Unit 10
A Horse and Two Goats
Teaching Objectives
Topic: Non-verbal communication
Grammar points: adj. with an infinitive
structure (including it is adj. + to do …
for/of Np to do …)
Vocabulary: massive, disturb, plead, sacred,
capital, replace, ingratiating, respectful, get
out of sight, react to, refer to, dawn on,
pace (v.), at the thought of, make somebody
an offer for, sound policy to do…
Writing: Writing a good beginning
Unit 10 A Horse and Two Goats
Listening and Speaking Activities
Reading Comprehension and
Language Activities
Extended Activities
Fun time
Listening and Speaking Activities
1. Brainstorming
2. Listening
3. Speaking
Warming up
What is the purpose of language?
Language is used to communicate or tell
people thoughts, feelings and reactions.
Ways of communicating
What is body language?
Body language is one form of
nonverbal communication (非言辞交
际) without using words. Eye
contact or gaze, facial expression,
gesture (手势), and posture (姿势),
or the way you stand, are
different kinds of body language.
Discuss the following questions.
• In addition to verbal messages, what
other means can human beings use for
• List at least two means and explain
how they work.
Suggested points
–Facial expressions (A more
complicated system is LIPREADING.)
–Gestures (A more complicated
system is the sign language for
the deaf or dumb.)
Speak while enjoying the
pictures–facial expressions.
sad, upset
surprise anger fear
disgust contempt
good/well done
Well done!
Come here!
Good luck!
I don’t know!
What does it mean?
— Goodbye!
1. Expressions for understanding and
getting the message across:
2. Expressions
3. Expressions for emotional states:
4. Expressions for body language:
5. Expressions
between various meanings:
Expressions for understanding and
getting the message across:
• understand, know, learn, acquire
(knowledge, information), have an idea
of, take / get the message, be well
informed about something, get / put
the message across, express, reveal,
display, make oneself understood,
dawn on somebody, something clicks in
one's mind, something occurs to
Expressions for failure of
• misunderstand, don't know .., be
confused about...., get ... wrong, take
too much for granted, be ignorant
about something, have misconceptions
be biased / prejudiced
against... be puzzling / puzzled, be
mystifying / mystified, make a faux
pas (a culturally embarrassing mistake),
blunder in etiquette
3. Expressions for emotional states:
dissatisfied, friendly / unfriendly,
hospitable, hostile, cold, enthusiastic,
be embarrassed / embarrassing, sad,
cheerful, delighted, glad, overjoyed
4. Expressions for body language:
nod, winking, raise one’s eye-brows, stare
at somebody, avert one's eyes from
somebody, pout one's lips, stick out one’s
tongue, make a face, put on a
smiling/good / happy face, move / turn
one's head, wave, beckon, palm up down,
take ... into one’s arms, kiss someone on
the cheek/ mouth/ forehead etc.. /
touch, eye contact, his /her eyes speak
for herself... ., a cloud crosses his/her
face ...., be red in the face, blush, beam
Go on enjoy body languages.
baby kiss
to sb.
5. Expressions for differentiating
between various meanings:
• meaning(s), nuances of meaning, (fine)
shades of meaning, tell the slight
differences between ....,
the importance / significance of....,
realize serious consequences, capture
the delicate meaning of …, ... actions
speak louder than words
An Unusual Medium of Communication
1. Report the gist of the story.
2. Answer the questions in P137.
pre-listening questions
Do we blow whistles for
communication? When might
you hear a whistle?
Explain what are the cultural
meanings and rules for the
following body language in
different cultures.
1.When and where did the speaker
discover the whistled speech?
2.How did Mr. Martinez and the corn
seller communication with each other?
3.Why did the speaker decide to stay
longer with Mr. and Mrs. Martinez?
4.What did the speaker finally find
out about the whistled speech used
in the community?
An Unusual Medium of
Human beings sometimes have to employ unusual
methods of communication, such as sign language
or lip-reading on occasions when they cannot get
their meanings across with spoken language, or
when using language to communicate becomes less
convenient or impossible. Some examples of the
various forms of sign language are those used by
deaf or dumb people, by football or basketball
referees, traffic policemen, and auctioneers to
name but a few. But perhaps the most unusual
method of communication is a kind of whistled
speech, which I found in Mexico recently.
