Assessing Democracy
Survey in South
Table of Contents
Citizenship & Nationalism
Access to Justice & Rule of Law
Civil & Political Rights
Economic & Social Rights
Free and Fair Elections
Democratic Roles of Political Parties
Government Effectiveness &
Civilian Control of the Military
Minimizing Corruption
The Media in a Democratic Society
Political Participation
Government Responsiveness
International Dimensions of Democracy
Introduction to Democracy Survey
The purpose of this slideshow is to
analyze democracy in South Africa
– Researching different aspects of
criterions for a successful democracy
– Presenting an hypothesis and either
proving or disproving this hypothesis
– Determine if democracy is successful or
Citizenship and Nationalism
Darren Redshaw
Anneliese Hinz
Nationhood and citizenship are
important foundations for
democracy, but how strong is this
foundation in South Africa?
How inclusive is citizenship?
All who are born in the country
 Parents are citizens
 Naturalized citizenship
 No citizen can be deprived of
Steps towards citizenship
Valid permanent residence permit
or exemption
 One year's ordinary residence in
the Republic of South Africa
immediately prior to the
 In addition 4 years of
physical(actual) residence in the
RSA during the eight years before
the application (excluding the year
of ordinary residence).
Steps towards citizenship cont.
 If married to a South African spouse, two
years of permanent residence and two
years of marriage to the South African
spouse immediately prior to the
Intends to continue to reside in the
Republic or falls within the further
categories specified in section5(1)(e).
Be good and sound character
Able to communicate satisfactorily in any
one of the official languages of South
Steps towards citizenship cont.
Have adequate knowledge of
the duties and responsibilities
of a South African citizen.
How well minorities are protected
The Constitution forbids all unfair
 All discrimination is unfair unless it
is established as fair.
White- 9.6%
 Colored-8.9%
 Indian/Asian-2.5
While whites are in the minority they
still have a lot of money and power
because of the advantages that they
gained during the apartheid system.
State boundaries
How well are divisions reconciled?
Can be moderated very well
 TRC – Truth and Reconciliation
Amending the constitution
2/3(66%) of parliament vote for it
At least 6 provinces in the National
Council of Provinces (NCP) vote to
change it
To amend how the constitution is
75% of parliament must vote to
change it
 6 provinces in the NCP most vote to
change it
There were some court cases about
people who were trying to get some
aid granted to them but they were not
 There is still some economic
inequality between minority and
Nationhood and citizenship are
important foundations, and it is good
that South Africa has these
principles well established in its
constitution, but this strong
constitution is nothing with out
access to justice and the fair rule of
the law.
South Africa
Access to Justice and
the Rule of Law
Tim Porter
The government of South Africa has
made changes drastically since the
end of the apartheid in 1994. This
change has improved the country as
a whole as well as also improving the
access to justice for its citizens by
promoting the rule of law.
To what extent is the rule of law
operative throughout the territory?
The African National Congress, which
has been the dominating party since
the end of the apartheid, has helped to
improve the country’s status towards a
better democracy, however the
improvement is slowing down.
The amount of red tape makes it very
difficult to open or to continue to run a
small business.
There is little to no police patrols
outside of the big cities. people in rural
areas do not have as much access to
justice because of this.
To what extent are all public officials subject to
the rule of law and to transparent rules in
the performance of their functions?
The arms deal is an example of
 There are corruption laws in place to
try and prevent this.
 The corruption score on a scale of 010 with 0 being highly corrupt South
Africa got a 4.5
How independent are the courts and the
judiciary from the executive, and how free
are they from all kinds of interference?
The South Africa Judiciary branch
is only subject to the constitution
and the law.
The judges however are appointed
by the executive much like here.
How equal and secure is the access of citizens to
justice, to due process and to redress in the
event of maladministration?
As in most developing countries
things are improving but they are far
from fixed.
The amount of private police is almost
double the amount of public police,
and most people can not afford to hire
private police.
There is a shortage of schooling for
lower middle class people which in turn
is causing a lack of jobs to do on a
local level
At the end of the apartheid many poor
black people were promised low-cost
housing but many have yet to receive
any such thing.
What extent do the criminal justice and penal
systems observe due rules of impartial and
equitable treatment in their operation?
Although there are laws and even
governmental groups that are in place to
ensure equality like the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission things are
not equal.
Due to the amount of cases that are
brought before groups like this as well
as the cost of taking care of these cases
mean many are not heard or are ignored
leaving people bitter and feeling
When the government acknowledged
the need to deal with the problems left
by the apartheid they never found all
the answers and many are still
unanswered today
How much confidence do people have
in the legal system, to deliver fair
and effective justice?
Serious problems are still present.
Police abuse is still present is South
Africa and the high cost of lawyers
hampers the access to justice.
Also, problems occur in the equality
laws that cause black as well as white
people to complain and feel a lack in
Overall the court systems are
improving with the equality courts
providing people more confidence in
them and that they can actually be
What measures if any are being taken to
remedy publicly identified problems in
this field, and what degree of public
priority and public support do they have?
The truth and reconciliation
commission has given amnesty to
people who have applied, but with the
large amount of people it is hard to
justify everyone.
 Since the end of the apartheid there
have been 1.6 million more houses
built for the poor.
There has been a stable economy with
low inflation.
 70% of the households have now got
 9 million have access to clean water.
The new government that is in place has
made significant steps towards a better
democracy, improving the access to
justice and promoting the rule of law
throughout the country. The country as
whole has greatly improved from the time
of the apartheid. Even with these changes
there still are a lot of more things that
need to be changed. However, when will a
country ever be perfect with every citizen
having equality?
Civil & Political Rights
Matt Brown & Danielle Genovese
“Solemnly proclaiming a constitution & a Bill of
Rights is one thing; promoting them &
inculcating the substance of these fundamental
documents into the minds & hearts of people is
-Johannes Van Der Ven
How Free Are All People From Physical Violation
Of Their Person, & From Fear Of It?
South African Constitution, Chapter 2, Section 12.
Supported by organizations such as Human Rights Watch, World
Health Organization, United Nations General Assembly.
 Sexual violence against women & children a problem of “epidemic
proportions” in S.A. [Human Rights Watch]
 Problems with HIV/AIDS.
 Lack of information sharing & implementation of PEP (PostExposure Prophylaxis).
 Promotion of Equality & Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act
 Domestic Violence Act (1998).
– Independent Claims Directorate criticized police management for a
lack of commitment to ensuring that the police fulfilled their
obligations under the Domestic Violence Act.
[Amnesty International (2004) ]
How Effective & Equal Is The Protection Of The Freedoms
Of Movement, Expression, Association, & Assembly.
S.A. Constitution, Chapter II, Section 21.
- Note, right to “enter remain in & reside anywhere in the Republic.”
Overcame problems of Apartheid.
Certain groups mistreated by police, including those seeking political asylum and undocumented
S.A. Constitution, Chapter 2, Section 16.
- Includes, “Freedom of the Press.”
- “Freedom to receive or impart information or ideas”
Many support groups working to promote access and share information about HIV/AID
The police Annual Report for the period ending March 2003 recorded a decrease of 5.7 per cent in
reported rapes. There were 52,425 officially reported rapes, a third of the estimated actual number.
More than 40 per cent of the victims were aged 18 or younger. The conviction rate for rape remained
low, at an average of seven per cent. [Amnesty International 2004]
What do S.A. think about Freedom of Press?
Attitudes Towards Human Rights Among S.A. Youth
Survey Conducted on a representative sample of 538 Grade 11
Students in the Johannesburg/Pretoria Region.
 Asked a variety of questions, including their feelings about certain
Human Rights, including sections of Civil and Political Rights.
Results of Survey
- The students had ambivalent attitudes towards civil and political
- Had more positive attitudes towards the freedom of speech and right
to lifestyle than the freedom of assembly or the freedom of press.
(Van Der Ven, Johannnes A., Dreyer, Jaco S., and Hendrik J.C. Peiterse. "ATTITUDES TOWARDS HUMAN
RIGHTS AMONG SOUTH AFRICAN YOUTH." Religion & Theology 7.2 (2000))
How Effective & Equal Is The Protection Of The Freedoms
Of Movement, Expression, Association, & Assembly Cont.
Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorism and Related Activities Bill.
-After criticism by NGOs, the final version of the law increased safeguards against arbitrary arrest and
searches and infringements of freedoms of expression, association and assembly. [Amnesty International]
S.A. Constitution, Chapter II, Section 18.
- Includes, “Right to Form a Political Party.”
- Some concerns to ANC Domination & overwhelming majority.
Public Funding of Represented Political Parties Act (1997).
S.A. Constitution, Chapter II, Section 17.
- “Everyone has the right, peaceful & unarmed to assemble, to demonstrate, to picket & present petitions.”
