Preface to
Dr. White-Oyler’s Presentation on
South Africa and the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission
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RISE OF A DEMOCRATIC
SOUTH AFRICA
Dr. Dianne White-Oyler
Fayetteville State University
THE BACK STORY
GEOGRAPHY & ENVIRONMENT
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
EUROPEAN MIGRATION
SOUTHERN AFRICA
http://www.rocksport.co.za:81/Maps/salargepan.htm
RAIN PATTERNS
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file
=/docrep/005/AC991E/AC991E07.htm
NAMIB
DESERT
THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
http://khoisan.org/do.htm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/africa/1256210.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/africa/1256210.stm
Rock Art
http://www.stanford.edu/~jbaugh/saw/Sites_and_Scenery.html
SAN TODAY
KHOISAN
ROCK ART
THE KHOIKHOI
BANTU MIGRATION
http://encarta.msn.com/media_701611637/Bantu_Migration.html
http://www.capetown.at/heritage/peoples/
(Not functioning on 9-07-06)
BANTU SPEAKERS
IN SOUTH AFRICA
BY 500 AD
THE XHOSA
http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/september/xhosa.html
http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/september/xhosa.html
http://www.satravelco.com/more_to_do_world_of_choice.php
THE ZULU
c. 1970 Warrior
Indigenous
Hair Style
http://cooltang.com/sa/detail/racial/zulu/
(Not an appropriate site for students, use image #15)
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0
023966.html
(additional searching required)
SOTHO
http://africanlanguages.com/northern_sotho/
http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/afrlang/page6.htm (woman with gourd
on her head)
http://www.nguni.com/culture/virtualafrica/sotho/
COASTAL FEATURES
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE
FIRST CONTACT TABLE BAY
FROM TABLE MOUNTAIN
• http://www.capetown.at/heritage/history/19
10.htm (not functioning on 9-07-06)
TABLE
BAY
AREIAL VIEW
TABLE MOUNTAIN & BAY
• http://www.tropicalisland.de/travel_south_a
frica_cape_town.html
TIMELINE: EUROPEANS
• PORTUGUESE
• BARTOLOMIEU DIAZ 1488
• DUTCH
•
•
•
•
•
JAN VAN RIEBEEK 1652
IMMIGRATION OF FRENCH HUGUENOTS (1689) & GERMANS
BRITISH
1795-1803 (Napoleonic Wars) RETURNED TO DUTCH
CONQUEST OF CAPE COLONY 1806; ANNEX NATAL 1843
• DUTCH THE GREAT TREK 1835-1840
• ORANGE FREE STATE—1856 AFRICKANER REPEPUBIC
• TRANSVAAL—1854 AFRIKANER REPUBLIC
• MINERAL REVOLUTION 1978
• BRITISH ANNEX AFRIKANER REPUBLICS 1877
• SOUTH AFRICAN WAR—BOER WAR 1899-1902
• UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 1910
DUTCH EXPANSION INTO
THE INTERIOR
• No link provided; search for images of Map
of European expansion across present day
South Africa and for an image of a
Voortrekker
TREKBOER OR VOORTREKKER
THE MINERAL REVOLUTION
1867
• 1. DUTCH
•
•
•
•
a. DIAMONDS AT KIMBERLY
b. GOLD AT WITSWATERSRAND
c. BOERS CONTRACT AFRICAN LABOR
2. BRITISH WANT TO CONTROL THE
WEALTH
• 3. CONFLICT: THE SOUTH AFRICAN
WAR 1899-1902
KIMBERLEY
• 3 images of Kimberly
diamond mines
• http://www.palagems.c
om/kunz_reminiscenc
es2.htm
CECIL RHODES (1853-1902)
• http://andrejkoymasky.
