Identity
•
•
•
•
Identity development and adolescence
Self-conceptions during adolescence
Self-esteem change during adolescence
Adolescent identity
– Ethnic identity
– Gender identity
Identity:
Why an Adolescent Issue?
• Changes in the way we see and feel
about ourselves occur throughout the
life span
• Adolescence marks the first
restructuring of one’s sense of self at
a time when he or she can appreciate
the significance of these changes
Identity:
Why an Adolescent Issue?
• Physical changes of puberty
– Appearance
– Relationships with others
• Cognitive changes
– Imagine possible selves
– Develop a future orientation
• Social changes
– In self-conceptions
– In self-esteem
– In sense of identity
Changes in Self-Conceptions
• Self-conception is the way individuals think about and
characterize themselves (traits and attributes)
• During adolescence, more complex, abstract selfconceptions develop
• Personality is expressed in different ways in different
situations
• Differentiated self-concept:
– Actual self
– Ideal self
– Feared self
Childhood vs. Adolescence
I have a dog
named Jake and a
brother named
Silas.
I’m good at sports,
but not so good at
school.
Concrete terms,
related to traits
I’m complicated. I’m
sensitive, outgoing,
popular and tolerant. I
can be shy in some
circumstances. I can
also be self-conscious,
even obnoxious when
I’m upset….I have a
positive view of
humankind….
Trait-focused, traits
more abstract,
personality characteristics
More Complex Sense of Self
The formal
operational ability
to perceive
multiple aspects of
a situation or idea
mean that selfunderstanding
becomes more
complex in
adolescence.
I recognize contradictions
in my personality….
Which is the REAL me???
I’m shy around my
relatives, but outgoing
with my friends….
I’m aware that I
sometimes show a FALSE
self to others that isn’t
really the me or the way I
think and feel
The multiple selves of a 15-year-old girl
Changes in Self-Conceptions
• False-Self Behavior
– Acting in a way that one knows in
inauthentic or fake
– Most likely to happen in dating situations
– Least likely to happen around close
friends
Personality in Adolescence
• The Five-Factor Model of Personality
(The “Big Five”):
–
–
–
–
–
Extraversion (outgoing and energetic)
Agreeableness (kind or sympathetic)
Conscientiousness (responsibility)
Neuroticism (anxious or tense)
Openness to Experience (curiosity)
Personality in Adolescence
• “Big Five” personality traits
– Influenced by combination of genetic and
environmental factors
– Strong links between earlier infant temperament and
adolescent personality
• Adolescence is not a time of rebirth in terms of
personality
– Most personality traits are quite stable during
adolescence
Changes in Self-Esteem
• Self-esteem
– How an individual feels about him or herself
• Self-esteem is fairly stable over time
– Baseline self-esteem: The way that adolescents typically feel
about themselves overall (e.g., “I am a good person”)
• Adolescents’ feelings about themselves fluctuate day by
day
– Barometric self-esteem: The way that adolescents feel about
themselves depending on specific events of that day (e.g., “I feel
bad that I was mean to my friend”)
Self-esteem: Defining Aspects
• Baseline Self-esteem
– Stable, enduring sense of worth and wellbeing
• Barometric Self-esteem
– Fluctuating sense of worth and well-being
as one responds to different thoughts,
experiences, etc. through the course of a
day
Adolescent Self-image: 8 Domains
Susan Harter (1989…2001)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scholastic Competence
Social Acceptance
Athletic Competence
Physical Appearance
Job Competence
Romantic Appeal
Behavioral Conduct
Close Friendship
The Relative Importance of Different
Sources of Self-Esteem
Susan Harter (1989…2001)
An Example
Peers
Global
Self-Esteem
School
Family
Body Image Sports/
Athletics
Changes in Self-Esteem
• During early adolescence
– Increased volatility in
barometric self-image
– Different trajectories for
different adolescents
• Young adolescents with the
most volatile barometric selfesteem report the highest levels
of anxiety, tension,
psychosomatic symptoms, and
irritability
Experience Sampling Method
• “Beeper” studies in which adolescents are
beeped at random times during the day and
asked to record their emotional state
• Adolescents record feeling “self-conscious”
and “embarrassed” 2-3 times more than adults
• Adolescents are “moodier” than
preadolescents
• Adolescents experience more negative moods
than preadolescents
• Older adolescents were less volatile (fewer
extremes) in emotions than younger
adolescents
Decline in Average Emotional States
(Larson et al, 2002)
Average emotional
states decline from
grade 5 through 11 and
then appear to level off
at grade 12
Consistently higher
numbers for girls than
for boys
Self-Esteem and Transitions
Drop in Self-Esteem With Number
Of Life Changes for Adolescent Girls
3.7
Self-E steem
3.4
3.1
2.8
2.5
2.2
0
1
2
Number of Life Transitions
3 or more
Self-esteem in Emerging Adulthood
For most young
people, self-esteem
rises during emerging
adulthood.