It was in a remote area in Mexico where
I was traveling last month that I found
some members of a community who live
there using the whistled speech. I stayed
in Mr. Martinez's house for the night,
and when I got up in the morning, I saw
him standing in front of his hut, whistling
to a man a considerable distance away.
The man was carrying a load of corn.
Perhaps he was going to the market to
sell it. The man answered Mr. Martinez
with whistling. The interchange was
repeated several times with different
Finally the man turned around and came
up the footpath to Mr. Martinez's hut.
Without saying a word he dumped his
load on the ground. Mr. Martinez looked
the load over, went into his hut,
returned with some money, and paid the
man the asking price. The man turned
and left. Not a word had been spoken.
They had talked, bargained over the
price, and come to an agreement
satisfactory to both parties, but they
only used whistling as a medium of
Originally I planned to leave for the
next village after breakfast, but now I
was extremely interested in this special
way of communication and I decided to
stay a little longer to find more. As Mr.
and Mrs. Martinez had to go out on
some business during the day, I had no
chance to talk to them. When they
came back, they told me that they had a
successful day and they invited me to
have dinner with them. I thought it was
a good chance for me to talk to them, so
I accepted their invitation happily.
I had expected them to whistle to each other
at dinner, but they spoke in the normal way.
I couldn't resist the temptation to ask them
why they didn't whistle. Mr. Martinez laughed
and explained: Whistling is the man's privilege
in their community and only men can use it.
Women understand what it means but they
never use it themselves. And, what's more,
the whistled speech is mostly for business
purposes, for bargaining, buying and selling in
the market place. As to when they started
this tradition and why they have kept it up,
neither of them had the slightest idea. But I
was quite satisfied with my investigation, and
the next morning, I thanked Mr. And Mrs.
Martinez for their hospitality, said goodbye
to them, and went on with my journey.
whistled speech while he was
traveling in a remote area in Mexico
the previous month. He found that
some members of the tribe that live
there use the whistled speech to
Instead of talking in words, they
whistled to each other. In this way,
they bargained over the price and
came to an agreement satisfactory to
both allowing Mr. Martinez to buy the
sellers corn.
He decided to stay longer because
he was very interested in the
whistled speech and wanted to find
more about it.
He learned from Mr. Martinez that
only men in their community use
the whistled speech. It is used
mostly for business purposes, for
bargaining, buying and selling in
the market place.
3. Speaking
A Get your meaning across
Reading Comprehension and
Language Activities
1. Pre-reading activity
2. Questions for general
3. Summaries
4.Questions for discussion
lead-in activity
A Horse
Two Goats
1. Where did the story take place?
• A mountain village in India, at the village
• The local language: Tamil, not English as
readers may assume
2. What was the old man doing at the
beginning of the story?
Guess what kind of life he led in the village.
–Dowsing, not doing much, or just
watching two goats graze in the
–Slow life, boring, but a pastoral style
–Not rich, poor village
3. What did the old man take the
American tourist for at the beginning?
And why did he think so?
A police officer
Dressed in Khaki jacket, like a policeman
in uniform
A murder not long ago in his neighborhood
Perhaps police – the only uniform-dressed
people he knew about
4.How did the American try to make the
old man understand him and what was
the result?
• Explaining everything at length, uttering
each syllable carefully, pausing from time
to time
• Smiling politely, trying to be friendly
• Causing more misunderstanding than
successful communication
5.What was special about the horse
statute according to the old man?
• The horse: a sacred image – a future
reincarnation as the tenth avatar
• Avatar – the Guardian, the Redeemer, to
save the villagers, and punish the wicked
or evils at the end of the world
• The horse: hope of future bliss and eternal
happiness for the villagers
6.What made the old man believe that the
American wanted to buy his two goats?
• The American flourished the 100-rupee
note, his eyes, his patting the goats on the
backs etc.
• His long-time dream to exchange goats for
money for his projects
7.What did the old man mean by pointing at the
wagon and what did the American mean by
saying Yes, of course?
• For the old man: taking the goats away in
that vehicle?
