Unit 10 A Horse and Two Goats Teaching Objectives • • • • Topic: Non-verbal communication Grammar points: adj. with an infinitive structure (including it is adj. + to do … for/of Np to do …) Vocabulary: massive, disturb, plead, sacred, capital, replace, ingratiating, respectful, get out of sight, react to, refer to, dawn on, pace (v.), at the thought of, make somebody an offer for, sound policy to do… Writing: Writing a good beginning Unit 10 A Horse and Two Goats Listening and Speaking Activities Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Extended Activities Fun time Listening and Speaking Activities 1. Brainstorming 2. Listening 3. Speaking Warming up What is the purpose of language? Language is used to communicate or tell people thoughts, feelings and reactions. Ways of communicating Spoken language Written language Body language What is body language? Body language is one form of nonverbal communication (非言辞交 际) without using words. Eye contact or gaze, facial expression, gesture (手势), and posture (姿势), or the way you stand, are different kinds of body language. Discuss the following questions. • In addition to verbal messages, what other means can human beings use for communication? • List at least two means and explain how they work. Suggested points –Facial expressions (A more complicated system is LIPREADING.) –Gestures (A more complicated system is the sign language for the deaf or dumb.) Speak while enjoying the pictures–facial expressions. fearful happy sad sad, upset angry angry confused surprised shy surprise anger fear joy sorrow disgust contempt confident naughty excited depressed ok silent stop good/well done victory applause Good/ Well done! Bad! Come here! Good luck! Me? I don’t know! What does it mean? — Goodbye! Brainstorming 1. Expressions for understanding and getting the message across: 2. Expressions for failure of communication: 3. Expressions for emotional states: 4. Expressions for body language: 5. Expressions for differentiating between various meanings: Expressions for understanding and getting the message across: • understand, know, learn, acquire (knowledge, information), have an idea of, take / get the message, be well informed about something, get / put the message across, express, reveal, display, make oneself understood, dawn on somebody, something clicks in one's mind, something occurs to someone Expressions for failure of communication: • misunderstand, don't know .., be confused about...., get ... wrong, take too much for granted, be ignorant about something, have misconceptions about...., be biased / prejudiced against... be puzzling / puzzled, be mystifying / mystified, make a faux pas (a culturally embarrassing mistake), blunder in etiquette 3. Expressions for emotional states: • happy/ unhappy, satisfied / dissatisfied, friendly / unfriendly, hospitable, hostile, cold, enthusiastic, be embarrassed / embarrassing, sad, depressed, low-spirited, moody, cheerful, delighted, glad, overjoyed 4. Expressions for body language: nod, winking, raise one’s eye-brows, stare at somebody, avert one's eyes from somebody, pout one's lips, stick out one’s tongue, make a face, put on a smiling/good / happy face, move / turn one's head, wave, beckon, palm up down, take ... into one’s arms, kiss someone on the cheek/ mouth/ forehead etc.. / touch, eye contact, his /her eyes speak for herself... ., a cloud crosses his/her face ...., be red in the face, blush, beam Go on enjoy body languages. handshake baby kiss hug kiss your hand to sb. shake nod bow 5. Expressions for differentiating between various meanings: • meaning(s), nuances of meaning, (fine) shades of meaning, tell the slight differences between ...., recognize the importance / significance of...., realize serious consequences, capture the delicate meaning of …, ... actions speak louder than words Listening An Unusual Medium of Communication Task: 1. Report the gist of the story. 2. Answer the questions in P137. pre-listening questions a. b. Do we blow whistles for communication? When might you hear a whistle? Explain what are the cultural meanings and rules for the following body language in different cultures. Listening 1.When and where did the speaker discover the whistled speech? 2.How did Mr. Martinez and the corn seller communication with each other? 3.Why did the speaker decide to stay longer with Mr. and Mrs. Martinez? 