FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
Painful experience of Slovakia in the period before
and after joining the European Union
Ivan KUHN
Konzervatívny inštitút M. R. Štefánika
23 June 2011
BELGRADE / BEOGRAD / BELEHRAD
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
1.1
PROBLEMS IN THE PRE-ACCESSION PERIOD
• False Assumption / Myth – the funds of the European
Union – a club of countries with long tradition and high
standard of democracy and rule of law – they will be
under the control by the EU and thus there is low or no
risk that Slovak politicians or civil servants can
mismanage and misuse the funds
• Lack of transparency (not only in the area of the EU
funds but in the whole public administration)
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
1.2
PROBLEMS IN THE PRE-ACCESSION PERIOD
• No clear rules for administration and management of
the EU funds at the national level (Phare program)
• Almost no information easily available / accessible by
the citizens (low level of development of the Internet in
that period)
• All information in English – language barrier
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
1.3
PROBLEMS IN THE PRE-ACCESSION PERIOD
• Low level of understanding and low level of interest in
the EU funds from the side of the elected politicians
(also because the language barrier)
• Strong power in the hands of a few civil servants
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
2.1
RESULT – SCANDAL IN 2001 (Roland Toth case)
The scandal
• not result of the efficient controlling system at the level
of the government/public administration (there was an
audit in 2000 but no measures had been taken)
• not result of the investigation by journalists
• not result or of the active monitoring by nongovernmental organisations
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
2.2
RESULT – SCANDAL IN 2001 (Roland Toth case)
The scandal
• result of the letter written by former wife of the high
ranking civil servant in charge of the pre-accession funds
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
2.3
SCANDAL IN 2001
• misbehaviour – Deputy Prime Minister for European
Integration – instead to start investigation, made
agreement with the Director of the Department of the
Foreign Assistance at the Office of the Government, that
no investigation will be made if the person voluntarily
leaves the office
• misestimating – copy of the letter received the Prime
Minister – fired the Deputy Prime Minister for not
investigating the case and ordered investigation by the
Supreme Audit Office
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
2.4
SCANDAL IN 2001 – Impact and Output
• European Union stopped financing projects and
programs in Slovakia for half a year until the end of
investigation
• Result of the investigation (quote of the Chairman of the
Supreme Audit Office) – „Investigation did not find any
breach of the rules dealing with the pre-accession
funds at the Office of the Government, as far as there
had not been any formal rules to deal with the preaccession funds.“
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
3.1
SCANDAL IN 2001 – Findings of the investigation
• Central Financing and Contracting Unit – responsibility
for all tendering and contracting concerning the EU
funds – was not included into the Organisational Order
of the Office of the Government and thus without any
written rules and control mechanisms
• Financial proposals had been submitted to European
Commission by Director General of the Section for
European Affairs and Director of the Department of the
Foreign Assistance without approval by the Government
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
3.2
SCANDAL IN 2001 – Findings of the investigation
• All public procurement and call for proposals were
published in English only (although there was not such
an condition by the EU or EC)
• Decentralisation Implementation System (DIS) manual
had not been translated into Slovak
• Both conditions limited opportunities of the Slovak
subjects to apply for grants or participate in the tenders.
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
3.3
SCANDAL IN 2001
What investigation (Supreme Audit Office and Police) did
not find
• No concrete case of the corruption
However
• because most information was not available
• and if available only in English
• a few (or one) civil servants could manipulate use of the
funds
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
3.4
SCANDAL IN 2001 – How it worked
(almost impossible to prove – all information provided off record)
• Applicant (mayor of town/village, private entrepreneur)
looking for information how to get EU funds
• finally comes to the Department of the Foreign
Assistance at the Office of Government to ask how
he/she can get some financial assistance from the EU
• Civil Servant recommended him/her a private company,
that will prepare application for a grant and “manage”
the whole “complicated process” of approval of the
grant
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
4.1
POSSITIVE OUTCOMES OF THE SCANDAL
• Slovak politicians, media and NGO started to pay more
attention to the use of EU funds
• Set of rules to manage EU funds had been elaborated
• More information had been published, especially on the
Internet
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
4.2
NEGATIVE OUTCOME OF THE SCANDAL
• More politicians, civil servants and entrepreneurs had
realised, that the EU funds are not only an opportunity
for development of their country but also an
opportunity for their own enrichment
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
5.1
LESSON LEARNED
• Even if these are the fund of the EU, it does not
automatically means that there is good control
mechanism and low risk of corruption
• The government might have controlling mechanisms but
they either may not find problem or if they find a
problem, the authorities may not adopt necessary
measures
• Even media may not be able to fulfil role of a watchdog
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
5.2
LESSON LEARNED
• Independent monitoring of activities of the government
and public administration from the side of the civil
society is necessary
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
5.3
LESSON LEARNED
• In 2000 Slovak Parliament adopted the Law on Free
Access to Information (Serbian Parliament adopted The
Law on Free Access to Information on November 2004)
• Very good tool, that had been used many times by NGO
to get information from the government about the use
of the EU funds
• But... this Law is useless, if one does not know what to
ask for...