• For the American: taking the horse statue
away in that wagon
8. Analyze the reasons for the failure of
communication between the old man
and the American tourist.
• Suggested reasons:
• No common language (Language barrier)
• Lack of shared information between them (The
American tourist had no knowledge about the horse
statue; he took it as a commodity; but the idea of
selling the horse statute was last thing that the old man
would think of.)
• Body language is a useful means of communication in
expressing emotions such as anger, happiness,
satisfied, or complacency, but very limited in its
informative power such as expressing the concept of
murder, neighborhood, avatar, a good citizen, punish
the evil, or get help for you etc.
9.The writer did not tell the readers what
finally happened to the American tourist.
Imagine an ending to the story.
 This is an open question. Use your
imagination to think.
3 Summarise the story
The story is about an
encounter between an old Indian
villager and an American tourist in
India, neither of whom understand
the other's language. As a result,
the American's intention of buying
the statue of a horse is
misunderstood by the Indian as an
offer to buy his two goats.
Reproduce the story
Work with your partner to act out
the dialogue between the old man
and the American tourist. Suppose
both of them can speak English and
then you will see how comical their
conversation is.
Reproduce the story
The American tourist and the old
Indian man talked at crosspurposes, i.e. they misunderstood
and talked irrelevantly to each other.
Suppose you were the son or
daughter of the old man and
understood English. Now, help your
father to complete the following
dialogue so that the conversation
makes sense.
Body language
1. Correct understanding: The American tourist
showed an interest in the statue and was
overwhelmed by its beauty and craftsmanship.
The Indian’s interpretation: The man in
the khaki shirt behaved strangely, pacing
around the statue, he seemed to be
thinking hard about something. He must be
a police officer, coming to investigate a
recent murder in the neighborhood.
2. Intended message: The American happened
to look in the direction of the goats. He was
going to offer a cigarette to the old man to
start a friendly conversation.
The Indian’s interpretation: The policeman
understood that those two goats were my
property, not stolen animals. Look. He’s going to
smoke. It seems he's not in a hurry to leave and
he's going to question me about the murder.
3. Intended message: The American tourist was
trying to be nice and friendly to the old man
because he wanted to get more information
out of him.
The Indian’s interpretation: The
policeman probably had no more doubts
about me concerning the murder.
Intended message: The American tourist was
making the Indian an offer for the statue.
The Indian’s interpretation: The
policeman wanted to change a large note.
Intended message: The old man thought it
funny that people should expect a poor man
like him to be able to change a large note.
The American’s interpretation: The old
man thought one hundred rupees was not
enough. He was trying to get a better
 Intended
message: He might look at his
goats by chance, or he might do it when he
remembered just then how much the village
headman disliked him and his animals.
The American’s interpretation: The old
man seemed to love his pets. Perhaps it
would be good policy to show an interest in
the old man's goats.
Intended message: He wanted to show the
old man that he also loved his goats.
 The Indian’s interpretation: The foreigner
showed an interest in my goats. Oh. Yes. He
wanted to buy them.
 Intended
message: The Indian wanted to
know if the American was going to ship the
goats home in that vehicle.
The American’s interpretation: The old
man was asking if I was going to ship the
statue home in the vehicle.
Intended message: The old man was grateful for
this foreigner who helped him to make his dream
come true. He went away quickly because he was
afraid the goats might follow him. If that happened,
he would not get the money he needed.
The American’s interpretation: The old man
was grateful for the money and had gone to get
some help to move the heavy statue into my
The story took place in a small
mountain village called Kiritam in
India. The villagers there speak the
native language of Tamil and, as
readers will soon find out, do not
understand English.
massive guardian: The horse was
worshipped by the villagers as a
protector of the village. Massive
indicates that the horse statue is
not only large in size, but also
heavy in weight.
Here is one more example: The
new stadium is a massive building.
 a massive piece of furniture.
a massive dose of a drug.
The old castle was surrounded by
massive walls.
in the shape of a
prancing horse:
having the shape
of a horse
springing up from
its hind legs.
his tail looped up with a flourish:
The horse’s tail curled up spiritedly.
