Get Motivated with Marzano:
High Yield Instructional Strategies
Dr. Vicki Maddox
January 6, 2010
Adapted from the Presentation of Dr. Carol Harle, National Dropout Prevention Conference, San Antonio, TX
1
Objectives
By the end of the session you will...
 examine research-based instructional
strategies that affect student
achievement
 identify various methods for teaching
these strategies
 determine which strategies you will
incorporate in your classroom
practice.
Research
 Robert
Marzano, Debra Pickering,
Jane Pollock
 From books, Classroom Instruction
That Works & The Handbook for
Classroom Instruction that Works
 Identified nine instructional strategies
that are most likely to improve
student achievement across all
content areas and across all grade
levels
Why Marzano?
“When I die I hope it occurs during a lecture because
the transition from life to death will be so slight that I
will hardly notice it.” …Mark Twain
The #1 Reason Students
Drop-Out: Boredom resulting
from ineffective, antiquated
teaching strategies
-Pedro Noguera, Ph.D.
Author of Unfinished
Business: Closing the
Achievement Gap In Our
Schools, 2006
4
The Students’ Point of View
Zits by Jerry Scott and Jim Borgman
4
The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts
(Gates Foundation, 2006)

50 percent of 470 dropouts surveyed said they left school because their
classes were boring and not relevant to their lives or career aspirations.

A majority indicated that schools did not motivate them to work hard, and
more than half dropped out with just two years or less to complete their
high school education.

Two-thirds of those surveyed indicated that they would have worked
harder to graduate if their schools had demanded more of them and
provided the necessary academic and personal supports to help them
succeed.
6
Why Marzano?

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"So our environment, including the classroom environment, is not a neutral place. We educators
are either growing dendrites or letting them wither and die. The trick is to determine what
constitutes an enriched environment. The brain has not evolved to its present condition by
taking in meaningless data; an enriched environment gives students an opportunity to
make sense out of what they are learning, what some call the opportunity to "make
meaning.“
The brain is essentially curious and it must be to survive. It constantly seeks connections
between the new and the known. Learning is a process of active construction by the
learner and enrichment gives students the opportunity to relate what they are learning to
what they already know. As noted educator Phil Schlechty says, "Students must do the
work of learning.”
The brain is innately social and collaborative. Although the processing takes place in our
students independent brains, their learning is enhanced when the environment provides them
with the opportunity to discuss their thinking out loud to bounce their ideas off their
peers and to produce collaborative work.
-What Do We Know from Brian Research? by Pat Wolfe and Ron Brandt
7
Written Curriculum – The “What”
State/National Standards
i.e. Tennessee Curriculum Standards
Deep Curriculum Alignment
> Student Learning
Taught Curriculum
“The How?”
•Marzano’s 9+1
i.e. Cooperative
Learning, Summarization
Tested Curriculum
“What Was
Learned?”
•Assessments/Tests,
i.e. Goal Setting “Charts”
- F. English and B. Steffy (2001)
8
Oh Yea, Accountability
School
Year
Reading/LA
Math
Attendance
2010-2011
2012-2013
94%
93%
93%
2013-2014
100%
100%
93%
Elementary/Middle School
10
Marzano’s Instructional Strategies
1. Identifying similarities and differences
2. Summarizing and note taking
3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
4. Homework and practice
5. Nonlinguistic representations
6. Cooperative learning
7. Setting objectives and providing feedback
8. Generating and testing hypotheses
9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers
+1 Six Step Vocabulary Development Process
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Cognitive, Academic and Motivational Strategies
Cognitive
Identifying
Similarities/
Differences
Nonlinguistic
Representations
Generating and
Testing Hypotheses
Academic
Summarizing and
Note Taking
Homework and
Practice
Motivational
Reinforcing Effort
and Providing
Recognition
Cooperative
Learning
Cues, Questions and
Advance Organizers Setting Objectives
(Activating Prior
and Providing
Knowledge
Feedback
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Identifying Similarities and Differences
 Compare
Add H.O.T.