com/liv/fam/bior2/rho
d1.html
FROM CAPE TO CAIRO
POLITICAL
CARTOON
THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR
http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/specialprojects/anglo-boerwars/anglo-boer-war2i.htm
(not functioning on 9-07-06)
SOUTH AFRICA WAR
1899-1902
• http://www.tokencoins
.com/oompaul.htm
BOERS
1ST QUEENSLAND MOUNTED
(AUSTRALIA)
RISE OF THE APARTHEID
STATE
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
NATIONALIST PARTY 1948
THE UNION OF SOUTH
AFRICA
• 1909 SOUTH AFRICA ACT CREATES A
WHITE MINORITY GOVERNMENT—
FEDERATION OF
• 1. TRANSVAAL
• 2. ORANGE FREE STATE
• 3. CAPE (COLONY)
• 4. NATAL
• INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF RACIAL
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE BLACK
MAJORITY
AFRIKANER NATIONALISM
1900-1948
• LANGUAGE
AFRIKAANS IN THE WESTERN CAPE
• Unique language origins—Dutch
modified by indigenous & outside
languages
• Indigenous development
• PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES
• SOUTH AFRICA FLAG (1928-1994)
AFRIKANER NATIONALISM
•
•
•
•
CULTURE
LANGUAGE
EDUCATION
DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH
AFRIKANER NATIONALISM
HEROIC HISTORIC PAST
• 1. Van Riebeek at the Cape http://del-afrika.com/
• 2. Boers, Voortrekkers,
http://www.pbase.com/bmcmorrow/image/38656027
• South African War http://www.boerwarsociety.org/
Van Riebeek the Cape Trekers Leave the Cape
Soldier AngloBoer war
APARTHEID
• AFRIKAANS WORD
• DEFINITION: APARTNESS OR
SEPARATENESS
• 1ST USE OF THE TERM WAS IN 1917 BY JAN
SMUTS WHO BECAME PRIME MINISTER IN
1919
• SYSTEM OF SEGREGATION AND
INSTITUTIONAL RACISM IN SOUTH
AFRICA FROM 1948-1990s
APARTHEID
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
& APARTHEID
• 1911 & 1926 MINES & WORKS ACT
• Color Ban on certain jobs; Salaries for whites higher at all
times
• 1913 & 1936 NATIVES LAND ACTS
• Land Raid—Allocated 13% of total land to the black majority
and 87% to the white minority
• 1923 NATIVES ACT (URBAN AREAS)
• Segregation in residential areas of cities—BLACKS HAD TO
CARRY SPECIAL PAPERS TO STAY IN THE CITIES
• 1937 NATIVES LAWS AMENDMENT ACT
• Pass laws required Blacks to carry identification and
authorization to enter white areas.
PASSBOOK
http://www.un.org/av/photo/subjects/apartheid.htm
3rd image
CREATION OF THE
APARTHEID STATE
APARTHEID LEADER
http://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Barry_Munnik_Hertzog
James Barry Munnik Hertzog
1866 – 1942
Founder of the National Party
APARTHEID LEGISLATION
MANDATED:
• 1950 POPULATION REGISTRATION ACT
• Registration by Color Forced all South Africans to register as : White, Bantu
(Black), Asian (Indian & Pakistani) or Colored (people of mixed race)
• 1950 GROUP AREAS ACT
• Geographic Separation in business and residence
• 1953 RESERVATION OF SEPARATE AMENITIES ACT
• Segregation of public areas and transport Buses, Parks, and other Public Places
• 1953 Bantu Education Act
• Separate but Not Equal: Enforced Racial Discrimination of schools
• 1959 PROMOTION OF BANTU SELF-GOVERMENT ACT
• Black Homelands—THE BANTUSTANS
BANTUSTANS
JOURNEY TO JO’BURG
• ACTIVITY
• NOVEL: Naidoo, Beverley, Journey to
Jo’Burg: A South African Story, Harper
Trophy book, 1986.
(ages 9-12)
APARTHEID: THE CONTRAST
http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html
AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO
MINORITY WHITE RULE
• One Man’s Freedom Fighter is
Another Man’s Terrorist
• 1912 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE
NATIONAL
CONGRESS BECOMES
THE AFRICAN
NATIONAL CONGRESS—THE ANC
• STRIKES, BOYCOTTS AND SYMBOLIC ACTS OF
DEFINACE
• 1950s DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN MASS RESISTANCE—
PUBLIC DISOBEDIENCE
• 1955 FREEDOM CHARTER
• John L. Dube (1871-) 1st President
FREEDOM CHARTER 1955
• We, the People of South Africa, declare for all our country
and the world to know:
• that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and
white, and that no government
can justly claim authority
unless it is based on the
will of all the people;
www.sahistory.org.za/
1950s ANC
DEFINACE CAMPAIGN
http://www.nelsonmandelamuseum.org.za/web%20%20xhosa/timeline/timeline_1950s.htm
1952
1955
AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO
MINORITY WHITE RULE
• 1959 PAN AFRICANIST CONGRESS
(of Azania)
• PAC split from the ANC because
it objected to the ANC's
non-racial policies & took
a bolder approach based more
on mass action.
• Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe
(1924-1977) 1st President
•
Image of Pan Africanist Congress of Azania overtop the continent of Africa
ACTIVITY
COMPARE
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT THE US
WITH
BLACK RIGHTS MOVEMENT
SOUTH AFRICA
COMPARATIVE RACISM
U.S. HISTORY SA
• CIVIL RIGHTS
• APARTHEID
• 1619 1st Blacks to US
• 1774-1776 US Rev.
• 1861-1865 Civil War
Ends Slavery
• 1890-1920 Jim Crow
Laws
• 1954-1964 Civil
Rights Movement
• 500AD Bantu
migration—black
Africans
• 1657 1st imported 1st
slaves
• 1899-1902 Boer War
• 1948-1994 Legal
Apartheid
• 1960-1994 Militaristic
Black Rights
COMPARATIVE RACISM
U.S. STRUCTURE SA
•
•
•
•
•
•
CIVIL RIGHTS
Slavery
Puritan values
Heroes of the Revolution
MLK
Malcolm X
• Desegregation,
Affirmative Action
• APARTHEID
• Slavery & Annihilation
• Colonialism—Racial
Capitalism
• Heroes of the Revolution
• Nelson Mandela
• Steve Biko
• Walter Sisulu
• Oliver Tambo
• TRC and Restitution
THE COUNTDOWN TO
DEMOCRACY
1960s
1970s
1980s
SOUTH AFRICA
THE APARTHEID STATE
• 1961 HF VERWOERD PM
REPSONSIBLE FOR MUCH
APARTHEID LEGISLATION
VERWOERD
• 1966 BJ VORTER PM SEGREGATION
SEVERELY ENFORCED
John Vorster
APARTHEID
OVERT AND COVERT
RESISTANCE
1. Political Activism
2. Cultural Activism
MASSACRE AT
SHARPEVILLE 1960
• http://www-csstudents.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.ht
ml
SHARPVILLE MASSACRE
• http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this
_day_in_history/this_day_March_21.php
STATE TERRORISM
• TERROR IS OFTEN AT ITS
BLOODIEST WHEN USED BY
DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENTS
AGAINST THEIR OWN CITIZENS.
REACTIONS TO THE
TERRORIST STATE
• 1961 SOUTH AFRICA IS EXPELLED FROM THE
COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS
• MANDELA—”SPEAR OF THE NATION”—
200 ACTS OF SABOTAGE AGAINST PASS
OFFICES, GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, AND
POWER SUPPLIES
• 1962 MANDELA ILLEGALLY LEAVES
• 1. SUPPORT FOR THE ANC
• 2. TO MILITARY TRAINING.