4.What did the speaker finally find out about the whistled speech used in the community? script An Unusual Medium of Communication Human beings sometimes have to employ unusual methods of communication, such as sign language or lip-reading on occasions when they cannot get their meanings across with spoken language, or when using language to communicate becomes less convenient or impossible. Some examples of the various forms of sign language are those used by deaf or dumb people, by football or basketball referees, traffic policemen, and auctioneers to name but a few. But perhaps the most unusual method of communication is a kind of whistled speech, which I found in Mexico recently. It was in a remote area in Mexico where I was traveling last month that I found some members of a community who live there using the whistled speech. I stayed in Mr. Martinez's house for the night, and when I got up in the morning, I saw him standing in front of his hut, whistling to a man a considerable distance away. The man was carrying a load of corn. Perhaps he was going to the market to sell it. The man answered Mr. Martinez with whistling. The interchange was repeated several times with different whistles. Finally the man turned around and came up the footpath to Mr. Martinez's hut. Without saying a word he dumped his load on the ground. Mr. Martinez looked the load over, went into his hut, returned with some money, and paid the man the asking price. The man turned and left. Not a word had been spoken. They had talked, bargained over the price, and come to an agreement satisfactory to both parties, but they only used whistling as a medium of communication. Originally I planned to leave for the next village after breakfast, but now I was extremely interested in this special way of communication and I decided to stay a little longer to find more. As Mr. and Mrs. Martinez had to go out on some business during the day, I had no chance to talk to them. When they came back, they told me that they had a successful day and they invited me to have dinner with them. I thought it was a good chance for me to talk to them, so I accepted their invitation happily. I had expected them to whistle to each other at dinner, but they spoke in the normal way. I couldn't resist the temptation to ask them why they didn't whistle. Mr. Martinez laughed and explained: Whistling is the man's privilege in their community and only men can use it. Women understand what it means but they never use it themselves. And, what's more, the whistled speech is mostly for business purposes, for bargaining, buying and selling in the market place. As to when they started this tradition and why they have kept it up, neither of them had the slightest idea. But I was quite satisfied with my investigation, and the next morning, I thanked Mr. And Mrs. Martinez for their hospitality, said goodbye to them, and went on with my journey. 1. The speaker discovered the whistled speech while he was traveling in a remote area in Mexico the previous month. He found that some members of the tribe that live there use the whistled speech to communicate. listening Instead of talking in words, they whistled to each other. In this way, they bargained over the price and came to an agreement satisfactory to both allowing Mr. Martinez to buy the sellers corn. listening 1. He decided to stay longer because he was very interested in the whistled speech and wanted to find more about it. listening 1. He learned from Mr. Martinez that only men in their community use the whistled speech. It is used mostly for business purposes, for bargaining, buying and selling in the market place. listening 3. Speaking A Get your meaning across Reading Comprehension and Language Activities 1. Pre-reading activity 2. Questions for general comprehension 3. Summaries 4.Questions for discussion lead-in activity Cross-talking A Horse and Two Goats 1. Where did the story take place? • A mountain village in India, at the village entrance, • The local language: Tamil, not English as readers may assume 2. What was the old man doing at the beginning of the story? Guess what kind of life he led in the village. –Dowsing, not doing much, or just watching two goats graze in the pasture –Slow life, boring, but a pastoral style –Not rich, poor village • • • • 3. What did the old man take the American tourist for at the beginning? And why did he think so? A police officer Dressed in Khaki jacket, like a policeman in uniform A murder not long ago in his neighborhood Perhaps police – the only uniform-dressed people he knew about 4.How did the American try to make the old man understand him and what was the result? • Explaining everything at length, uttering each syllable carefully, pausing from time to time • Smiling politely, trying to be friendly • Causing more misunderstanding than successful communication 5.What was special about the horse statute according to the old man? • The horse: a sacred image – a future reincarnation as the tenth avatar • Avatar – the Guardian, the Redeemer, to save the villagers, and punish the wicked or evils at the end of the world • The horse: hope of future bliss and eternal happiness for the villagers 6.What made the old man believe that the American wanted to buy his two goats? • The American flourished the 100-rupee note, his eyes, his patting the goats on the backs etc. • His long-time dream to exchange goats for money for his projects 7.What did the old man mean by pointing at the wagon and what did the American mean by saying Yes, of course? • For the old man: taking the goats away in that vehicle? • For the American: taking the horse statue away in that wagon 8. Analyze the reasons for the failure of communication