Widespread Police Abuse.
South Africa: Police Fire on Peaceful AIDS Protestors (2005)
[Human Rights Watch]
-Prevention & Combating of Corrupt Activities Act (2004).
-Some members of the police commit abuses, and deaths in police custody as a result of excessive force
remain a problem. The government has taken action to investigate and punish some of those who commit
such abuses. [U.S. Department of State: Bureau of African Affairs]
Feelings On Corruption In S.A.
56% felt persons in government worked for their own account
rather than public interest.
46% thought ‘most’ or ‘almost all’ office bearers were involved in
41% felt that the level of corruption is increasing.
(Camerer, L. “Costly Crimes: Commercial Crime and Corruption in South Africa.” Institute of Security
Studies Monograph, 1997.)
-The provincial minister and senior officials in the Department of Health were removed from
their positions in August. They were under investigation for corruption, including
misappropriation of the province’s 19 million Rand HIV/AIDS budget. [Amnesty International 2004]
How Secure Is The Freedom For All To Practice Their Own
Religion, Language, Or Culture?
S.A Constitution, Chapter 2, Section 15.
 Backing of UN General Assembly.
- Elimination of all forms of religious intolerance.
 Language barriers & access to information broke down by
translation technology.
- Promotion of Access to Information Act (2000).
-Educational groups, including USAID, promoting access to education
by providing materials in 10 different languages.
 Survey found higher confidence in “Right to Lifestyle” than other
How Free From Harassment & Intimidation Are Individuals
& Groups Working To Improve Human Rights?
The Bill of Rights clearly states that all citizens are to be treated with dignity in all
situations, and that in order to be detained their must be a clear and valid reason.
Amnesty International is a group that is present all over the world working to improve
all human rights, and equality
Chapter 2 in the S.A constitution-The Bill of Rights, it clearly states most to all the
necessary human rights needed for human sustainability with dignity.
S.A Constitution chapter 2-(9.1)Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to
equal protection and benefit of the law
GEAR (Growth, Employment, and Redistribution) was started in 1995 after the
apartheid was ended to help the country strengthen its economic system, and lower
its staggering un-employment rate.
-Journalists with the independent African Eye News Service in Nelspruit were harassed by
officials as a result of their investigations into alleged corruption within the provincial
government. In late 2003 police officials in Pretoria instituted an investigation into the failure
by local police to act on complaints lodged by the journalists in 2002 of threats and attacks
by known criminals. [Amnesty International 2004]
What Measures, If Any, Are Being Taken To Remedy
Publicly Identified Problems In This Field, And What Degree
Of Political Priority & Public Support Do They Have?
Alteration of Sex Description & Sex Status Act (2003).
Child Care Amendment Act (1998).
Sterilization Act (1998).
Witness Protection Act (1998).
Prevention of Organized Crime Act (1998).
Supporting Organizations
-World Health Organization.
-Human Rights Watch.
-Independent Complaints Directorate.
-United Nations General Assembly.
-Amnesty International
Economic & Social Rights
By Dion Low & Jenna Rodriquez
As we had concluded with the topic of the
civil and political rights, we begin with the
economic and social rights in South Africa.
We are to explain the health of the
population, the basic necessities of life,
economic and social programs, education,
trade unions, and corporate governance.
To what extent is access to work or
social security available to all, without
Since April 2005, South Africa developed an
agency called the South African Social Security
Agency. This agency was put in place to prevent
fraud and to make the system more efficient.
Approximately 300,000 people are collecting
benefits, but were not entitled to them. So this year,
South Africa implemented an amnesty campaign.
This would cover the 300,000 people that are not
covered. The social security covers about 6.2 million
children, disabled citizens, and the elderly.
South Africa has a shortage of skilled workers for
their booming economy. Deputy President Phumzile
Mlambo-Ngcuka created the Joint Initiative on
Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA). This task force is
to identify what are the urgent skills needed and to
give advice on how they can be met. JIPSA says that
the number one road block to their economic growth
was the lack of skilled workers. The lack of workers
were due to the repercussions of the apartheid.
Now, the citizens are either being trained in South
Africa or overseas. The jobs that they had created are
not limited to their citizens; Immigrants are
welcomed to join in.
How effectively are the basic
necessities of life guaranteed?
South Africa is the most advanced,
broad based economy in that continent.
Their infrastructure rivals any first world
nation. They produce two-thirds of Africa’s
electricity, and twenty percent of the
world’s gold. Most of their region has
abundant of food and water. But, there are
still areas that lack these commodities.
To what extent is the health of the
population protected, in all sphere and
stages of life?
South Africa’s health care system consist of two
sectors. One the smaller, fast growing private and
the other the under-funded , over-extended public
sector. The private sector caters to the middle and
upper class . Also, they cater to the health care
professionals. This inequity was due in part to the
apartheid. To solve this inequity, they implemented
a district based system to have local control. This is
to ensure that health care is affordable to all. Now
there are 3,500 clinics for the public sectors. At
these clinics, free health care is available to
pregnant mothers and children under six of age.
The public sector also are swamped with
patients who has AIDS/HIV. This epidemic
has drained a lot of the systems resources.
The good news is that the data shows that the
level of people infected is starting to level
How extensive and inclusive is the right to
education, including education in the rights and
responsibilities of citizenship?
The ministry of education introduced a new
education laws amendment bill. This will provide
free education to the poor and to raise the
indigenous African language to the same status as
English and Afrikaans. The other reforms are to
improve mathematical literacy, life skills, wages for
teachers, and financial support for students. To
ensure that all children are to be educated equally,
parents who can not pay for school fees are relieved
of that burden.
How free are trade unions and other work
related associations to organize and represent
their members’ interests?
Labor relations act of 2002: Created guidelines
to protect trade unions.
- Unions are able to speak to employees about what
they offer as long as they are registered.
-Employee has the right to leave work and
participate with activities involving the union.
Labor Department has created 9 institutions to help
nurture sound co-operative industrial relations.
Examples include:
-Commission for Conciliation, Mediation &
Arbitration: Helps settle disputes in the workplace.
- Advisory Council for Occupational Health &
Safety: advises the Minister of Labor on policy
matters relating to occupational health and safety
and they also work on reducing the amount of
accidents and deaths per year.
- Employment Conditions Commission: Aims to
advance economic development and social justice
by regulating the right to fair labor practices.
The grade I gave S.A. for this area is a H/High
because they have made many changes to ensure
that workers are not being discriminated against
or taken advantage of. The government has also
seen the advantage of having unions/associations
that help promote the workers interests and there
has been a serious increase in these.
How rigorous and transparent are the rules on
corporate governance, and how effectively are
corporations regulated in the public interest?
Before Apartheid: there was little foreign investment in South
Africa, no foreign product competition, monopolies were
kept unregulated, and majority of population is in poverty.
The ANC government’s created a program called GEAR to
increase economic growth, improve employment rates, and
redistribute wealth.
Problem: Mining Finance House monopolies were central to
the development of capital and money markets. Therefore,
they dominated mining and the private sector.
Pressures from foreign financial institutions brought on
changes. Today, the houses no longer exist and the industry
is home to diverse firms and strageties.
Problem: Corporations like the Mining Finance
House used the pyramid structure, which allowed
the founder to remain in control even when they no
longer had the majority of shares. N-Shares were
also used to give the founder most, if not all,
control of the company and share holders did not
have voting rights.
From 1989-1999 companies using these structures
dropped from 53 to 16. This was due to investor
resistance against companies who used these
investments and the market threatened to
withdraw support for the company.
Problem: Majority of population is poverty stricken
and unemployed.
The government used state owned enterprises (SOEs)
are now being used to help place more black South
Africans in higher positions, even when sometimes
they are not as qualified.
The grade I gave S.A for this area is M/Middling
because the main goal of improving corporate
governance was to help improve the economic
growth. The economic performance has improved
but, its economic growth has only averaged about
4.7 What measures, if any, are being taken to
remedy publicly identified problems in this field
and what degree of political priority and public
support do they have?
4.6 regarding improvements in corporate
governance, the King Code was expected to
be enforced by 2002.The King Code is a
detailed guide on improving corporate
governance. Many companies have willingly
changed their structures to accommodate the
new requirements
As we conclude our section of economic
and social rights of South Africa, the section on
free and fair elections is to begin.
Free & Fair Elections
By Teresa Moon
And Angelo Poulos
There is no way to talk about Free and Fair
elections without first knowing what rights
are guaranteed to the citizens of South
Africa.The legislature that they elect
proposes legislation that helps protect
their rights and their freedoms.
 We will explain how much control and say
citizens have over the elections and their
choice of representatives, we will explain
if it fact we can truly call these elections
“free and fair”
To what extent is appointment to governmental and legislative office
determined by popular competitive election, and how frequently do elections
lead to change in the governing parties or personnel?