Classify

Create metaphors

Create analogies

http://ncs.district.googlepages.com/
similaritiesanddifferences
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Similarities and Differences
Research
The ability to break a concept into its
similar and dissimilar characteristics
allows students to understand (and
often solve) complex problems by
analyzing them in a more simple way.
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Identifying Similarities
and Differences
Variety of Ways
-Comparing
similarities and differences
-Classifying
grouping things that are alike
-Metaphors
comparing two unlike things
-Analogies
identifying relationships between pairs of
concepts
Identifying Similarities and
Differences
Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
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Give students a model for the process.
Use familiar content to teach steps.
Give students graphic organizers.
Guide students as needed.
Rubric for Comparing
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4- The student uses important features to compare the items. The
student also uses some features that are not easily seen. The
student identifies similarities and differences without making
mistakes. The student tells what he/she learned in a way that show
a complete understanding of the items.
3-The student uses important features to compare the items. The
student identifies similarities and differences without making
mistakes. The students tells what he/she learned.
2- The student uses features to compare the items, but the student
does not use the most important features. The student makes some
mistakes in the comparison.
1-The student uses features that are not important to compare the
items. The student makes some big mistakes in the comparison.
0-The student does not try to do the task, or there is not enough
information to make a judgment.
Summarizing and Note Taking
Research
High leverage strategies because they:
- encourage powerful learning
- lead to deeper understanding
- endure long-term recall
Verbatim note taking is the least
effective way to take notes.
Summarizing
Recommendations
for Classroom Practice

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Use summary frames
Use a rule-based summary strategy
(a set of rules students can follow to
summarize text)
The Narrative Frame
Guiding questions for the narrative or story frame:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Who are the main characters? And what distinguishes them from
other characters?
When and where did the story take place? What were the
circumstances?
What prompted the action of the story?
How did the characters express their feelings?
What did the main characters decide to do?
How did the main characters try to accomplish their goals?
What were the consequences?
The Topic-Restriction-Illustration
(T-R-I) Frame
Guiding questions for the T-R-I Frame:
Topic: What is the general statement or topic?
Restriction: What information does the author
give that narrows or restricts the general
statement or topic?
Illustration: What examples does the author give
to illustrate the topic or restriction?
The Definition Frame
Guiding Questions for the Definition Frame:
1. What is being defined?
2. To which general category does the item
belong?
3. What characteristics separate the itme from
other things in the general category?
4. What are some different types or classes of the
item being defined?
The Argumentation Frame
Guiding Questions for the Argumentation Frame:
Evidence: What information does the author present that
leads to a claim?
Claim: What does the author assert is true?
What basic statement or claim is the focus of the
information?
Support: What examples or explanations support the
claim?
Qualifier: What restrictions on the claim, or evidence
counter to the claim, are presented?
Making Notations or Marking Text
 I agree with this.
X I disagree with this.
?? I am confused by this.
!! Wow! (It elicits a strong emotion.)
CL This is the general claim.
EV Here is evidence of the claim (these
symbols can be numbered to indicate
sequence: EV1; EV2, and so forth).
Rule-Based Strategy
1.
2.
3.
4.
Delete trivial material that is unnecessary
to understanding.
Delete redundant material.
Substitute superordinate terms for more
specific terms (e.g. “fish” for “rainbow
trout, salmon, and halibut”).
Select a topic sentence, or invent one if it
is missing.
The Frayer Model
Essential Characteristics
Nonessential Characteristics
Topic
Examples
Nonexamples
Note Taking
Research
Note taking and summarizing are
closely related. Both require students
to identify what is most important
about the knowledge they are
learning and then state that
knowledge in their own words.
Note Taking
1.
2.
3.
Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
Teach students a variety of notetaking formats.
Give students teacher-prepared
notes.
Remind students to review their
notes.
Note Taking
Although note taking is one of the
most useful study skills a student can
cultivate, often teachers do not
explicitly teach note taking strategies
in the classroom.
Reinforcing Effort
Believing in effort can serve as a
powerful motivational tool that
students can apply to any
situation
RESEARCH