Why might this be?
Sex Differences in Self-Esteem
Sex Differences in Self-Esteem
Negative Evaluations of Appearance Among Adolescents
Who Rank These Characteristics High for Self-Esteem
35
30
Pe rce n t
25
20
Boys
Girls
15
10
5
0
6
7
9
Grade
10
Sex Differences in Self-Esteem
Negative Evaluations of Weight Among Adolescents
Who Rank These Characteristics High for Self-Esteem
60
50
Pe rce n t
40
Boys
Girls
30
20
10
0
6
7
9
Grade
10
Sex Differences in Self-Esteem
• Gender differences in self-esteem (boys > girls)
– become smaller over course of adolescence
– more pronounced among white and Puerto Rican teens
– less pronounced among African-American teens
• Middle-class > lower SES
– have higher self-esteem than their less-affluent peers
– SES discrepancy grows larger over the course of adolescence
• African-American girls > white/Hispanic
– Do not feel as negative about appearance
– Have higher overall self-esteem
– Show less of a decline in self-esteem over adolescence
Racial Differences in Self-Esteem
African
American
(Self-Esteem
Highest)
White
Adolescents
Hispanic
American
Asian
American
Native
American
Racial Differences in Self-Esteem
• Higher self-esteem among African-American teens
– Benefit from support/positive feedback of adults in the African-American
community, especially in the family
– Focus on areas of strength, not weakness
– Have a strong sense of ethnic identity that enhances self-esteem
Ethnic Differences in Self-Esteem
• Lower self-esteem among
Hispanic-American teens
– Lower levels of authoritative
parenting
– Lower levels of perceived
teacher support
– Weaker sense of ethnic
identity
– Higher levels of family stress
Antecedents and Consequences
of High Self-Esteem
• Across all demographic groups,
self-esteem is related to:
– Parental approval
– Peer support
– Success in school
• Teens who derive self-esteem from peers,
rather than teachers or parents, show more
behavioral problems and poorer school
achievement
The Adolescent Identity Crisis
• Erikson’s Theoretical Framework
The establishment of a coherent sense of identity is the
chief psychosocial crisis of adolescence
The Adolescent Identity Crisis
Identity “Crisis” in Adolescence
Crisis = “Exploration”
Identity Achievement
Establishing a clear and
definite sense of who you
are and how you fit into
the world around you.
vs.
Identity Confusion
Failure to form a
stable and secure
identity.
Keep in Mind…
Achieving identity requires exploration – sifting
through life choices, trying out possibilities, and
ultimately making commitments.
Items from the Objective Measure
of Ego Identity Status
1. I haven’t chosen the occupation I really want to get into, and I’m just
working at what is available until something better comes along.
2. When it comes to religion I just haven’t found anything that appeals and
I don’t really feel the need to look.
3. My ideas about men’s and women’s roles are identical to my parents’.
What has worked for them will obviously work for me.