The governing party has not changed in the last three elections
and the ANC is still in power, but the opportunity to change the
party is still available to them. The opposition is weak, but with
each election, the official opposition to the ANC changes allowing
a possible change in the governing parties.
 The choice for president is not necessarily the general
populations decision, but the choice of who chooses him is theirs.
The National Assembly similar to Great Britain’s Parliament is
elected to office based on how many votes were cast for a specific
party. The seats per province are allocated based on population
and the # of seats per party are allocated based on the votes cast
for each party. The citizens of South Africa largely have a say in
who they want in congress, but don’t have much direct control of
electing the president, similar to us electing our president through
the electoral college.
 One of the strengths of a Proportional representation system is
that it gives even the smallest of parties the chance to win seats in
the parliament as well as the fact that elections happen every 5
How inclusive and accessible for all citizens are the registration and
voting procedures, how independent are they of government and party
control, and how free from intimidation and abuse?
In South Africa you can register to vote when you are 16 and officially
vote when you are 18 if you are an South African citizen.
 The main thing that ensures that the elections are free from independent
and party control is the Independent Electoral Commission,it is publicly
funded and accountable to parliament, but independent of government.
The IEC is responsible for dividing the country into voting districts;
making logistical arrangements for elections; registering eligible voters;
ensuring the smooth running of voting; and counting, verifying and
announcing the results of election.
 You can register at the office of your nearest municipal electoral officer
and registering is easy all you need is Apply for registration in person; Be
a South African citizen; and Possess a valid bar-coded identity document
or a valid temporary identity certificate. These simple requirements allow
every citizen to have access to voting. Also to ensure that elections are free
and fair voters queue outside their voting station entrance, and their
names are checked against the Voters’ Roll as they enter the station. So
that voters’ cannot vote twice each voter’s thumb is examined under an
ultra-violet scanner for traces of the irremovable ink that is applied to
everyone who has voted. (International Marketing Council of South
Elections free from party control,
intimidation and abuse cont.
Even though the election in 1994 was without incident regarding, hundreds of
people died each month in politically-related violence before the polls opened
in April, with the highest number of incidents occurring in KwaZulu and Natal
between members of the ANC and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP). This was
some intimidation and abuse, but it was mostly between those two parties and
nothing happened on election day. In the first democratic election they also
had international observers to make sure the election was unbiased and free
and fair. The 1999 elections, for instance, were observed by about 11 000
neutral observers, 369 of whom were from abroad.(International Marketing
Council of South Africa)
 Even with the continuing instability in the KwaZulu-Natal region, the number
of deaths resulting from political violence is now only a tenth of what is was in
1993.(Reynolds 268)
 In other South African countries elections are characterized by ethnic voting,
regardless of the issues. Allegiances are stronger than appeals based on
politics. South Africa has remained basically free of ethnic conflict after
decades of oppression. Allows people to vote freely free of intimidation and
total allegiance based on ethnic lines. (Reynolds 273)
How fair are the procedures for the registration of candidates
and parties, and to what extent is there fair access to them in
the media and other means of communication with the voters?
The PR system allows parties to compile lists of candidates in a
way that reflects the diversity of the population. This feature
allows them to be highly ranked in terms of the proportion of
women in parliament.(32.8 % in 2004 election) Allows parties to
choose candidates who represent the full spectrum of diversity in
the region. (Parliament of the Republic of South Africa)
 As here in the U.S everyone has the right to speak freely to the people, in
whatever way they can, but like here the barrier is funding. Here in the
U.S we limit funding to the candidates to equal the playing fields a little.
In South Africa there is a lack of control over private funding for political
parties so this could lead to unequal access to the media and sources of
 Estimates in the 1999 election were that unregulated secret private
funding was 4-1 to public funding.
 Allows wealthy to “buy” influence and limits the equal value of each
persons vote. (Institute for Security Studies)
How effective a range of choice does the electoral and party system allow the
voters, how equally do their votes count , and how closely does the composition of
the legislature and the election of the executive reflect
the choices they
There are many different choices, voting
gives # of people in party and gives
them the allocated # of seats in the
National Assembly and Parliament, they
don’t get to vote for each individual
candidate, but they at least get to vote
for the party.
There are 27 parties that they can
choose from, that is quite the different
amount of choices. As seen in the three
last elections in 1994, 1999 and 2004 the
opposition has been constantly changing
based on the votes cast by the general
population and the ANC has the highest
percentage of votes with 62.6% of vote,
securing 252 of the 400 seats in the
National Assembly. So it does
correspond with how the people vote.
African Christian Democratic Party
African Democratic Movement
African Moderates Congress Party
Africa Muslim Party
African National Congress
Democratic Party
Dikwankwetla Party of South Africa
Freedom Front
Federal Party
Green Party
Inkatha Freedom Party
Islamic Party
Keep It Straight and Simple Party
Luso-South African Party
Minority Front
Merit Party
National Party
Pan Africanist Congress of Azania
Right Party
South African Women's Party
Sport Organisation for Collective
Contributions and Equal Rights
United People's Front
Workers International to Rebuild the Fourth
International (SA)
Wes-Kaap Federaliste Party
Workers' List Party
Women's Rights Peace Party
To What Extent does the Legislature Reflect the social
composition of the electorate?
How the population votes is how the seats get allocated in the
legislature, so if the majority of people vote for one party the
majority of the seats will be filled by that party. Voters also do not
have to vote for the same party for the National Assembly and
their province's legislature, though they can do so if they wish.
After making their choice, voters deposit their ballot papers in a
sealed ballot box and leave the station. (Alvarez-Rivera)
The National Council of Provinces(NCOP)-each legislature
nominates ten members to NCOP, it reflects proportion of each
political party in the legislature, each province has equal
representation, regardless of size or population.(Northwest
Province Legislature)
To what extent do the political forces in and outside the
country accept the electorate votes and the election results?
Each election has many observers from the international
community to determine whether or not the election was free and
 The 1999 elections, for instance, were observed by about 11 000
neutral observers, 369 of whom were from abroad
 The IEC also presides over the elections to make sure they are
free and fair. President Bush President Bush responded to a
question about free and fair elections in Egypt with this response;
“Listen, the definition of free and fair, there's international
standards, of course, but people ought to be allowed to
vote without being intimidated; people ought to be allowed
to be on TV, and if the government owns the TV, they need
to allow the opposition on TV; people ought to be allowed
to carry signs and express their displeasure or pleasure;
people ought to have every vote count. And those seem like
reasonable standards.”
Response of political forces in
and outside country cont.
If you go by this standard, if you apply it to the election process in
South Africa they allow and have all these freedoms and rights. I
would say that since there were international observers at the
election and they said it was free and fair and these are president
Bush’s standards than by all means I would say that forces inside
and outside accept the election results, some may be bitter that the
ANC has dominated the political scene, but it was free and fair
Also the domestic and international community recognized that a
proportion representation system would allow the minorities more
say and show that the ANC was not trying to seize power and turn
the state into a one party system.(Reynolds 184)
What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy publicly
identified problems in this field, and what degree of political
priority and public support do they have?
Overall the elections are pretty routine and well administered, but
these are some of the minor problems we found.
Some are afraid of voter apathy, South Africa is afraid that elections have
become so routine, that people will cease to care or even vote at all, this
needs to be addressed in a timely manner, so that they keep that original
excitement they had back in April in 1994.One of the major issues is that
elections are held right after the Easter holiday and people often were off
on extended vacations and decided to vote at other polling stations than
the ones where they were registered in their home province. This makes
for difficulty in estimating how many people will turn up at each polling
station, this makes for extremely long waits and requires some officials to
bus people to other polling stations. In some situations election officials
were unclear of how to process voters who were trying to cast ballots
outside their stations, and occasionally turned people away from stations
at which they were not registered. (Piombo)
Lack of control of public funding is an ongoing problem that they are
trying to address.
They are working to tackle these problems right now, but we are not
entirely sure what public support and political priority is has.
Overall after 12 years this country is
fairly stable in regards to free and fair
elections and has the process has
basically become pretty routine, they do
have some things to fix, but so do we and
we still consider ourselves a democracy.
 Once Representatives and parties have
been chosen we must look at what role
and importance Political parties play in
in workings of Democracy.
Democratic Role of Political
Chris George
Gabe Lent
6.1 How freely are parties able to form, recruit members
and campaign for office?
There are currently sixteen established political
parties in South Africa. The largest of these
parties is the African National Congress (ANC),
which holds 293 seats in the National Assembly.
Parties are formed in a freely and in a very
democratic fashion. Anyone can join any party as
long as they hold similar interests.
6.2 How effective is the party system in forming and
sustaining governments in office?