between the old man and the American tourist. • Suggested reasons: • No common language (Language barrier) • Lack of shared information between them (The American tourist had no knowledge about the horse statue; he took it as a commodity; but the idea of selling the horse statute was last thing that the old man would think of.) • Body language is a useful means of communication in expressing emotions such as anger, happiness, satisfied, or complacency, but very limited in its informative power such as expressing the concept of murder, neighborhood, avatar, a good citizen, punish the evil, or get help for you etc. 9.The writer did not tell the readers what finally happened to the American tourist. Imagine an ending to the story. This is an open question. Use your imagination to think. 3 Summarise the story The story is about an encounter between an old Indian villager and an American tourist in India, neither of whom understand the other's language. As a result, the American's intention of buying the statue of a horse is misunderstood by the Indian as an offer to buy his two goats. Reproduce the story Work with your partner to act out the dialogue between the old man and the American tourist. Suppose both of them can speak English and then you will see how comical their conversation is. Reproduce the story The American tourist and the old Indian man talked at crosspurposes, i.e. they misunderstood and talked irrelevantly to each other. Suppose you were the son or daughter of the old man and understood English. Now, help your father to complete the following dialogue so that the conversation makes sense. Body language 1. Correct understanding: The American tourist showed an interest in the statue and was overwhelmed by its beauty and craftsmanship. The Indian’s interpretation: The man in the khaki shirt behaved strangely, pacing around the statue, he seemed to be thinking hard about something. He must be a police officer, coming to investigate a recent murder in the neighborhood. 2. Intended message: The American happened to look in the direction of the goats. He was going to offer a cigarette to the old man to start a friendly conversation. The Indian’s interpretation: The policeman understood that those two goats were my property, not stolen animals. Look. He’s going to smoke. It seems he's not in a hurry to leave and he's going to question me about the murder. 3. Intended message: The American tourist was trying to be nice and friendly to the old man because he wanted to get more information out of him. The Indian’s interpretation: The policeman probably had no more doubts about me concerning the murder. 4. Intended message: The American tourist was making the Indian an offer for the statue. The Indian’s interpretation: The policeman wanted to change a large note. 5. Intended message: The old man thought it funny that people should expect a poor man like him to be able to change a large note. The American’s interpretation: The old man thought one hundred rupees was not enough. He was trying to get a better bargain. 6. Intended message: He might look at his goats by chance, or he might do it when he remembered just then how much the village headman disliked him and his animals. The American’s interpretation: The old man seemed to love his pets. Perhaps it would be good policy to show an interest in the old man's goats. 7. Intended message: He wanted to show the old man that he also loved his goats. The Indian’s interpretation: The foreigner showed an interest in my goats. Oh. Yes. He wanted to buy them. 8. Intended message: The Indian wanted to know if the American was going to ship the goats home in that vehicle. The American’s interpretation: The old man was asking if I was going to ship the statue home in the vehicle. 9. Intended message: The old man was grateful for this foreigner who helped him to make his dream come true. He went away quickly because he was afraid the goats might follow him. If that happened, he would not get the money he needed. The American’s interpretation: The old man was grateful for the money and had gone to get some help to move the heavy statue into my vehicle. The story took place in a small mountain village called Kiritam in India. The villagers there speak the native language of Tamil and, as readers will soon find out, do not understand English. massive guardian: The horse was worshipped by the villagers as a protector of the village. Massive indicates that the horse statue is not only large in size, but also heavy in weight. Here is one more example: The new stadium is a massive building. massive 一件大而重的家具 a massive piece of furniture. a massive dose of a drug. 