4. There’s no single “life style” which appeals to me more than another.
5. There are a lot of different kinds of people. I’m still exploring the many
possibilities to find the right kind of friends for me.
6. I sometimes join in recreational activities when asked, but I rarely try
anything on my own.
…
63. I date only people my parents would approve of.
64. My folks have always had their own political and moral beliefs about
issues like abortion and mercy killing and I’ve always gone along
accepting what they have.
For more information, see www.uoguelph.ca/%7Egadams/omeis.htm
Four Identity Statuses: Examples
Identity Status
Character from TV, Movie, or Book
Diffusion
?
Moratorium
?
Foreclosure
?
Achievement
?
Four Identity Statuses: Examples
Identity Status
Diffusion
Example
“I’m not worried about what to do after
school…who cares.”
Moratorium
“I want to be a marine biologist, no… a
lawyer, no…a hairdresser like my best
friends’ mom.”
“I never had to think about what to do, I’m
taking over the farm from Dad.”
Foreclosure
Achievement
“After studying in Peru, I realize I cannot
work for a large corporation, I am going
to be a nurse.”
The Adolescent Identity Crisis:
Identity versus Identity Diffusion
• The adolescent’s identity results from a mutual
recognition between the young person and
society
• The adolescent forges an identity, but at the
same time society identifies the adolescent
• Key to resolution lies in social interactions
(according to Erikson)
The Social Context of
Identity Development
• Course of identity development varies by culture
and historical era
– Many more career options for women than in the past
means more complicated choices to make
• The more alternatives that are available, the more
difficult it is to establish a sense of identity
• Because of these complications, adolescents may
need a “time out” to figure out identity before
entering adult roles
The Social Context of
Identity Development
Psychological Moratorium
• “Time out” from excessive
responsibilities and obligations
• Experiment with different roles
• Luxury of the affluent if introspection
interferes with survival
Problems in
Identity Development
• Identity diffusion
– incoherent, disjointed, incomplete sense of self
• Identity Foreclosure
– bypassing the period of exploration and
experimentation
• Negative Identity
– identities that are undesirable to parents or the
community
Identity Development
• Determining an Adolescent’s Identity Status
– Degree of commitment
– Degree of exploration or crisis
Identity Development
• Identity generally not established before age 18
• During college, vocational plans solidify
– but not religious and political beliefs
• College may prolong psychosocial moratorium
– especially for political and religious beliefs
• Individuals may move from one identity status to
another, particularly during adolescent and young
adult years
Occupation Choice & Identity Status
A = Achievement
M= Moratorium
F= Foreclosure
D= Diffusion
Occupation Choice & Identity Status
A = Achievement
M= Moratorium
F= Foreclosure
D= Diffusion
Occupation Choice & Identity Status
A = Achievement
M= Moratorium
F= Foreclosure
D= Diffusion
Occupation Choice & Identity Status
A = Achievement
M= Moratorium
F= Foreclosure
D= Diffusion
Occupation Choice & Identity Status
A = Achievement
M= Moratorium
F= Foreclosure
D= Diffusion
Occupation Choice & Identity Status
A = Achievement
M= Moratorium
F= Foreclosure
D= Diffusion
Gender and Identity
I’ll put my plans to explore
Consider this scenario
in terms careers
of genderon
and
identity
different
hold
formation in adolescence
and emerging
adulthood…
because
it’s important
that I
maintain my relationship. My
fiancé is planning to study
engineering, and I’ll move to
Chicago with him to support
his studies…
Young women tend to have more difficulty than
young men in integrating their aspirations for
love with their aspirations for work, in part
because of gender double standards. Identity
formation conflicts with the task of young
adults to achieve intimacy vs. isolation.
