Appreciating
Individual
Differences:
Intelligence, Ability,
Personality, Core
Self-Evaluations,
Attitudes, and
Emotions
Chapter Five
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
After reading the material in this chapter,
you should be able to:
LO5.1 Identify at least five of Gardner’s eight multiple
intelligences, and explain “practical intelligence”
LO5.2 Identify and describe the Big Five personality
dimensions, specify which one is correlated most
strongly with job performance, and describe the
proactive personality.
LO5.3 Explain the four components of Core SelfEvaluations.
5-2
After reading the material in this chapter,
you should be able to:
LO5.4 Distinguish between self-esteem and selfefficacy.
LO5.5 Explain the difference between an internal
and external locus of control.
LO5.6 Identify the three components of attitudes and
discuss cognitive dissonance
LO5.7 Explain the concepts of emotional
intelligence, emotional contagion and
emotional labor
5-3
An OB Model for
Studying Individual Differences
5-4
Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities
Intelligence
 capacity for
constructive
thinking, reasoning,
and problem
solving
5-5
Two Types of Abilities
1. General mental ability needed for all
cognitive tasks
2. Unique to the task at hand
5-6
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logicalmathematical
Musical
Bodykinesthetic
Spatial
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
5-7
Question?
Jimmy can remember the order preferences
of each of his clients. This the mental ability
of ________.
A.Word fluency
B.Numerical
C.Spatial
D.Memory
5-8
Personality Dynamics
Personality
 the combination of stable physical and mental
characteristics that give the individual his or her
identity
5-9
The Big Five Personality
Dimensions
5-10
Question?
If Clint is dependable, responsible,
achievement-oriented, and persistent, he is
demonstrating which of these Big Five
personality dimensions?
A.Extraversion
B.Emotional stability
C.Locus of control
D.Conscientiousness
5-11
Proactive Personality
Proactive
Personality  someone who is
relatively
unconstrained by
situational forces and
who effects
environmental
change
5-12
Personality and Job Performance
Conscientiousness has the strongest
positive correlation with job and training
performance
Extraversion is associated with success for
managers and salespeople
5-13
Advice and Words of Caution about
Personality Testing in the Workplace
5-14
Core Self-Evaluations
Core self-evaluations represent a broad
personality trait comprised of four narrower
individual personality traits:
 (1) self-esteem, (2) generalized self-efficacy,
(3) locus of control, and (4) emotional stability
5-15
Self-Esteem
Self-esteem
 Belief about one’s own self worth based on an
overall self-evaluation.
5-16
Can General Self-Esteem Be
Improved?
Low self-esteem can be raised more by
having a person think of desirable
characteristics possessed rather of
undesirable characteristics from which he is
free
5-17
Question?
Bianca, a manager for Oil Traders, Inc., has been
offered a promotion. Her preference is to work in a
culture where the correlation between self-esteem
and life satisfaction is not strong. Based on what
research tells us, which of these countries should
Bianca choose?
A.Canada
B.Netherlands
C.Japan
D.New Zealand
5-18
Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy
 a person’s belief
about his chances of
successfully
accomplishing a
specific task
Learned
Helplessness
 severely debilitating
belief that one has
no control over
one’s environment.
5-19
Self-Efficacy Beliefs Pave the Way
for Success or Failure
Figure 5-2
5-20
Managerial Implications
On-the-job research evidence encourages
managers to nurture self-efficacy, both in
themselves and in others
Significant positive correlation between selfefficacy and job performance
5-21
Locus of Control
Internal locus of control
 People who believe they control the events and
consequences that affect their lives
External locus of control
 those who believe their performance is the
product of circumstances beyond their
immediate control
5-22
Research Lessons
Internals display greater work motivation.
Internals have stronger expectations that
effort leads to performance.
There is a stronger relationship between job
satisfaction and performance for internals
than for externals.
Internals obtain higher salaries and greater
salary increases than externals.
5-23
Question?
Joe believes his past performance in college
is due to the difficulty of courses he has
taken and his bad luck in getting tough
instructors. Based on this, Joe:
A.has an external locus of control.
B.is a proactive personality.
C.is an extravert.
D.has a low degree of conscientiousness.
5-24
Emotional Stability
Individuals with high levels of emotional
stability tend to be relaxed, secure,
unworried, and less likely to experience
negative emotions under pressure.
Those with low levels are prone to anxiety
and tend to view the world negatively.
5-25
CSEs, Its Component Traits,
and Outcomes
CSEs have been associated with increased
job performance, job and life satisfaction,
motivation, organizational citizenship
behaviors, and better adjustment to
international assignments.
They also were linked to lower stress and
reduced conflict.
5-26
The Nature of Attitudes
Attitude
 learned predisposition to respond in a
consistently favorable or unfavorable manner
with respect to a given object
5-27
The Nature of Attitudes
Affective component
 the feelings or emotions one has about an
object or situation
Cognitive component
 the evaluation or belief one has about an object
or situation
Behavioral component
 how one intends to act or behave toward
someone or something
5-28
When Attitudes and Reality Collide:
Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance
 psychological discomfort a person experiences
what his or her attitudes or beliefs are
incompatible with his or her behavior
5-29
Cognitive Dissonance
How people reduce dissonance
1.Change your attitude or behavior, or both
2.Belittle the importance of the inconsistent
behavior
3.Find consonant elements that outweigh the
dissonant ones
5-30
Question?
Alexa dreads going to work each day. She
hates her job and her supervisor, but will not
take time to look for a different job. She is
experiencing ___________.
A.External locus of control
B.Cognitive dissonance
C.Internal locus of control
D.Halo error
5-31
How Stable are Attitudes?
Three factors accounted for middle-age
attitude stability:
(1) greater personal certainty
(2) perceived abundance of knowledge
(3) a need for strong attitudes
5-32
Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior
Figure 5-3
5-33
Positive and Negative Emotions
Emotions
 complex, relatively
brief responses to
particular
information or
experiences that
change psychological
and/or physiological
states
5-34
Positive and Negative Emotions
Figure 5-4
5-35
Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
 ability to manage oneself one’s relationships in
mature and constructive ways
5-36
Question?
Dave is not very patient with restaurant
service and will often complain loudly if
things don’t go as expected. He is not very
high in __________.
A.Aggressiveness
B.Positive affectivity
C.Emotional intelligence
D.Behavioral attitude
5-37
Emotional Contagion and
Emotional Labor
Emotional
contagion
 Someone’s bad mood
sours your mood
 Can literally catch
another person’s
mood or displayed
emotions
Emotional labor
 Masking true
feelings and
emotions
5-38
Video: Toying with Success: The
McFarlane Companies
What personality traits do entrepreneurs like Todd
McFarlane possess that distinguish them from other
individuals? Do you think McFarlane has an internal or
external locus of control?
What cognitive abilities do you think contributed most to
McFarlane’s success?
Why is the development of new products such as sports
figures critical to the McFarlane Companies?
How important are self-efficacy beliefs and intelligence in
the creative process that leads to new products concepts?
5-39
Video Case: Generation Next Changes
the Face of the Workplace
What characteristics of Generation Y employees
are so different from Generation X or Baby
Boomer employees?
How much responsibility for change should the
organization take on and how much should the
workers?
What programs have you seen in the workplace
today that are designed to address these
issues? Do most employers recognize this as
an important issue?
5-40
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