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
6. CHANGES AFTER SLOVAKIA JOINED THE EU
• Slovakia got access to greater amount of the EU funds
• Slovakia had become responsible for the decisionmaking on the distribution and use of the funds – EU
only makes ex-post control on the sample of projects
• EU funds had become the subject of even greater
corruption but especially of clientelism
• Result – another scandal related to the misuse of the EU
funds
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.1
CORK-BOARD TENDER SCANDAL IN 2008
• Ministry of Construction and Regional Development
organised tender for Technical Assistance
• Misused the black hole in the Public Procurement Act
• Announcement about the tender published only on the
cork-board at the corridor of the Ministry
• Only one consortium applied... and won a contract of
97-120 mil. EUR
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.2
CORK-BOARD TENDER SCANDAL IN 2008
• Tender was organised in autumn 2007
• First information about the tender published in the
media only in autumn 2008
• Not the government controlling authorities nor
investigative journalist but an NGO brought the issue to
the media
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.3
CORK-BOARD TENDER SCANDAL IN 2008
• Even the member of the Monitoring Committee for
Operational Programme Technical Assistance was not
able to receive information about the tender at the
meeting of the Monitoring Committee
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.4
CORK-BOARD TENDER SCANDAL
• Case logos
Operačný
program
Čo obsahovala víťazná ponuka
Cena v Sk
poznámka
ROP
navrhnutie, zhotovenie loga a dodanie design manuálu
2 569 805,-
vrátane DPH
OPBK
navrhnutie, zhotovenie loga a dodanie design manuálu
2 177 700,-
vrátane DPH
OPTP
navrhnutie, zhotovenie loga a dodanie design manuálu
1 925 420,-
vrátane DPH
OPŽP
Víťazná cenová ponuka obsahovala vypracovanie 6 koncepcií loga, dopracovanie vybranej
koncepcie do konečnej verzie, vypracovanie grafického dizajn manuálu, plné oprávnenie na
akékoľvek nakladanie s logom ako aj právo na jeho ďalšie šírenie prostredníctvom tretích
subjektov.
800 000,-
bez DPH
OPZaSI
Položky vo víťaznej ponuke boli nasledovné: grafický návrh loga OP ZaSI, grafický návrh
kombinácie loga ESF, loga OP ZaSI, loga SIA a loga FSR, korporátne farby a prvky, generálny
reklamný slogan, fotografie, font/firemné písmo, informačné tlačené materiály, propagačné
materiály, webová stránka.
711 358,20
vrátane DPH
OPD
Víťazná cena obsahovala vyhotovenie troch návrhov loga podľa požiadaviek riadiaceho orgánu
pre OPD, ktoré mali čo najpresnejšie vystihovať podstatu operačného programu. Z predložených
návrhov bolo vybraté jedno výsledné logo, ktoré najviac vyhovovalo predstavám riadiaceho
orgánu. Pre toto logo následne zhotoviteľ vypracoval dizajn manuál pre OPD. V zmluve o dielo
je ošetrená aj oblasť majetkových práv – zhotoviteľ súčasne s odovzdaním diela postúpil na
objednávateľa právo výkonu majetkových práv autora.
190 400,-
vrátane DPH
OPIS
Cena zahŕňa všetky náklady súvisiace s výkonom služby, grafický návrh loga, dizajn manuál.
189 000,-
vrátane DPH
OPVaV
Design manuál MŠ SR, logo MŠ SR, typografiu, korporátne tlačoviny, elektronickú komunikáciu,
návrh loga Operačný program Vzdelávanie – design manuál a návrh loga Operačný program
Výskum a Vývoj – design manuál.
496 225,z toho logo OPVaV
117 512,50
vrátane DPH
OPV
Design manuál MŠ SR, logo MŠ SR, typografiu, korporátne tlačoviny, elektronickú komunikáciu,
návrh loga Operačný program Vzdelávanie – design manuál a návrh loga Operačný program
Výskum a Vývoj – design manuál.
496 225,z toho logo OPV
117 512,50
vrátane DPH
OPKaHR
V cene zákazky bolo vytvorenie loga, dizajn manuál a licenčná zmluva na používanie loga.