People generally attribute success at any
given task to one of four causes:
Effort
Other people
Ability
Luck
Three of these four beliefs ultimately inhibit
achievement – (Covington 1983,1985)
Generalizations from Research
Not all students realize the importance
of believing in effort.
Implication is that teachers should
explain and exemplify the “effort
belief” to students.
Urdan,Midgley, & Anderman 1998
Generalizations from Research
Students can learn to change their beliefs
to an emphasis on effort
Students who were taught about the
relationship between effort and
achievement increased their achievement
more than students who were taught
techniques for time management and
comprehension of new material.
Van Overwalle & De Metsenaere, 1990
Recommendations for Classroom
Practice
Students need to be taught that
effort can improve achievement.
•Share personal examples of times you
have succeeded because you did not give
up
•Share examples of well-known athletes
and others who succeeded mainly because
they did not give up
•Have students share personal examples of
times they succeeded because they did not
give up.
Recommendations for Classroom
Practice
Have students chart effort and achievement
Charting their effort and achievement will
reveal patterns and help students see the
connection between the two.
Student: Vicki
Maddox
Assignment
Effort Rubric (1-5)
Achievement
Rubric (1-5)
Oct. 22
Cell Vocabulary
3
3 (72%)
Oct. 23
Cell Matching
Chart
4
5 (99%)
Oct. 23
Cell in Class
Essay
1
2 (65%)
Oct. 27
Quiz
5
4 (88%)
Oct. 28
Cell Model
5
5 (96%)
1= Little Effort and/or Low Achievement to 5= Great Deal of Effort
and/or High Achievement
Reinforcing Effort
ORGANIZING CLASSROOMS FOR EFFORT
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Students know what is expected.
Fair and credible evaluations are used.
Curriculum is geared to standards.
Student responsibility for work is
emphasized.
Results are fixed, time varies.
Recognition of accomplishment is
utilized.
Providing Recognition
Providing recognition for
attainment of specific goals not
only enhances achievement, but it
stimulates motivation
RESEARCH
1. Rewards do not necessarily have a
negative effect on intrinsic
motivation.
2. Reward is most effective when it is
contingent on the attainment of
some standard of performance.
3. Abstract symbolic recognition is
more effective than tangible
rewards.
Recommendations for
Classroom Practice
Establish a rationale for
reinforcing effort and providing
recognition
Follow guidelines for effective
and ineffective praise.
Link effort to achievement
Use the pause, prompt, and praise
technique
Teacher Recognition
Example 1: Dana was unable to make any connections
among the elements using a table of characteristics. Mr.
Mulder suggests she focus on one characteristic and look
for connections. When he returns later, Dana explains how
she had figured out a way to group the elements according
to boiling point. Mr. Mulder congratulates her on on
finding a valid connection.
Example 2: Mr. Mulder circulates as students are
working in small groups. He pauses at Station 1 and
comments, “Nice work on your calculations.” At
Station 2, he says, “Nice work on your graphs.” At
Station 3, he says, “Nice work on your calculations.
Teacher Recognition
Example 3: “You really did a good job working
through all of the steps and checking your answers
for this problem. I know you’ve had difficulties
with multi-step calculations before and sometimes
settled for getting any answer down on paper, even
if it wasn’t correct. Your determination with third
task really showed.”
Example 4: “Good job. Jackson. Keep it up.”
Homework
Rationale
 Why
homework?
- Students are in school a short time
- Homework extends learning beyond
the school day
 Asset
or Liability?
- It depends on how it is used
Homework and Practice
Research
Both homework and practice give
students opportunities to deepen their
understanding and proficiency with
content they are learning.
Homework
Considerations/Recommendations
-Amount
10 X the # of the grade as a guideline
-Parent involvement
Parents as facilitators
-Homework policy
Feasible & defensible expectations
-Purpose
Without one, it’s “busy work”
-Assignment sheets
Clarify what they are doing and why
-Feedback (be specific)
Can improve student achievement
Practice
Research
 Students need to practice skills and
processes before they can use them
effectively.
 Goal is for learning a skill, not
learning information.
Practice
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Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
Determine which skills are worth
practicing.
Schedule massed and distributed
practice.
Help students shape a skill or
process (explicit instruction and
modeling)
Non Linguistic Representations
Research
-Teachers typically present new
knowledge to students linguistically.
-Engaging students in the creation of
nonlinguistic representation actually
stimulates and increases activity in
the brain.
Non Linguistic Representations
Recommendations
For Classroom Practice