• 1962 MANDELA IMPRISONED FOR 3 YEARS
• 1963 RIVONIA TREASON TRIAL
RIVONIA TRIAL 1964
• http://www.answers.com/topic/history-ofsouth-africa-in-the-apartheid-era
• http://www.rustybernstein.com/images/fighting-talk.jpg
Nelson Mandela 1922-
ROBBEN ISLAND
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
2004/12/photogalleries/south_africa_touri
sm/photo2.html
http://www.phillipmartin.info/webpage/T
RAVEL/AFRICA/text_southafrica_robbe
n.htm
ROBBEN ISLAND
• 12 km FROM CAPE TOWN
• A PRISON FOR
400 YEARS
TO ISOLATE
OPPONENTS OF
APARTHEID
NELSON MANDELA
IN PRISON
• http://africawithin.com/mandela/mandela_g
allery1.htm
• (third row of photos, 4th to the left of NM
behind bars)
HARD LABOR
ROBBEN ISLAND
• http://www.nelson-mandelaschule.de/nels16.jpg
SOUTH AFRICA
THE APARTHEID STATE
• 1970s INCREASED GOVERNMENT
REPRESSION
• COLOR BAN ON FREEDOM OF
TRAVEL AND WORK—BLACK
AFRICANS BECOME MORE
IMPOVERISHED
BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS
MOVEMENT
• MID-1960s ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT
THAT FILLED THE POLTICAL VOID AFTER
• 1. THE BANNING OF THE ANC & PAC
• 2. SHARPEVILLE MASSACRE
• STEVE BIKO (1946-1977)
• STUDENT LEADER
• COMMUNITY LEADER
• http://zar.co.za/biko.htm
ACTIVITY
PRIMARY SOURCES
• STEVE BIKO
• COLUMN “I WRITE WHAT I LIKE”
by FRANK TALK
• “Black Souls in White Skins”
• “We Blacks”
• “Fragmentation of the Black Resistance”
http://www.lib.uwo.ca/weldon/news/hottopics/arc
hive2005/nov05.shtml (at the bottom)
SOWETO TOWNSHIP
• http://www.monolith.com.au/soweto/
(at the bottom)
• SOWETO 20 km FROM JOHANNESBURG
• LARGEST BLACK URBAN COMMUNITY
COMPRISING THE BLACK COMMUNITIES OF
THE SOUTHWESTERN TOWNSHIPS
SOWETO TOWNWHIP
http://www.src.wits.ac.za/groups/outreach/2002/Mobile-labnews-9.html
SOWETO STUDENT
MASSACRE 1976
• STUDENT RIOT AGAINST
GOVERNMENT MANDATE TO TEACH
AFRIKAANS LANGUAGE
• 1,000 DEAD
• http://www.mltranslations.org
• (scroll down to South Africa on the sidebar to your left)
THE RESISTANCE
• BLACK COLLABORATORS TARGETED
• NEW FORMS OF LOCAL DEMOCRACY FILL THE
VOID
• BLACK POLICEMEN SHOT, STABBED, & HOMES
FIREBOMBED
• BLACK ON BLACK VIOLENCE—A POLITICAL ACT
• CHIEF BUTHULEZI, ZULU LEADER MAJOR
COLLABORATIONIST
THE ARTS
• ALPHA BLONDY “APARTHEID IS NAZISM”
LYRICS INCLUDE
• America, America, America
Break the neck of this apartheid
• This apartheid system is nazism, nazism, nazi
This apartheid system is nazism, nazi, them a nazi
• 1939-1945
Nazi war in Europe
Today 1985
Declare our own rights in South Africa
• America, America, America
I say break the neck of this apartheid
NEO-APARTHEID
1980s
PW BOTHA
•
•
•
•
1978 BECAME PM
1. TRICAMERAL PARLIAMENT
2. REMOVED POST OF PM
3. PROVIDED FOR EXECTIVE STATE PRESIDENT
• 1984 TRICAMERAL ELECTION DERAILED BY
COALITION OF ANTI-APARTHEID GROUPS
• http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10562528/site/new
sweek/
SOUTH AFRICA IN
A STATE OF EMERGENCY
• RESISTANCE MET WITH BRUTALITY
• INCREASED DEMANDS FOR
•
1. CIVIL RIGHTS
•
2. IMPROVED EDUCATION
•
3. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE
•
4. ELIMINATION OF JOB
DISCRIMINATION AND PASS LAWS
• MOUNTING INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS
A NEW DAY
1990’s
FW DE CLERK
• 1989 FW DE KLERK
REPLACES BOTHA
• 1. DISMANTLES APARTHEID
• 2. 1990 LIFTS BAN ON
ANC
• 3. FREES MANDELA
• 1990 CHURCHES
JOIN IN A COMMON
CONFESSION OF SIN
• 1992 WHITE SOUTH AFRICA VOTES TO END
APARTHEID
• http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/klerk-bio.html
DENNIS BRUTUS
• POEM “FEBRUARY, 1990”
• http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barbrutu
s.htm (poem is at the bottom)
• http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/
1931859221 (his picture on book of poetry)
1ST MULTI-RACIAL GENERAL
ELECTION 1994
• ONE-MAN-ONE-VOTE
• http://www.folkart.com/henderson/ballotdetail.htm (image of 1994 ballot)
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/africa/04
/photo_journal/94election/html/1.stm
(numerous images of 1994 election)
SOWETO VOTERS IN LINE
ELECTION BALLOT
NELSON MANDELA
• PRESIDENT1994-1999
• http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0304/ij
de/hart.htm (Nelson Mandela with Deputy Presidents Thabo Mbeki – now the current
president and FW de Klerk – former president)
NEW CONSTITUTION
• POSTAMBLE
• The adoption of this Constitution lays the secure
foundation for the people of South Africa to transcend
the divisions and strife of the past, . . . . . .a need for
understanding but not for vengeance, a need for
reparation but not for retaliation, a need for ubuntu
(the African philosophy of humanism) but not for
victimization.