Masculine Characteristics
Feminine Characteristics
Independent
Emotional
Aggressive
Grateful
Acts as leader
Kind
Self-confident
Creative
Dominant
Gentle
Active
Understanding
Ambitious
Aware of others' feelings
Outspoken
Enjoys art and music
Adventurous
Tactful
Competitive
Considerate
Likes math and science
Home oriented
Takes a stand
Cries Easily
Makes decisions easily
Devotes self to others
Skilled in business
Strong conscience
The Bem Sex-Role Inventory
1. self reliant
2. yielding
3. helpful
4. defends own beliefs
5. cheerful
6. moody
7. independent
8. shy
9. conscientious
10. athletic
11. affectionate
12. theatrical
13. assertive
14. flatterable
15. happy
16. strong personality
17. loyal
18. unpredictable
19. forceful
20. feminine
21. reliable
22. analytical
23. sympathetic
24. jealous
25. leadership ability
26. sensitive to other's needs
27. truthful
28. willing to take risks
29. understanding
30. secretive
31. makes decisions easily
32. compassionate
33. sincere
34. self-sufficient
35. eager to soothe hurt feelings
36. conceited
37. dominant
38. soft spoken
39. likable
40. masculine
41. warm
42. solemn
43. willing to take a stand
44. tender
45. friendly
46. aggressive
47. gullible
48. inefficient
49. acts as a leader
50. childlike
51. adaptable
52. individualistic
53. does not use harsh language
54. unsystematic
55. competitive
56. loves children
57. tactful
58. ambitious
59. gentle
60. conventional
Gender Concept and Sex-Typed Behavior
Sandra Bem
Masculine
High Masculinity
Androgynous
Low Femininity
High Femininity
Undifferentiated
Feminine
Low Masculinity
Gender Concept and Sex-Typed Behavior:
Examples from TV, Movies, or Books?
Sandra Bem
Masculine
Low Femininity
High Masculinity
Androgynous
??
Undifferentiated
??
??
Feminine
High Femininity
??
Low Masculinity
Gender-Role Development
• Gender Intensification
Hypothesis:
– Sex differences result from
societal pressure to act in
stereotypically
masculine/feminine ways
• Androgyny is being both
masculine and feminine
• Androgynous females and
masculine males report
higher self-esteem than
do their peers
Culture and Identity
• Conception of “self” is distinctly Western: More studies
needed on identity development in non-Western cultures
• Psychosocial moratorium is more possible in some cultures
than in others
• Limitations on exploration in love and work are tighter for
girls in traditional cultures than for boys
• Only in recent history has the idea of questioning expectations
and actively exploring alternatives become prevalent (in
Western cultures)
• Globalization is impacting identity formation processes for
young people around the world
Ethnic Identity Development
• Ethnic identity has been studied in African- American,
Hispanic, Native American, and white youth
• Ethnic identity weakest in white youth, overall, but many do
identify with particular ethnic groups (e. g., German, Irish,
Italian, Jewish)
Ethnic Identity:
Orientations for Minority Youth
• Assimilation
– adopting the majority culture’s norms and standards while
rejecting those of one’s own group
• Marginality
– living within the majority culture but feeling estranged and
outcast
• Separation
– associating only with members of one’s own culture and
rejecting the majority culture
• Biculturalism
– maintaining ties to both the majority and the minority cultures
Ethnic Identity: Examples
Status
Example
Bicultural
“Being both Mexican and American is the best of both
worlds.You have different strengths you can draw on in
different situations.”
Assimilated
“I don’t really think of myself as Asian American, just as
American.”
Separated
“I am not part of two cultures. I am just Black.”
Marginal
“When I’m with my Indian friends, I feel White, and
when I’m with my White friends, I feel Indian. I
don’t really feel I belong with either of them.”
Multidimensional Model of
Racial Identity
Three aspects of racial identity
influence the effects of
discrimination:
• Racial centrality – how
important race is in defining
your identity
• Private regard – how you feel
about being a member of
your race
• Public regard – how you
think that others view your
race
Descargar

Document