Graphic organizers
 Pictographic representations
 Mental images
 Physical models
Graphic Organizers
Use Graphic Organizers to:
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Activate current knowledge
Present information
Take notes
Summarize information
Assess student learning
Graphic Organizers
 Graphic
organizers make thinking
visible.
 Different graphic organizers
represent different kinds of thinking.
 Students must be taught how to use
graphic organizers.
 The goal is for students to be able to
select the appropriate graphic
organizer.
Cooperative Learning
Research
Organizing students into cooperative
groups yields a positive effect on
overall learning if approach is
systematic and consistent.
Cooperative Learning
Recommendations
For Classroom Use
•
•
•
Teach students the elements of
cooperative learning
Vary grouping criteria
(informal, formal and base)
Manage group size
(3-5 students)
Setting Objectives
and Providing Feedback
Research
Students learn more efficiently when
they know the goals and objectives of
a specific lesson or learning activity.
Setting Objectives
 What
do students need to know and
be able to do?
 How do I know they got it?
 What do I do when they don’t?
 What do I do when they do?
Setting Objectives
 Mastery
Objectives
 Language
 Written
Objectives
in Kid-Friendly Language
Setting Objectives
Recommendations
For Classroom Practice


Set “standards-based” goals for a unit
and encourage students to set personal
learning goals on how they’ll achieve
them.
Communicate learning objectives to
parents so they can provide appropriate
support to students.
Setting Personal Learning Goals
GOAL: To become a better writer
MORE CONCRETE:
 I want to write more effective
introductions with clear, concise
thesis statements.
 I want to use good paragraph form in
my writing.
Providing Feedback
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Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
Use various methods of assessment.
Feedback should be corrective in nature.
Give timely feedback.
Feedback should be specific to criterion.
Self-assessment tools may be used to
gauge progress.
Providing Feedback
“Academic feedback is more
strongly and consistently related to
achievement than any other
teaching behavior. This
relationship is consistent
regardless of grade, socioeconomic
status, race or school setting.”
Bellon, Jerry J. Teaching from a Research
Knowledge Base. 1992
Generating and Testing
Hypotheses
Research
Generating and testing hypotheses
involves the application of
knowledge, which enhances learning.
Generating and Testing
Hypotheses
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Examples of Strategies
Systems Analysis
Problem Solving
Historical Investigation
Invention
Experimental Inquiry
Decision Making
Generating and Testing
Hypotheses
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Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
Give students a model for the strategy
Use familiar content to teach the strategy
Make graphic organizers available
Provide guided practice
Have students explain their hypotheses
and conclusions
Cues, Questions, and
Advance Organizers
Research

Cues
Explicit reminders about what a student is
about to experience
 Questions
Help students analyze what they already
know
 Advance Organizers
Help students retrieve what they know
about a topic and focus on the new
information
Cues, Questions, and
Advance Organizers
Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
Cues
 Telling students the topic of an
article they are about to read
 Reminding students to look for new
information when reading
Cues, Questions, and
Advance Organizers
Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
Questions
 Higher-level questions require
students to analyze information and
apply what they know
Cues, Questions, and Advance
Organizers
Research shows that…
1/3 of class interactions are questions
Primary grades: 150 per hour
Elementary/high: several hundred per
day
(Gage/Berliner)
Cues, Questions, and Advance
Organizers
Research shows that…
(Flanders)
RULE OF 2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
of class time is verbal
of that time is questions
are asked by teacher
are answered by teacher
Advance Organizers
 Advance
organizers are
organizational frameworks teachers
present to students prior to teaching
new content to prepare them for what
they are about to learn.
 Advance organizers focus on
essential information and get
students ready to use the information.
Advance Organizers
Recommendations
For Classroom Practice
 SQRRR (survey, question, read, recite, review)
 Narrative
advance organizers (tell a
story to make personal connections)
 Expository
 Skim a text
 Use graphic organizers
“…if we teach today as we taught
yesterday, we rob our children of
tomorrow.”
-John Dewey
Thank you for all you do each and every day,
and Thank you to:
• Building Academic Vocabulary- R. Marzano, D.
Pickering
• Classroom Instruction That Works-R. Marzano, D. Pickering
& J. Pollock
• Summarization in Any Subject-R. Wormeli
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Marzano’s High Leverage Strategies