• In order to advance such reconciliation and
reconstruction, amnesty shall be granted . . . . . . .
TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE
• THE WAY SOCIETY HEALS AND SEEKS JUSTICE
AFTER PERIOD OF WAR OR TYRANNY
• NEUREMBURG TRIALS—RETRIBUTION
• WORLD TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
COMMISSIONS
• 1. MET BEHIND CLOSED DOORS
• 2. GRANTED BLANKET AMNESTY (Chile & Argentina)
• 3. GRANTED REPARATIONS (Chile, Sri Lanka)
• TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION—SOUTH AFRICA,
THE NEW MODEL
• 1. MEETINGS OPEN & TELEVISED & RECORDED
• 2. AMNESTY CASE BY CASE BASIS
SOUTH AFRICAN FLAG
(2000)
•
http://www.theodora.com/wfb/south_africa/south_africa_flags.html
Red for bloodshed
Blue of open blue skies
Green for the land
Black for the black people
White for the European people
Yellow for the natural resources i.e. Gold
The Y symbolizes the merging nationalities - i.e
unity
TRUTH & RECONCILIATION
COMMISSION (TRC)
• AFRICAN PROVERB: “TRUTH IS GOOD,
BUT NOT ALL TRUTH IS GOOD TO SAY.”
• THE MORAL QUESTION: IS ALL FAIR IN A
JUST WAR
• THE COMMISSION ANSWERS: HUMAN
RIGHTS VIOLATIONS REMAIN ABUSES EVEN
WHEN THE CAUSE IS JUST
• THE COMMISSION’S TASK—ASSESS CRIMES
OF THE GOVERNMENT AND THE FREEDOM
FIGHTERS
TRC
“HEALING OUR PAST”
• TRC A POLITICAL AGREEMENT
• 1ST INDEPENDENT BODY OF POST-APATHEID
ERA
• THREE COMMISSIONS
• 1. HUMAN RIGHTS
• 2. AMNESTY
• 3. REPARATIONS
• http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/safrican.e
lections/stories/truth/
TRC
HUMAN RIGHTS COMISSION
• ABSENCE OF LEGAL PROCEDURES—RULES OF
EVIDENCE
• QUALITY & QUANTITY
OF INFORMATION
COMPARABLE OR
SUPERIOR TO LEGAL
PROCEDURES IN A
COURTROOM
•
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A18959-2005Apr1.html?nav=rss_world/africa
TRC HEARINGS
PEOPLE SEEKING CLOSURE
• http://www.irisfilms.org/longnight/ln_prskt.
htm (top right photo)
TRC HEARINGS
AMNESTY IN THE DEATH OF
STEVE BIKO?
• http://webs.wofford.edu/mandlovenb/SAfric
a/content/eastcape.html (bottom right photo of Biko’s grave)
TRC
• Demond Tutu
• Pumla
Gobdo-Madikizela
• http://www.irisfilms.org/longnight/ln_prskt.
htm (2nd row, image on the left)
TRC
• ADULT NOVEL
• Gobdo-Madikizela, Pulma, A Human Being Died That
Night: A South African Story of Forgiveness
•
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/truth_and_reconciliation/14366
8.stm
• The story of “Prime Evil”
Eugene De Kock
• One widow said: “I was
overwhelmed by emotion,
& I was nodding, as a way
of saying yes, I forgive you.
I hope that when he sees
our tears, he knows that they
THABO MBEKI
• PRESIDENT 1999-PRESENT
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thabo_Mbeki
(images of him with President GW Bush)
THE AFTERMATH
DECOLONIZATION
• POLITICAL
• MULTI-RACIAL DEMOCRACY—”RAINBOW
NATION”
• BOUNDARIES
• CULTURAL
• LANGUAGE
• EDUCATION
• HEALTH
• ECONOMIC
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