50 000,-
vrátane DPH
OPZ
Grafické riešenie web, grafické riešenie logo, programovanie a obsah, systém na správu obsahu
CMS, optimalizácia pre vyhľadávače, registrácia domény a web hosting na 1 rok, školenia
obsluhy systému
145 000,z toho logo OPZ
10 000,-
dodávateľ
nebol platca
DPH
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
Operational
program
Managing
Authority
Price of Logo and
Design manual
paid by Managing
Authority
Second lowest price
paid for Logo and
Design manual
(MH SR, OPKaHR)
Possible savings
(EUR incl. VAT)
(EUR incl. VAT)
(EUR incl. VAT)
ROP
MVRR SR
85,302
1,660
83,642
OPBK
MVRR SR
72,286
1,660
70,627
OPTP
MVRR SR
63,912
1,660
62,253
OPŽ
MŽP SR
31,607
1,660
29,948
OPD
MDPT SR
6,320
1,660
4,660
OPIS
ÚV SR
6,274
1,660
4,614
OPVaV
MŠ SR
3,901
1,660
2,241
OPV
MŠ SR
3,901
1,660
2,241
273,503
13,278
260,225
total
Find one significant difference
between the pictures
• 2,569,805 Sk
• 50,000 Sk
• 85,302 EUR
• 1,660 EUR
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.4
CORK-BOARD TENDER SCANDAL
• Case websites
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.5.
PRICES OF MANAGING AUTHORITIES WEBSITES
Operačný program
Riadiaci orgán Adresa web stránky
ROP
OPTP/CKO
OPŽP
OPCHS
OPBK
OPZaSI
OPV + OPVaV
OPKaHR + Iniciatíva Interreg C
MVRR SR
MVRR SR
MŽP SR
MVRR SR
MVRR SR
MPSVaR SR
MŠ SR
MH SR
OPZ + OPV
MZ SR
www.ropka.sk
www.nsrr.sk
www.opzp.sk
www.sk-cz.eu
www.opbk.sk
www.esf.gov.sk
asfeu.sk
www.opkahr.sk
www.interregc.sk
www.health-sf.sk
opz.health-sf.sk
Skutočná cena
(bez DPH)
2 298 000 Sk
2 240 000 Sk
1 666 500 Sk
1 517 500 Sk
1 143 000 Sk
597 780 Sk
254 000 Sk
167 000 Sk
145 000 Sk
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.6.
POSSIBLE SAVING ON WEBSITES
Operational program
Managing
Authority
Possible
savings
in EUR
ROP
MVRR SR
Price paid
in EUR
76,280
OPTP/CKO
MVRR SR
74,354
70,139
OPŽP
MŽP SR
55,318
51,102
OPCHS
MVRR SR
50,372
46,156
OPBK
MVRR SR
37,941
33,725
OPZaSI
MPSVaR SR
19,843
15,627
OPV + OPVaV
MŠ SR
8,431
4,216
OPKaHR + Iniciatíva Interreg C MH SR
5,543
2,772
OPZ + OPV
4,813
2,407
total
MZ SR
72,064
288,813
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
7.7.
ONE WEB SITE PAID TWICE WITHIN ONE YEAR
25.6.2007 contract with Creative Mind signed (32,530 EUR)
25.9.2007 web site finalised
8.11.2007 - 1.4.2008 invoices delivered to the Ministry
17,593 EUR without VAT for development of the web site
14,937 EUR without VAT for 6 months of operation
7.1.2008 order for ZAMEDIA company (Cork-Board tender)
30.4.2008 invoice No. 80119 (Cork-Board tender)
3,884 EUR without VAT for creativity
23,003 EUR without VAT for programming
14,937 EUR without VAT licence for publication system
41,824 EUR without VAT together for ZAMEDIA
74,354 EUR without VAT together for web site www.nsrr.sk
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
8.1
WHICH INFORMATION SHOULD BE PUBLISHED?
Grant schemes
1. Criteria to select evaluators
2. The list of internal and external evaluators
3. CVs of internal and external evaluators
4. List of applications for grants (projects)
5. List of applications for grants (projects), which did not
meet administrative criteria (criteria of eligibility)
6. List of members of the selection committee
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
8.2
WHICH INFORMATION SHOULD BE PUBLISHED?
Grant schemes
7. List of applications for grants which had been
recommended by the selection committee (with
reasoning)
8. Evaluation forms of all evaluated applications for grants
(projects)
9. List of approved applications for grants (projects)
10. List of signed contract on EU grants
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
8.3
HOW MINISTRIES PROVIDED INFORMATION
požadované
informácie:
operačný program /
riadiaci orgán:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
e-gov
počet
výziev
čas
(počet
dní)
spolu
100 %
14
lehota
11/12
1.
OP ŽP / MŽP SR
časť tlač
tlač
tlač
časť
tlač a
časť
e-dáta
3
-
časť
tlač a
časť
e-dáta
4
-
100 %
3
OP ZaSI / MPSVR SR
časť tlač
časť tlač časť tlač časť tlač časť tlač
tlač
časť tlač
OP KaHR / MH SR
lehota
2.
lehota
8,5/12
3.
75
8/12
4.
OP VaV / MŠ SR
tlač
3
60
5/12
5.
ROP / MVRR SR
tlač
OP BK / MVRR SR
11/12
4
60
5/12
5.
FUNDS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
AN OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT...
... AND FOR CORRUPTION AND CLIENTELISM
Painful experience of Slovakia in the period before
and after joining the European Union
Ivan KUHN
www.institute.sk
23 June 2011
BELGRADE / BEOGRAD / BELEHRAD
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