Some parties are taken more seriously by the government
than others. The ANC, with 293 seats in the National
Assembly, would have a much better chance of maintaining
a government office than parties such as the New National
Party who are not represented in the National Assembly but
are still considered an official organization.
6.3 How free are opposition or non-government party to organize
within the legislature, and how effectively do they contribute to
government accountability?
Opposition parties remain robust and vocal in South
African parliament. An example of an opposing party
organized within the legislature would be the Democratic
Alliance. Though they are an opposing party, they have the
second highest representation in the National Assembly,
holding 47 seats.
6.4 How fair and effective are the rules governing party
discipline in the legislature?
The rules governing party discipline in the legislature of
South Africa are fair to a certain degree. Parties are free to
form and recruit members as they please, but will not
always be accurately represented in the National Assembly.
6.5 To what extent are parties effective membership
organizations, and how far are members able to influence
party policy and candidate selection?
The African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) was formed
in December 1993 with the aim of representing South
African Christians in parliament. It won two seats in 1994
and six in 1999.
6.6 To what extent does the system of party financing prevent
the subordination of parties to special interest?
On 20 April 2005, the Cape High Court gave judgment,
dismissing Idasa’s application to access records of private
donations made to the four biggest political parties in
South Africa – the ANC, the DA, the IFP and the NNP –
under the Promotion of Access to Information Act 2000.
Recognizing however that the litigation was brought in the
public interest and the importance of the principles of
transparency and openness which are at stake, Justice
Griesel made no order as to costs.
6.7 To what extent do parties cross ethnic, religious and
linguistic divisions?
The United Christian Democratic Party (UCDP) was formed
by Lucas Mangope, head of the apartheid-era "homeland"
of Bophuthatswana. Mangope was among the first
homeland leaders to accept so-called independence for his
scattered country for the Setswana-speaking people. The
UCDP was the only party allowed to operate in the
territories under his control.
6.8 What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy publicly
identified problems in this field, and what degree of political
priority and public support do they have?
The new constitution's bill of rights provides extensive
guarantees, including equality before the law and
prohibitions against discrimination; the right to life, privacy,
property, and freedom and security of the person;
prohibition against slavery and forced labor; and freedom
of speech, religion, assembly, and association. The legal
rights of criminal suspects also are enumerated. The
constitution provides for an independent and impartial
judiciary, and, in practice, these provisions are respected.
Government Effectiveness
And Accountability:
Galina Andreeva Devin Gilbert
Is the government
accountable to the
people and their
After the fall of apartheid, South Africa
began building a system of government aimed
at fulfilling its citizens’ needs and wants.
Through a system of cooperative government,
The Promotion of Access to Information Act,
and various checks and balances, the South
African government has laid the framework for
a better system, and government officials are
held accountable for whether or not they
adhere to it.
To what extent is the elected government able to
influence or control those matters that are important to
the lives of its people, and how well is it informed,
organized and resourced to do so?
South Africa has a system of cooperative government. A
cooperative government consists of National, Provincial, and local
spheres, which operate as distinctive, interdependent and
interrelated sectors. They must also adhere to the principles in the
Control and influence of the government over the people and the
issues important to them starts at the lower levels and filters
Currently the South African government faces some serious
problems with resources. There is a shortage of skilled workers,
thus the efforts to refurbish or build new stadiums as the
government planned are falling through. They have an AIDS
weakened army, with up to forty percent of those enlisted
infected. (The Economist)
How much public confidence is there in the
effectiveness of government and its political
Citizens of South Africa show tremendous support towards the
ANC led government. The ANC received 70% of the vote in
the 2000 elections.
The Democratic Alliance Party was the only other to receive a
notable amount of votes in 2000. They managed to secure
about 12% of the total vote.
The majority of people in South Africa are poor blacks. The
ANC secured its victory by appealing to this population. Of the
DAP’s total votes, only 3% were from the poor black
There is great deal of public confidence in the government as
the majority of people in SA voted for it and feel like it is
working to better their lives and the well being of the country.
Surprisingly, citizens are not discouraged by the high
unemployment rates across the entire country. Currently
about 27% of South Africans are unemployed, yet despite the
ANC’s failure to alleviate the situation, support from the poor
black majority is high. (
How effective and open to scrutiny is the control
exercised by elected leaders and their ministers over their
administrative staff and other executive agencies?
South Africa’s government is supposedly open to
scrutiny, with the main branches able to keep one
another in check. This is working relatively well,
after the apartheid South Africa’s whites gave
political power to the ANC. The ANC went along
with the premise that mostly white-run capitalism
would continue. The Truth and Reconciliation was
also a part of this, aimed to trade amnesty for
what really happened, in hopes repairing the
damage that had been done. People are
compromising for the greater good.
How extensive and effective are the powers
of the legislature to initiate, scrutinize and amend
In the current South African system, to amend the
constitution you need the National Assembly, with a
supporting vote of at least 75 per cent of its members;
and the National Council of Provinces, with a
supporting vote of at least six provinces. Without this,
the legislation will not pass.
Legislation was amended after the apartheid, mainly
the harsh segregation laws which restricted non-white
groups from voting and getting equal healthcare to the
white Africans. Legislation has become more open to
scrutiny now, with a system similar to ours or Great
How extensive and effective are the powers
of the legislature to scrutinize the
executive and hold it to account?
In the South African system, a system of checks and
balances is in place to make sure that no branch of the
government overestimates itself. However,claims of
corruption within the branches caused for other
measures to be taken.
Special courts were made to fight corruption and
monitor branches of the government’s activities, the
legislative and executive included.
How rigorous are the procedures for
approval and supervision of taxation and
public expenditure?
Taxation has become an important issue for South
Africa, as they have an economic goal of halving
unemployment and poverty by 2014. Because of these
aspirations, the government has come under lots to
scrutiny to keep it’s taxation and public expenditure
focused on the right areas. Approval is a long and
difficult process. It is done on a provincial level, with
the larger sectors of the government making sure that
what is being done is in tune with their policies. This is
one of the factors that has helped South Africa grow
How comprehensive and effective is
legislation giving citizens the right access
to government information?
The Promotion of Access to Information Act was passed on
February 2, 2000. The act was intended "To give effect to the
constitutional right of access to any information held by the State
and any information that is held by another person and that is
required for the exercise or protection of any rights.“
( It is very unusual for such an act to grant
access to private information.
The Act has attributed to many success stories in the pursuit for
information. For example, “…The South African History Archive
used the Act to access lists of surviving Apartheid-era Military
Intelligence files, in the process exposing the degree to which these
files had been concealed from the TRC.” (
There has also been significant cases of the Act’s failure to deliver
access. “The Khulumani Support Group has failed to secure
access to government’s draft policy documents on reparations for
the victims of gross human rights violations.” (
Problems of the effectiveness of the Act include low public
awareness, and that many Documents not available.
What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy
publicly identified problems in this field, and what
degree of political priority and public support do they
After apartheid ,the South African government enacted many
laws and punishments for corruption to hold government officials
accountable such as:
– A national anti-corruption hotline
– A media campaign to raise public awareness about corruption
and it’s effects
– Courts designed especially to combat corruption
– Blacklisting businesses involved in corruption
– Regular anti-corruption conferences that bring together all
sectors and stake-holders
– Legal protection for whistle blowers
Public support is quite high for the anti corruption measures,
with 43 percent believing it to be very effective and 44 percent
believing it was effective. Most people believe that corruption has
gone down because of the measures enacted by the government.
Although South Africa’s government is
progressing, there are problems which need to
be addressed, for example the lack of resources
and the AIDS epidemic. For the government to
further its progression, they must follow
through with and uphold all decisions made,
for example The Promotion of Access to
Information Act. A system of checks and
balances must continue as well, to maintain a
balanced sense of power throughout the
government. Through this the government can
and will be held accountable for the decisions
made on the behalf of its people.
Civilian Control Over Military
and Police
Written by: Dominique Brown and
Anna Malenkovich
Are military and police forces under
civilian control??
There is lack of connection between
local government and police
agencies. Community Police Forums
(CPFs) have been designed to give
the people a say in the priorities of
the police. This has been written into
national legislation, but their entry
into the system has not been
- Rotberg/Mills
How effective is civilian control
over armed forces??
Civilian control
over armed forces
is somewhat
 South Africa does
not yet have a nonpartisanship which
is a dominant
factor in civilian
control over armed
It has been difficult
for the police to
pull away from the
negative actions of
the past, therefore
making it hard for
citizens to
trust/accept the
“new” police force.
How publicly accountable is the
police for their actions??
ANC- African National
South Africa is in need
of a more transparent
government and for
police to have equal
consequences as
citizens, but because
police officials still
regularly get input
from politicians this
makes accountability
a serious area of
Although police have certain
standards which they are required to
uphold, changes are slow coming
 Draft White Paper, released in 1998,
“proposed that performance against
crime, in accountability for
expenditure, should be used as
devices for holding the police
leadership accountable the
government” (CSVR).
