Ch. 16 EU: In what ways and to what
extent was industrial development from
1800 to 1860 a factor in the relationship
between the northern and the southern
Early Emancipation in the North
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Graniteville Textile Co.
Founded in 1845, it was the South’s first
attempt at industrialization in Richmond, VA
Slaves Picking Cotton
on a Mississippi Plantation
Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
Southern A griculture
Slaves Working
in a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823
Changes in Cotton Production
Value of Cotton Exports
As % of All US Exports
“Hauling the W hole Week’s
W illiam Henry Brown, 1842
Characteristics of the
Antebellum South
1. Primarily agrarian.
2. Economic power shifted from the
“upper South” to the “lower South.”
3. “Cotton Is King!”
* 1860 5 mil. bales a yr.
(57% of total US exports).
4. Very slow development of industrialization.
5. Rudimentary financial system.
6. Inadequate transportation system.
Southern Society (1850)
[plantation owners]
The “Plain Folk”
[white yeoman farmers]
Black Freemen
Black Slaves
Total US Population  23,000,000
[9,250,000 in the South = 40%]
Southern Population
Slave-Owning Population (1850)
Slave-Owning Families (1850)
Slave Auction Notice, 1823
Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
Slave Accoutrements
Slave Master
Slave muzzle
Anti-Slave Pamphlet
Slave Accoutrements
Slave leg irons
Slave shoes
Slave tag, SC
Slaves posing
in front of
their cabin on
a Southern
Tara – Plantation Reality or
Hollywood’s Version?
Scarlet and Mammie
(Hollywood A gain!)
A Real Mammie & Her Charge
T he Southern “Belle”
A Slave Family
T he Ledger of John W hite
 Matilda Selby, 9, $400.00 sold to Mr.
Covington, St. Louis, $425.00
 Brooks Selby, 19, $750.00 Left at Home –
 Fred McAfee, 22, $800.00 Sold to Pepidal,
Donaldsonville, $1200.00
 Howard Barnett, 25, $750.00 Ranaway. Sold
out of jail, $540.00
 Harriett Barnett, 17, $550.00 Sold to
Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00
US Laws Regarding Slavery
1. U. S. Constitution:
* 3/5s compromise [I.2]
* fugitive slave clause [IV.2]
2. 1793  Fugitive Slave Act.
3. 1850  stronger Fugitive Slave Act.
Southern Slavery--> An Aberration?
 1780s: 1st antislavery society created in Phila.
 By 1804: slavery eliminated from last
northern state.
 1807: the legal termination of the slave
trade, enforced by the Royal Navy.
 1820s: newly indep. Republics of Central &
So. America declared their slaves free.
 1833: slavery abolished throughout the British
 1844: slavery abolished in the Fr. colonies.
 1861: the serfs of Russia were emancipated.
Slavery Was Less Efficient
in the U. S. than Elsewhere
High cost of keeping slaves from
GOAL  raise the “exit cost.”
Slave patrols.
Southern Black Codes.
Cut off a toe or a foot.
Slave Resistance
1. “SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a
charade in front of whites [the innocent,
laughing black man caricature – bulging
eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].
Slave Resistance
2. Refusal to work hard.
3. Isolated acts of sabotage.
4. Escape via the Underground Railroad.
Runaway Slave Ads
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages
The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left,
alerted escapees to gather up tools and
prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path
design, on the right, warned escapees not
to follow a straight route.
Abolitionists of the North
The South & Slavery - Personalities
• Theodore Weld: Slavery As It Is
– Formed basis of ethical argument against slavery
– Argued slavery destroyed & degraded the image
of God in Man
– Converted Tappan Bros. & J. Birney
• William Lloyd Garrison: Boston abolitionist
Alienated middle-class whites by belief in disunion
Founded American Anti-Slavery society
**His efforts helped w/adoption of 13th Amendment
The Liberator (1831)
The South & Slavery - Personalities
• David Walker: Wrote The Appeal to the Colored
Citizens of the World, which advocated slave
rebellions & violence to achieve freedom
• Sojourner Truth: Ex-slave from NY/For
abolition & women’s rights
– Illiterate
– Lincoln invited her to White House
for advice
– Isabella Baumfree
– Sojourn is “visitor or traveler”
The South & Slavery - Personalities
• Frederick Douglass: Escaped slave living in MASS
Published North Star (newspaper)
Dressed as a sailor to escape
After autobiography published, he went to Eng.
Took 8 yrs. To get $700 to buy freedom
After 44 yrs. of marriage, his 1st wife died & he
married his white secretary
– After war ambassador to Haiti
• Nat Turner: Slave preacher (VA)
– Resulted in death of 50+ whites (mainly women & children);
– Inspired by vision from God (eclipse)
– Valued at $375
– Revolt halted in 48 hrs.
– 300 innocent blacks killed by white mobs
The capture of Nat Turner
The South & Slavery - Personalities
• John Quincy Adams: 6th Prez; House of Rep.
– Presented petitions against slavery
– Location of desk in the House  only spot one can hear
clearly what is being whispered 15 yds. away
*gag resolutions (1836): Attempt to silence him
• Elijah Lovejoy: Newspaper ed. in ILL
– Killed by mob trying to protect presses
– Became a martyr
• Tappan Brothers: (NYC) Wealthy
importers & retail merchants
– Gave money & leadership to
reform societies
Arthur Tappan helped fund the
Underground Railroad
The South & Slavery – General Topics
• Methodist & Baptist churches supported
slavery; Unitarian did not; Catholic &
Episcopalian remained neutral
• Pro-slavery arguments
• Violation of 1st Amendment - 1835 U.S. Post
Office orders destruction of anti-slavery mail
• Northern economic dependence on South
Slave Rebellions
in the Antebellum South
Gabriel Prosser
Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South:
Nat Turner, 1831
T he Culture of Slavery
1. Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]:
* more emotional worship services.
* negro spirituals.
2. “Pidgin” or Gullah languages.
3. Nuclear family with extended kin links,
where possible.
4. Importance of music in their lives. [esp.
Southern Pro-Slavery
Ch. 16 EU: In what ways and to what
extent was industrial development from
1800 to 1860 a factor in the relationship
between the northern and the southern

The Antebellum South - Grapevine Colleyville …