback
• Feedback should be
corrective in nature.
• The best feedback
shows students what is
accurate and what is
not.
• Asking students to
keep working on a task
until they succeed
appears to enhance
student achievement.
Setting Objectives and Providing
Feedback
• Feedback should be
specific to a criterion,
telling students where
they stand relative to a
specific target of
knowledge or skill.
• Students can
effectively provide
some of their own
feedback.
Setting Objectives
and Providing Feedback
• Feedback should be timely.
– The larger the delay in giving feedback, the less
improvement one will see.
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback:
Create your own rubric
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
• Hypotheses generation and testing can be approached in a more
inductive or deductive manner.
– Inductive:
use general rules
to make prediction
about specific event.
– Deductive:
specific pieces
of information lead
to general conclusion.
• Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses
and their conclusions.
Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
problem-solving opportunities
Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
Invention
http://www.inventionatplay.org
Generating and Testing Hypotheses: Teaching strategies
Generating and
Testing Hypotheses:
Teaching strategies
Use of decision
making
http://kids.mysterynet.com/
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
How do these strategies fit into your
curriculum?
 system analysis
 problem solving
 decision making
 historical investigation
 experimental inquiry
 invention
Cues, Questions,
and Advance Organizers
• Cues, questions, and
advanced organizers
should focus on what is
important as opposed to
what is unusual.
• “Higher level” questions
or advanced organizers
produce deeper learning
than “lower level”
questions or advanced
organizers.
Cues, Questions,
and Advance Organizers
Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a
learning experience.
Cues, Questions,
and Advance Organizers
Waiting” briefly before accepting responses
from students has the effect of increasing
the depth of students’ answers.
What does Bloom’s look like in your classroom?
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