How free is the country from the
operation of paramilitary units, private
armies, mafias and etc?
This country is not very free at all
from these other armed
 Two organizations we found included
the Serious Violent Crime Unit (SVC)
and the
 As of 1998, 481 criminal
organizations have been noted by
the police
What measures are being taken to
remedy publicly identified problems in
this field?
The South Africa Police has begun an
internal reform initiative. The 1991
strategic plan outlined five specific areas
of change:
– Depoliticisation/ Restructuring of the police
– Increase community accountability
– More visible policing
– Establishment of improved and effective
management practices
– Reform of the police training system (including
The National Peace Accord
Created in 1991, was a multi-party
agreement enacted to address high levels
of police violence in the early transition
 It introduced a range of structures and
procedures including:
Police Board
Local and Regional Police committees
Police reporting officers
Code of Conduct
System of monitors
Enacted in 1995, it included:
– Restructuring the police service into National Divisions
– Creation of National and Provincial “Secretaries” for
safety and security, which would advise the political
executives in the provinces of police policies matters
and would monitor the adherence of the police to new
policy. This was motivated by the ANC’s desire to see
policy control of the police in civilian hands
– Requirement that the National Commissioner of Police
should every year publish his plans, priorities and
objectives for the year
– Creation of “Community-Police Forms”
– Creation of “Independent Complaints Directorate” which
would receive and investigate public complaints of
police misconduct
Minimizing Corruption
Jill Scantlan and Rebekah Chitsaz
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• What is corruption?
• The Corruption Act of 1992 states it is “the abuse of public power for illegitimate or illegal
gain or profit. Certain criteria had to be met for it to be considered corruption:
• There must be an offer and/or receipt of a benefit;
• The benefit must not be legally due;
• It must be for a person holding office; and lastly,
The purpose for which the benefit is given and/or received, must be to influence a person in
the exercise of his/her power to do something or not to do something.
This definition prevailed until the Prevention of Corruption Act (2002) was ratified in 2004.
The Public Service Anti-Corruption Strategy provides a working definition of corruption as
“any conduct or behavior in relation to persons entrusted responsibilities in public office
which violates their duties as public officials and which is aimed at obtaining undue
gratification of any kind for themselves or others.”[1]
[1] Country Corruption Assessment Report. United Nations Office on Drugs and crime and
Department for Service and Administration. South Africa (April 2003): 28
Jill Scantlan and Rebekah Chitsaz
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• Why is corruption significant in assessing the democracy
of a country?
• It is significant because transparency is essential for a
functioning democracy. Public official’s purpose in the
government is to uphold the laws and essentially to uphold
democracy. When they abuse this power by being influenced
by a benefit rather than common law, democracy can not
function in its truest form. Thus, the level of corruption a
country has can measure how democratic they are.
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• How effective is the separation of public office, elected
and unelected, from party advantage and the personal
business and family interests of office holders?
Existing laws:
-Prevention of corruption act of 2002 states that when a public official accepts any
gratification from another who is seeking to obtain employment and there is a
conflict of interest it is assumed to be corrupt unless evidence is produced.[1]
-Conduct of cabinet members and deputy ministers is governed by strict conflict of
interest provisions in the constitution. Code of ethics states that public office
officials cannot act in anyway that is inconsistent with their office, or expose
themselves to any situation involving risk of a conflict between their official
responsibilities and private interests ; or use their position or any information
entrusted to their enrich themselves or to improperly benefit any other person.[2]
[1] Country Corruption Assessment Report. United Nations Office on Drugs and crime and
Department for Service and Administration. South Africa (April 2003): 27
[2] Van Vuuren, HennieNational Integrity Systems Transparency International Country
Study Report. South Africa (2005): 32
Problems with implementation:
Parliament and the executive bring up two issues pertaining to potential conflicts of
-Post-employment restrictions which may lead to a revolving door between business and
-Increased frequency of lucrative government contracts being awarded to the partners
(wives or lovers) of senior officials in national, provincial and local government. There is
no legislation or laws specifically restricting this conflict of interest.[3]
Examples of corruption:
-South African Arms Deal:
-$5 billion dollars Strategic Defense Procurement Package was financed in
1999/2000. Deputy President Jacob Zuma’s financial advisor, Shabir Shaik, is the
director of Thomson CSF, the French arms manufacturer, which was awarded a
contract to supply management technology for four corvette patrol vessels for the
South African Navy. He is also the director of African Defense Systems which is a
subsidiary of Thomson CSF. Chippie Shaik, Shabir’s brother, is the Chief Director
of Procurement in the South African Defense Department and African Defense
Systems employs his wife. Shabir Shaik’s company ,Nkobi Holdings, is a
shareholder for the African Defense Systems. All of these conflicts of interests
show extreme evidence of corruption between private and public interests.[4]
-[3] Vuuren: 33
-[4] Slaughter, Barbara. Arms Corruption Scandal Erupts in South Africa. World Socialist
Website. International Committee of the Fourth International. March 20, 2000
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• How effective are the arrangements for protecting office
holders and the public from involvement in bribery?
-Corruption act of 1992 abolished the common law of bribery act. This was
seen as a mistake because offenders who should have been prosecuted for
corruption were prosecuted for charges such as theft or fraud. This made
complying with the act and providing proof very difficult. The prevention of
corruption bill was ratified in 2004 which reinstated the common law of
-Protection of whistle blowers: This protects people who report or expose
corruption. The protected disclosures act of 2000 is binding on both public
and private sector organizations. South Africa is one of 7 countries in the
world with Legislation protecting whistle blowers.[2]
[1] Country Corruption Assessment Report: 33
[2] Country Corruption Assessment Report: 40-41
Implementation of the law:
-Since bribery was not seen as an aspect of corruption in the legislation from the
end of apartheid until 2004 we can not look at conviction rates to find evidence of
bribery. We are also limited in finding evidence in ISS victim’s surveys because
they did not conduct them until 1998. [2]
-From the victim’s surveys it is shown that most of the bribes that were asked for
and paid were involving traffic officials. Police were the second group who most
often asked for a bribe. It is particularly troubling because the police (SAPS) are
the lead agency for reporting corruption cases by the public and business sectors.
-It is also worth noting that despite the whistle blower protection laws only 2% of
the people who took the victims survey said they had tried to report a corrupt
official. The primary reason given (46%) was that it would not have changed
anything and the next reason given (27%) was because they were afraid of being
Example of Corruption:
-100% of the bribes that were asked for by the traffic officials were paid according
to the 2003 victim’s survey. This shows that in this case, (and probably many
others) bribery is apart of the way the system is run and the way business is
conducted. Accounts of more high profile bribery can also be found, such as in the
arms deal, but has just begun to be accounted for because of the recent change in
the corruption act. .[3]
[2] Country Corruption Assessment Report: 26
[3] Vuuren: 26-28
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• To what extent do the rules and procedures for financing elections,
candidates and elected representatives prevent their subordination to
sectional interests?
• Legislation
• In 1997, the Public Funding of Represented Political Parties Act No. 103 was
established. This act governs the public funding of political parties by managing the
Represented Political Parties' Fund, which is credited with money allocated by Parliament
and donations from any source. Political parties must account for the money they receive
from the Fund. The system has been, for the most part, effective. [1]
• The problem arises with private funding that candidates and elected representatives
receive. There is no regulation on where funds comes from and the amount of funds
received. According to the National Integrity Systems from 2005, “Private funding is
thought to outstrip public funding by approximately five to one, which could create room
for private donors to gain unfair advantage over a largely poor electorate.” Although steps
have been taken to try to pass legislation to make it necessary for candidates to disclose
their sources, the issue still remains.
[1] National Integrity Systems: 42 & 43
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• To what extent is the influence of powerful corporations and
business interests over public policy kept in check, and how free are
they from involvement in corruption, including overseas?
-All legislation that deals with corporations provides voluntary compliance
only. This sets up a base for ethical standards but with no real accountability
or way to regulate corporations.
-Promotion of Access to Information Act promotes good corporate compliance.
-King report promotes essential elements of discipline, transparency,
independence, accountability, responsibility, fairness, and social responsibility
and produces king commission reports on corporations that access these
-Legislative framework provides extra-territorial jurisdiction over offenses
which do business overseas.[2]
[1] Country Corruption Assessment Report: 42
[2] Country Corruption Assessment Report:6
Problems with Implementation:
-“investor confidence” is always an issue when governments consider how to govern
corporations. Because of the amount of jobs and revenue corporations bring to a
country it essentially allows them to be above the law.
-The balance between protecting public interests and providing and environment in
which businesses are able to flourish is difficult for South Africa (and the rest of the
world) because of the amount of power and money corporations have.