A flourish is a decorative display
intended to make people notice it.
an old man was drowsing:
An old man was failing into a light
station wagon: It is a kind of
vehicle with removable seats and
an area behind the seats for
suitcases, bags, etc.
A station wagon is usually bigger
than an ordinary car.
khaki-coloured shirt: yellowish
brown shirt. Khaki is a type of
fabric for jackets, which is often
used for making army uniforms
because it wears well. That’s why
the old man took the American for
a police officer.
Tamil: An official language spoken
in Tamil Nadu state in India, and
also one of the languages of Sri
Lanka, Singapore and several
regions in the Indian Ocean and the
Middle East.
My name is Muni, and the two goats are
mine and mine only:
The old man introduced himself to the
American and emphasized that the two
goats were his property. Hence the
relationship between the goats and
Indian is made explicit. This also shows
that he wanted to make it clear to the
“police officer” that he was a good man.
ingratiatingly: respectfully, showing
respect. The American tourist was trying
to please the old man with a friendly
humble smile.
Ingratiatingly is often used
disapprovingly of someone who tries to
make himself liked by other people in a
humble manner. Another word with
similar meaning but different connotation
is gratefully, which is often used in a
positive way.
1)Pleasing; agreeable:
“Reading requires an effort. . . .
Print is not as ingratiating as
television”(Robert MacNeil)
2) Calculated to please or win favor:
an unctuous, ingratiating manner.
Our village has always had a clean
record: Our village has never had
any crime. If someone has a clean
record, he has no criminal record or
has not done anything dishonest or
at the end of: Notice the difference
between at the end of … and in the
end, the former for time, the latter
for sequence or logical reasoning.
relate: v. to narrate or tell.
He related the whole story of the longstanding dispute between the two families.
the tenth avatar, God Vishnu, and the
Redeemer: According to Hinduism, these
three terms are different expressions
referring to the same human-shaped or
animal-shaped reincarnations of a god
who lives in the spiritual and eternal
world in heaven, and comes down as
Avatar to punish the evil and save the
good in the world.
A conversation leading to mutual
mystification followed:
They continued to talk at cross
drive a bargain for: try to get a
cheaper price for.
the like of which: a fairly formal
usage, meaning here “notes of this
kind/ notes of such a large amount
of money”. This sentence indicates
the poverty of the old man in the
story. The expression can have
another form … the likes of …
I guess I could go a little higher: I
would be willing to offer more (if
this is not enough.)
sound policy: a good idea or plan
1.based on truth or good judgment; not likely to
be wrong
2.in good condition; without disease or damage;
3. solid; firm; strong
I think that it is sound policy to ban
smoking in all public places.
dawn on: (The idea) came to him
all of a sudden. The old man
thought that he suddenly
understood the American’s intention.
He was interested in the two goats!
Dawn on: begin to appear; grow clear ( to
the mind)
It dawned on me that he was
actually trying to help me.
It suddenly dawned on the father
that his son was lying.
v. to hold out ( to a person) for acceptance or
n. something which is offered
The foreigner made the old woman
an offer of $1000 for the old jar,
and she found herself unable to
capital: money. Notice the different
words for money: Capital is more
often used to mean the money to
set up or expand a business; fund
is a sum of money collected for a
special purpose, for example, to aid
people who are in need of it.
on this very spot: an emphatic way
of saying in this place. Very (adj.) is
often used with a noun for
For example, on that very day; at
that very moment.
the like of which: a fairly formal
usage, meaning here “notes of this
kind/ notes of such a large amount
of money”. This sentence indicates
the poverty of the old man in the
story. The expression can have
another form … the likes of …
at the thought of : thinking of
She would burst into tears at the
thought of her child killed in a traffic
The prisoner felt regret at the
thought of his past.
1. In the traditional Chinese opera, The
White Snake who comes down to the
earth in the shape of a beautiful girl and
falls in love with Xuxian to whom she
gets married later.
2. She feels dizzy at the sight of blood.
3.He kept drowsing in class this
 4.He related the whole story of the
long-standing dispute between the
two families.
5. She would burst into tears at the
thought of her child killed in a traffic
 6. It dawned on me that he was
actually trying to help me.
7. The cave for the three of them to
hide in was no more than two
meters high.