一副大剂量的药 Try: The old castle was surrounded by massive walls. ______ in the shape of a prancing horse: having the shape of a horse springing up from its hind legs. his tail looped up with a flourish: The horse’s tail curled up spiritedly. A flourish is a decorative display intended to make people notice it. an old man was drowsing: An old man was failing into a light sleep. station wagon: It is a kind of vehicle with removable seats and an area behind the seats for suitcases, bags, etc. A station wagon is usually bigger than an ordinary car. khaki-coloured shirt: yellowish brown shirt. Khaki is a type of fabric for jackets, which is often used for making army uniforms because it wears well. That’s why the old man took the American for a police officer. Tamil: An official language spoken in Tamil Nadu state in India, and also one of the languages of Sri Lanka, Singapore and several regions in the Indian Ocean and the Middle East. My name is Muni, and the two goats are mine and mine only: The old man introduced himself to the American and emphasized that the two goats were his property. Hence the relationship between the goats and Indian is made explicit. This also shows that he wanted to make it clear to the “police officer” that he was a good man. ingratiatingly: respectfully, showing respect. The American tourist was trying to please the old man with a friendly humble smile. Ingratiatingly is often used disapprovingly of someone who tries to make himself liked by other people in a humble manner. Another word with similar meaning but different connotation is gratefully, which is often used in a positive way. ingratiating 1)Pleasing; agreeable: 讨人喜欢的；和蔼可亲的： “Reading requires an effort. . . . Print is not as ingratiating as television”(Robert MacNeil) “阅读是要费劲的…印刷品终究不如电视那 么讨人喜欢”(罗伯特·麦克奈尔) ingratiating 2) Calculated to please or win favor: 目的在于讨好的，缝迎的： an unctuous, ingratiating manner. 虚情假意的，逢迎的方式 Our village has always had a clean record: Our village has never had any crime. If someone has a clean record, he has no criminal record or has not done anything dishonest or immoral. at the end of: Notice the difference between at the end of … and in the end, the former for time, the latter for sequence or logical reasoning. relate: v. to narrate or tell. He related the whole story of the longstanding dispute between the two families. 他全盘道出了两家长期不和的事实. the tenth avatar, God Vishnu, and the Redeemer: According to Hinduism, these three terms are different expressions referring to the same human-shaped or animal-shaped reincarnations of a god who lives in the spiritual and eternal world in heaven, and comes down as Avatar to punish the evil and save the good in the world. A conversation leading to mutual mystification followed: They continued to talk at cross purposes. drive a bargain for: try to get a cheaper price for. the like of which: a fairly formal usage, meaning here “notes of this kind/ notes of such a large amount of money”. This sentence indicates the poverty of the old man in the story. The expression can have another form … the likes of … I guess I could go a little higher: I would be willing to offer more (if this is not enough.) sound policy: a good idea or plan Sound: 1.based on truth or good judgment; not likely to be wrong 2.in good condition; without disease or damage; 3. solid; firm; strong I think that it is sound policy to ban smoking in all public places. 我认为禁止在公共场所吸烟是一个正确 的决策. dawn on: (The idea) came to him all of a sudden. The old man thought that he suddenly understood the American’s intention. He was interested in the two goats! Dawn on: begin to appear; grow clear ( to the mind) It dawned on me that he was actually trying to help me. 我突然明白他原来是想帮助我. It suddenly dawned on the father that his son was lying. Offer: v. to hold out ( to a person) for acceptance or refusal n. something which is offered The foreigner made the old woman an offer of $1000 for the old jar, and she found herself unable to refuse. 那外国人出价一千美元要买老妇人的那只 老坛子,老妇人竟无法拒绝. capital: money. Notice the different words for money: Capital is more often used to mean the money to set up or expand a business; fund is a sum of money collected for a special purpose, for example, to aid people who are in need of it. on this very spot: an emphatic way of saying in this place. Very (adj.) is often used with a noun for emphasis. For example, on that very day; at that very moment. the like of which: a fairly formal usage, meaning here “notes of this kind/ notes of such a large amount of money”. This sentence indicates the poverty of the old man in the story. The expression can have another form … the likes of … at the thought of : thinking of She would burst into tears at the thought of her child killed in a traffic accident. 她一想起她那死于车祸的孩子就泪水 涟涟. The prisoner felt regret at the thought of his past. Translation 1. In the traditional Chinese opera, The White Snake who comes down to the earth in the shape of a beautiful girl and falls in love with Xuxian to whom she gets married later. 2. She feels dizzy at the sight of blood. Translation 3.He kept drowsing in class this morning. 4.He related the whole story of the long-standing dispute between the two families. Translation 5. She would burst into tears at the thought of her child killed in a traffic accident. 6. It dawned on me that he was actually trying to help me. Translation 7. The cave for the three of them to hide in was no more than two meters high.