-It is recognized that the corporate sphere is less regulated and it is suggested that
legislative efforts are needed to provide for the inclusion of certain corporate
governance measures by the government.[1]
Examples of Corruption:
-South African Arms Deal:
Multinational corporations were partially involved in the deal’s corruption. These
include British Aerospace Systems and Thales (the French arms dealer). Along with
bribery being involved, an “agency fee” paid to a small South African company that
operated as British Aerospace Systems local agent for around 100 million pounds was
paid. These companies have been investigated but none have been tried.[2]
-The private sector in the 1990’s “picked up the slack” from the state and began to
move its interests into crime prevention. It has used a mixture of public and private
money for this venture but without accountability legislation the whole “who will police
the police” scenario still exists along with the conflicts of interest that are inevitable.
Since corporation’s motivations lie solely in profits this institution should not be the
source for crime prevention.[3]
[1] Country Corruption Assessment Report: 43
[2] Vuuren: 18
[3] Chasing the rainbow: a survey of South Africa. The Economist. (April 8, 2006): 9.
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• How much confidence do people have that public
officials and public services are free from corruption?
• According to the Corruption Perception Index, 11 surveys were conducted to
measure the confidence of business people and country analysts in South Africa.
The scores ranged from 0 – highly corrupt, to 10 – highly clean. The result of the
surveys placed South Africa at a rank of #46 among 156 countries analyzed.
Their Corruption Perception Index score in 2005 came out to be 4.5 with a
confidence range of 4.2-4.8. [1]
• Opinion surveys in recent years have shown widespread public concern over corruption
in South Africa, with many believing it actually has been growing worse, a view shared by
former Minister of Justice Dullah Omar. In 1997 the international accounting agency
Deloitte and Touche estimated total losses from public sector fraud and mismanagement
in South Africa at nearly R10 bn ($1.7 bn). The country's lively, independent press
regularly features major scandals on its front pages. .[2]
[1] Country Perception Index: 5
[2] UN - Africa Recovery – Combating South Africa’s ‘blight’
Minimizing Corruption
Are public officials free from corruption?
• What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy publicly
identified problems in this field, and what degree of
political priority and public support do they have?
• In a speech given by Professor SS Sangweni, head of the delegation of the republic
of South Africa on National Developments of corruption, Sangweni noted that South
Africa has had a long history of corruption. He gave several examples of steps South
Africa has taken to reduce corruption within the nation. Such examples are as follows:
establishment of the National Anti-corruption Summit for all stakeholders in the
country in April 1999, a range of legislation, including legislation that criminalizes
corruption, protects whistleblowers and witnesses, provides access to information to
ordinary citizens, legislation for special commissions and tribunals, legislation to recover
the proceeds of crimes, including corruption, a well as legislation dealing with
international cooperation in criminal matters. Also, a global forum in which nations
gather to discuss corruption and steps to minimize it is held every two years. South
Africa will be hosting the next forum in 2007. [1]
[1] PSC – Speeches – Global Form on fighting corruption
The Media in a Democratic State
Ashley Allen
Andrea Frogge
Jenn Carter
1. How independent are the media from government, how
pluralistic is their ownership, and how free are they from
subordination of foreign governments or multinational
South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is
government owned.
The government still limits publications that “endanger the
security of the government”, through the Protection of
Information Act.
Diversity of the broadcasting media is not good, there are four
large companies that own the broadcasting world, all of which
are owned by mining magnates (white people). Again, the
SABC is government owned.
Radio is much better, more independent from the government.
1. Continued
The Republic of South Africa Constitution States:
– (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, which
a. freedom of the press and other media;
b. freedom to receive and impart information and ideas;
c. freedom of artistic creativity; and
d. academic freedom and freedom of scientific research.
– (2) The right in subsection (1) does not extend to
• a. propaganda for war;
• b. incitement of imminent violence; or
• c. advocacy of hatred that is based on race, ethnicity, gender or
religion, and that constitutes incitement to cause harm.
2. How representative are the media of different opinions and
how accessible are they to different sections of society?
Newspapers and Magazines are great representatives of
different opinions
However it is only accessible to those black South Africans
who can read and afford to buy the publications.
Other than the SABC (government owned broadcasting), the
only independent broadcasting channel is M- Net, which the
government has restricted by not allowing news broadcasts.
3. How effective are the media and other
independent bodies in investigating government and
powerful corporations?
The media in South Africa are effective at investigating the
Most of them cover the same stories which make them more
it is highly unlikely that they all were able to make up the same
Proving that the news any form of media covers is true is
difficult in any country.
4. How free are the journalists from restrictive laws,
harassment by the media?
Journalists in South Africa speak their minds
There are not restricted by laws
They have the freedom to express themselves
It is possible for the media to be controlled by the
government because so many people were
opposing it.
If they were controlled by the government there
were more sources that praised the government.
I also found that if they are able to express
themselves so freely they cannot be intimidated
or harassed.
5. How free are private citizens from intrusion and
harassment by the media?
Private citizens are very free from
harassment by the media
Most of the newspapers are privately
owned so they have no government
Citizens express there opinions
freely through media.
6. What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy publicly
identified problems in this field, and what degree of political
priority and public support do they have?
The media has a lot of public support.
The people care about the news outlets
that they read or watch
o In South Africa it is a well known idea that
you don’t talk about AIDS and rape but the
newspapers but the media express views.
o For the newspapers that are government
owned they express the government as
being great. The Media who is not
government owned they express there
opinions freely.
Key Used For Question 5 Chart
Ranking between 0 and 3
0- not in English
1- Very free
2- they have a few articles that intrude
3- They intrude on private citizens
Key Used For Question 6 Chart
Ranking between 0 and 3
0- not in English
1- little solutions being made
2- few solutions being made
3- everything possible is being done
Die Burger
Business Day
Business Report
Cape Argus
Cape Business News
Cape Times
Carletonville Herald
Channel Africa
The Citizen
City Press
City Vision
Daily Dispatch
Daily News
District Mail
Eikestad Nuus
Financial Mail
Gordon's Bay and Strand Herald
Herald Newspaper group
The Herald
Hermanus Times
Independent Newspapers
The Independent on Saturday
Independent News and Media
Bushveld News
The Lowvelder
Mail and Guardian
The Mercury
Metro Burger
Natal Witness
Paarl Post
The Peoples Post
Port Elizabeth Express
The Post
Pretoria News
Radio Oranje
The Sowetan
Sporting Post
The Star
The Sunday Independent
Sunday Times
Sunday Tribune
Tswhane Eastern News
Tyger Burger
Vaal weekly
Die Volksblad
Zululand Observer
Media Freely express views to the
 SABC is government owned and
main news broadcast in South Africa
 Reliable because they cover same
Political Participation
Andy Riahi & Fabini Bassale
While 65% of the world’s citizens say that their
country is not run by the will of the people, a poll
shows that 59% of the South Africans believe
they are ruled according to their wishes – the
highest score of the 68 % countries surveyed.
This situation has been made possible thanks to
the pretty high political participation of voluntary
associations, citizen groups and social
movements in South Africa, who constantly
attempt to improve the political conditions and
impact the government’s policies and decisions.
To help you understand the full political
participation in South Africa, our
presentation will explain at first its causes,
then its manifestations and finally, we will
finish our discussion by describing the
struggles that the different political actors
face nowadays in any voluntary public
activity in the country and the measures
taken to overcome them.
 Furthermore, through the entire study,
gender equity will be a focus particularly
at the political level.
Causes of the political
There are several causes that explain
the good participation of the
populations in the political life. Some
of them are: the constitution, the
press, the judiciary system, political
parties, and the push for gender
The constitution
SA constitution is regarded as the most
progressive in the world, with a Bill of
rights second to none.
 The constitution declares human rights
and freedoms. Those rights (freedom of
expression and association, political and
property rights,…) are taken very
seriously by citizens. That shows that the
constitution allows peoples to associate.
Therefore, they can meet to discuss the
government or try to improve populations
situations without fear.
The press
South Africa's press is less restricted
than any press in Asia, the Middle
East or South America - and among a
handful of the most free in Africa.
 That explains the impact that the
media and different associations
have upon the government and its
SA judiciary system
South Africa has an independent
judiciary, subject only to the
Constitution and the law.
 That is a good point for the political
participation in the sense that the
government cannot detain some
people for having “said” some
things. The judiciary system will
make then some reparations.
SA political parties.
South Africa has a vibrant multiparty
political system, with 16 parties
represented in parliament. The African
National Congress is the majority party in
the National Assembly and controls eight
of the country's nine provinces. But
opposition parties remain robust and
 Those parties represent the different
citizens groups that exist in the country.
Therefore, one could well say that almost
all points are represented in the
SA push for equity
The push for gender equity has allowed
women to be part of not only the
volunteering associations but also of the
 With almost a third of MPs, nine Cabinet
ministers and eight deputy ministers
being women, South Africa ranks eighth in
the world for women's representation in
government. But the social and economic
battles for gender equity are far from won,
despite several new laws with a direct
bearing on the quality of women's lives.
Characteristics of the
The political participation in SA is pretty
 Indeed, looking at the 2004 year the
percentage of eligible people to vote who
actually voted was 56%
 The number of voluntary associations,
citizen groups or social movements is
important. Indeed, those organizations
focus on improving the conditions of life
of populations on several aspects of
human life. For example, we have: farmers
groups that defend their land rights.
Characteristics of the
Volunteering makes an important
economic contribution to society. Its
contributions were estimated between
eight to fourteen percent of the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP).
 Citizen participation is an essential
element of good governance and
development. Volunteering contributes
towards a more cohesive, stable society
because it is a key means by which
individuals articulate their engagement as
citizens. Voluntary actions build trust and
reciprocity among citizens
Characteristics of the
volunteering provides crucial learning
opportunities and leadership development for
those who volunteer.
The act of volunteering itself is a form of civic
participation that creates a learning ground for a
wider range of civic engagements.
volunteering is about partnership Volunteering
involves an exchange for mutual benefit, and it
demands respect for all the parties involved.
Through volunteering we give expression to our
shared humanity and sense of community. And
that is the current situation in SA.
Characteristics of the
When it comes to women and
participation in the government, a
surprising characteristic was found
which stated that a little over 30% of
women held seats in both the upper
and lower houses in the government.
Which is substantially more than
most other countries.
Struggles and difficulties
The gender equity is not fully perfect.
Indeed, as far as the stature of the typical citizen in public
office, it seems that the well-educated and more prestigious
man like any other country is brought into office. For
example the president of the African National Congress
Thabo Mbeki is the typical university graduate and radical
reformist is now leading South Africa.
Deficiencies in service delivery to communities and
therefore a need was identified to examine where we
currently stand regarding delivery of services to the poor
and how service delivery can be improved. This is being
solved by the Community Development Workers (CDWs)
Protection of the child's rights to develop his or her full
cognitive, emotional, social and physical potential. This is
being solved by Early Childhood Development
Struggles and difficulties
Comprehensive services, including health and
social services, by formal and informal caregivers
in the homes. This is being solved by the
Home/Community-Based Care program.
Finally, The National School Nutrition Programme
targets schools in poorest regions, especially in
rural and farm areas and schools serving learners
from informal settlements.
Female service-providers are given priority as it
is acknowledged that women have become heads
of households in poor families and providers for
extended and foster families. Wherever possible,
skills-development initiatives are implemented in
food-production activities such as food gardens
and small bakeries.
In this presentation, we explained the
causes of the high political
participation in South Africa.
– The constitution of South Africa
– The press in South Africa
– South Africa’s judiciary
– South Africa political parties
– South Africa’s push for equity
We also described how the political
participation is manifested currently
through the different groups and
– Looking at the 2004 year the percentage of
eligible people to vote who actually voted was
– High number of voluntary associations, citizen
groups or social movements
– A little over 30% of women held seats in both
the upper and lower houses in the government
However, those associations face
– Refinement of the political priorities by
the government
– Allowing diversity by allowing women in
the Houses and thus permitting them to
hold more seats.
Government Responsiveness
Adam Lopez & Ariel Cerrud
Public Consultation & Access
System in Place—
Public Service Commission Sole duty
is to “enhance excellence in governance
within the public service by promoting a
professional and ethical environment
and adding value to a public
12.1 How open and systematic are administration that is accountable,
equitable, efficient, effective, corruptionthe procedures for public
consultation on government policy free and responsive to the needs of the
and legislation, and how equal is people of South Africa.” (PSC)
the access for relevant interests to
Public Consultation & Access
The PSC and it’s partnerships with other
governmental agencies leads us to
believe that South Africa does have a a
wide range of system in place where it’s
citizens can access and consult on
government policies. However, the
12.1 How open and systematic are commission itself does note that much
the procedures for public
progress still needs to be made on “the
consultation on government policy number of capacity challenges that still
and legislation, and how equal is exist,” to implement policies & strategies.
the access for relevant interests to
Access To Officials
12.2 How accessible are elected
representatives to their
Although we found that basic contact
information is easily accessible online,
we tend to assume that technological
knowledge and access, especially for
South Africa’s most disadvantaged, is
not equal across the board. We do note
however that access to elected officials
does seem to occur most often through
social organizations & groups.
Access To Officials Cont.
12.2 How accessible are elected
representatives to their
Our research also indicates that
although much work has been done to
create systems & rights of access for all
citizens of South Africa, many still are
misinformed or lack the necessary
information to actively participate &
access elected representatives. (FCR
Public Services
Our research shows that compared to
apartheid times, the ANC work has
positively affected the standards of living
for SA’s population. The overall standard
of living has improved, where homes and
12.3 How accessible and reliable basic necessities are reaching more and
are public services for those who more citizens. And although not all
aspects of the work is perfect, citizens
need them, and how
do seem to voice their concerns &
systematic is consultation with
problems to local leaders.
users over service delivery?
Public Services, Cont.
Our research also shows that for
accessibility & reliability to increase in
the public service areas, SA must further
develop their economy and further
develop their service delivery methods to
12.3 How accessible and reliable the point where they are not “negatively
are public services for those who affected by insufficient allocation of
finances for the upkeep of strategic
need them, and how
systematic is consultation with public assets.” (UNDP 2003)
users over service delivery?
Government Confidence
12.4 How much confidence do
people have in the ability of
government to solve the main
problems confronting society, and in
their own ability to influence it?
Studies & polls indicate that confidence
on the government is indeed quite high
among South Africans. The Markinor
survey indicates that “71% [of South
Africans] believe that government is
generally performing well.” These
numbers were noted by President Thabo
Mbeki at this years State of the Union
speech signaling so level of influence.
Much of the government, their respective
representatives and many of the citizens
of South Africa seem to be determine to
remedy much of the problems found
within the field of government
responsiveness. From references in the
12.5 What measures, if any, are State of the Union address, to work done
being taken to remedy publicly by groups such as the Parliamentary
identified problems in this field, Monitoring Group, acknowledgements
and what degree of political priority that work needs to be done is out there.
and public support do they have?
Our analysis indicates that much of the
structure for government responsiveness
exist throughout South Africa. The South
Africa Constitution required examination
of elected officials and their respective
offices. The problem however lies in the
lack of information & knowledge of these
systems. South Africa. Until South
African’s base knowledge of their
respective rights improves, problems will
continue to exist in regards to this
Jennifer Smith & Kollin Roberts
What is being decentralized?
The government
 Land use and natural resources
 The decision making process from a
centralized government to the local
government and communities
Decentralization Situation in South
The decentralization process is
progressing but very slowly
 The lingering effects of the old
Apartheid system are affecting the
slowness of decentralization
 Actual transfer of power is one of the
sticky points to decentralization in
Key points of success of
decentralization in the government
Government Increased Provinces
– From 4 to 9
– Each with individual legislatures
Lower levels of government getting
involved, but only to a certain degree.
• Local governments have limited autonomy
• They only have limited authority to make laws that
promote decentralization
Non-Government Organizations (NGOS)
are key for decentralizations on the local
Problems with decentralization in
the government
Decentralization failed because of the African
National Congress (ANC)
– ANC is majority party and makes all decisions
Little Budget Management on Local Level
– Funds are not available for local use.
– Communities need funds from outside sources
There is very little accountability on the part of
the government.
– No government oversight
– No guarantees that decentralization orders will be in
Cities like Johannesburg & Cape Town are
hampering the decentralization process
Decentralization of land & natural
The goal is to develop local governmental
– It is imperative that these local governments are given
power and authority in order to make changes
The problem is that private interests are what are
controlling natural resources in South Africa (i.e.:
religious groups, chieftains, service projects)
– Because they are often held unaccountable
– If held accountable, it is usually an upward process,
leading back to the central authority
Natural resources are key to everyday life,
therefore it is important for local government
organizations to retain control
Ways of improving the
decentralization process
Increased participation by the population in local
public decision making.
 Transfer responsibilities from central government
to variety of local institutions.
 Transfer of power from non-governmental
authorities to representative officials.
 Structured democratic reforms must take place
– Support and work with democratic reforms
Empowering authorities who are downwardly
Decentralization can be completed
but it will take time
 South Africans need to unite with on
another and hold the government
 Government needs to be willing to
share power
– For the good of the country
– To help heal old wounds from the era of
International Dimensions of
Brandon Sears
Justin Sagami
The overall question:
Are the country’s external relations
conducted in accordance with
democratic norms, and is it itself free
from external subordination?
How free is the governance of the country for
subordination to external agencies, economic,
cultural or political?
South Africa is one of the 50 wealthiest nations in the
world, and therefore it is economically independent.
The people of South Africa are free from subordination and
are protected by the constitution.
Politically South Africa has worked hard to make its
government free from the apartheid and has set up a good
way of keeping itself free from outside rule.
To what extent are government relations with
external donors based on principles of
partnership and transparency?
For the most part the South African government has very
good and open relationships with external donors.
There is an issue with illegal arms deals and some
government officials have been involved.
There were also scandals involving members of the ANC
who gave contracts to companies which benefited them
To what extent does the government support UN
human rights treaties and respect international
South Africa was one of the original 51 members in the
United Nations, and even though it was suspended due to
its apartheid government it was accepted back in 1994 and
is actively participating in all aspects of the UN.
South Africa was very involved in things like the Summit
Meetings and was crucial in the making of the Millennium
South Africa respects the United Nation’s human rights
treaties and the international laws to the fullest extent.
To what extent does the government respect its
international obligations in its treatment of refugees and
asylum seekers, and how free from arbitrary
discrimination is its immigration policy?
South Africa has a lot of refugees already in the country
from war stricken countries like Zimbabwe, Congo, and
There are more and more refugees trying to enter the
country everyday and South Africa must restrict how many
people are allowed to be let into the country.
They are looking for skilled workers to be able to work and
contribute to the community and the country.
The government is encouraging the refugees inside South
Africa to return home and are helping them to do so.
South Africa has great laws protecting refugees but in
reality the police abuse and extort refugees.
How consistent is the government in its support
for human rights and democracy abroad?
The government fully supports the human rights acts as
they too have a constitution and bill of rights that protect
the SA citizens from official’s abuses jus as we do in
The government enforces the human rights in order for
South Africa to keep its young democratic society running
without failure because they know that democracy runs
through the people that it governs.
Although government is trying hard to abide by the human
rights, many citizens still suffer from abuse by federal
officials from police men.
What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy
publicly identified problems in this field, and what
degree of political priority and public support do they
A major public problem is that of the refugees and asylum
seekers entering and waiting to be accepted into the
country. The Department of Home Affairs takes care of all of
the applications and is basically overwhelmed with
applicants. They have insufficient staff and equipment
which makes it difficult to process all of the information and
they are very backed-up.
The government isn’t doing much to try and remedy the
situation besides helping to send many refugees back to
their home countries.
This doesn’t seem to be a priority to the government and
the public is suffering from the overcrowded cities and high
unemployment rates.
Overall, South Africa is internationally developing and
learning how to act democratically. For the most part South
Africa is free from external subordination and is an
independent nation. As far as relations with the UN it is
very good and respects all of the international laws. The
main problem has to do with refugees and asylum seekers
trying to get into South Africa. There are some problems in
the process and the treatment of asylum seekers and the
government isn’t doing much to resolve it. For the most
part South Africa is doing a good job with its human rights
and is democratically sound and developing.
Final Conclusion to Democracy Survey
South African democracy may not
match our idea of an ideal
democracy, but each individual
country has their own way of
attaining this goal at their own pace
and by their own means.
Section 1: Works Cited
Section 2: Sources
"south African government
information." 15 Oct 2004. 5 Jun 2006
 South Africa alive with possibility. 5
Jun 2006
Section 2: Sources (cont’d)
"South Africa independent media
centre." 5 Jun 2006
 "chasing the rainbow." The
economist 08 Apr 2006: 1-10.
 “BBC news.” 5 Jun 2006
Section 3: Works Cited
Amnesty International
Camerer, L. “Costly Crimes: Commercial Crime and Corruption in South Africa.”
Institute of Security Studies Monograph, 1997
Human Rights Watch
U.S. State Department: Bureau of African Affairs
Van Der Ven, Johannnes A., Dreyer, Jaco S., and Hendrik J.C. Peiterse.
YOUTH." Religion & Theology 7.2 (2000)
Section 4 Work cited
Oman, Charles P., ed. Corporate Governance in
Development. Washington DC: CIPE, 2003.
The South African Department of labour.
Unknown. 2004. South African department of
labour. 5-22-06
South Africa: Alive with Possibilities. Big Media
Publisher. 5-22-06. International Marketing
Council of South Africa. .
Section 5 Work Cited
Alvarez-Rivera, Manuel. “Election resources on the Internet:The Republic
South Africa Electoral System” Election Resources on the Internet.
22- 05-06.
Alvarez-Rivera, Manuel. “Election Information & Statistics” Election
Resources on the Internet. 22-05-06
Cummings, Richard “A Diamond is Forever:Mandela Triumph, Buthelezi
and de Klerk Survive, and ANC on the U.S Payroll” International Journal of
Intelligence and counterintelligence, summer 1995.
Institute for Security Studies. “Who Funds Who, money in South African
Politics” 22-05-06.
International Marketing Council of South Africa. “Independent Electoral
Commission” South Africa, Alive with Possibility. 22-05-06.
Section 5 Work Cited Cont.
International Marketing Council of South Africa “Government in
South Africa”. 22-05-06.
 Northwest Province Legislature. “The National Council of
Provincial Legislature. 22-05-06.
Parliament of the republic of South Africa “Your Representatives
Parliament” Parliament of South Africa. 22-05-06.
Piombo, Jessica. “Politics in a Stabilizing Democracy: South
Africa’s 2004
Elections” Strategic Insights, Volume III,
Issue 5(May 2004).
Reynolds, Andrew. Electoral Systems and Democratization in
Southern Africa. New York: Oxford University Press,1999.
Section 7: Work Cited
Cockett, Richard. Chasing the Rainbow: A Survey of South Africa."
The Economist 08 April. 2006:
Section 8: Work Cited
Rotberg, Robert and Mills, Greg. War and
Peace in South Africa. Washington D.C:
Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
 Rauch, Janine. “Police Reform in South
Africa’s Transition.” 2000. Center for the
Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
 “South Africa.” Britianica, Volume 27.
Chicago, 2005. Pages 913-914.
Works Cited
• Cockett, Richard. "Chasing the Rainbow." The Economist 6 Apr. 2006. 29 May 2006
• Vuuren, Hennie. National Integrity Systems Transparency International Country Study Report.
Cape Town, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 2005. 18+. 29 May 200
• Country Corruption Assessment Report. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
South African Government, 2003. 6+. 29 May 2006
• Sangweni, SS. Speech. South African Public Service Commission. Global Forum on Fighting Corruption
and Safeguarding Integrity II. 30 May 2001. 29 May 2006
• Transparency International Corruption Perception Index 2005. Transparency International.
2005. 5. 29 May 2006 <>.
• Harsch, Ernest. United Nations. Department of Public Information. Africa Recovery.
Africa Mounts Drive Against Graft. 29 May 2006
• Slaughter, Barbara. "Arms Corruption Scandal Erupts in South Africa." World Socialist Web Site.
20 Mar. 2001. International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). 29 May 2006
Section 11: Bibliography
 reporter
Section 12: Work Cited
South Africa. Public Service Commission. State Of The Public Service Report 2006. Arcadia: 2006
Page 64
South Africa. Foundation For Contemporary Research. Good Local Governance: Case Studies
From The Western Cape. 2004 Page 7
City of Johannesburg. 2006. City Councillor, Johannesburg, South Africa. 31, May 2006.
Oxford. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). South Africa Human Development Report 2003.
South Africa. Markinor. Press Release: Voice of the People. 2006. 31 May 2006.
Thabo Mbeki. “State of the Union Address.” South Africa Parliament, Cape Town. 3 February 2006
South Africa. Markinor. Markinor is quoted by President Thabo Mbeki. 2006. 31 May 2006.
South Africa. Parliamentary Monitoring Group. About the PMG. 2006. 31 May 2006
Thabo Mbeki. “State of the Union Address.” South Africa Parliament, Cape Town. 3 February
Bruce, David. “Staggering Under the Burden:
ICD policies on the receipt of complaints and on investigations and their negative impact on the
ICD, on public confidence, and on police discipline.” Centre for the Study of Violence and
Reconciliation. 2006. 31 May, 2006. <>
Section 13: Work Cited
The Economist, Chasing the Rainbow, A
Survey of South Africa, April, 2006
 Ribot, Jesse C., World Resources Institute,
Democratic Decentralization of Natural
Resources, 2002
 Heller, Patrick, Politics and Society, Moving
the State: The Politics of Democratic
Decentralization in Kerala, South Africa,
and Porto Alegre, 2001
Section 14: Works Cited
“South Africa: Asylum Seekers Encounter Abuse.” 17 Nov.
2005. 31
May 2006.
Department of Foreign Affairs. 18 May 2006. 31 May 2006.
South African Government Information. 16 March 2006. 31 May 2006.