Puritans and Proprietors
The development of the New
England, Middle and other
Southern colonies
Take Five
How did the New England colonial
settlements differ from the
settlements in the Chesapeke?
New England Colonies
Virginia Company of Plymouth
Mayflower Compact
William Bradford
The Mayflower Compact
William Bradford
Squanto: Friend or Foe?
Squanto acted as
Interpreter between
the Massasoit natives
and the Pilgrims
Take Five
What were the reasons for John
Winthrop’s sermon “A city on a hill”?
Massachusetts Bay Colony
John Cotton
John Winthrop
“a city on a hill”
Anne Bradstreet
Cotton Mather
“Blue laws”
The Scarlet Letter
social status
Harvard (1636)
Cotton Mather
John Winthrop
Take Five
What is a dissenter?
What was the problem with the
Puritan leaders against Anne
Other New England Colonies
Rhode Island
Roger Williams
Separation of church and state
Anne Hutchinson
New Hampshire
John Wheelwright
Rev. Thomas Hooker
Roger Williams
Anne Hutchinson
Conflicts between New England
and the Natives..(1636-1637)
Pequots  very
powerful tribe
in CT river valley.
1637  Pequot
Whites, with
Indian allies,
attacked Pequot
village on Mystic
Whites set fire
to homes & shot fleeing survivors!
Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy
peace lasted for 40 years.
King Philip’s War (1675-1676)
Only hope for Native
Americans to resist
white settlers was to
Metacom [King Philip to
white settlers]
Massasoit’s son united
Indians and staged
coordinated attacks
on white settlements throughout New England.
Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston.
Metacom (King Phillip)
After his defeat, King
Phillip was drawn and
quartered and his head
placed on a pike as a
warning to other natives..
Royal and Proprietary Colonies
Maryland (1632)
Lords Baltimore
George Calvert
Cecilius Calvert
Act of Toleration
The Lords Baltimore
George Calvert
Cecil Calvert
The Middle colonies:
New York; New Jersey; Pennsylvania;
Settling the Middle
[or “Restoration”] Colonies
The Dutch Colonies
New Netherlands
Dutch Reformed Church
Peter Minuit
New Sweden
Peter Stuyvesant
New York
The Duke of York (James II)
Henry Hudson’s Voyages
New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639
Company town
run in interests
of the
No interest in
toleration, free
speech, or democracy.
Governors appointed by the Company were
Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed
Church [including Quakers] were persecuted.
Local assembly with limited power to make laws
established after repeated protests by colonists.
New Amsterdam, 1660
Characteristics of New Amsterdam:
 Aristocratic  patroonships [feudal estates
granted to promoters who would settle 50
people on them].
 Cosmopolitan  diverse population with many
different languages.
New Netherlands &
New Sweden
Swedes in New Netherlands
Mid-1600s  Sweden in Golden Age
settled small, under-funded colony
[called “New Sweden”] near New
1655  Dutch under
Peter Stuyvesant
attack New Sweden.
 Main fort fell after
bloodless siege.
 New Sweden absorbed
into New Netherland.
New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony
Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his
brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled
the area!]
1664  English soldiers arrived.
 Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses.
 Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing
a shot.
Renamed “New York”
 England gained strategic harbor between her
northern & southern colonies.
 England now controlled the Atlantic coast!
 The Duke of York will become King James II
after the death of his brother Charles II
Duke of York’s Original Charter
The Quakers
Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey
Quakers-The Society of Friends
William Penn
George Fox
Great cities
William Penn
George Fox
The Quakers
Called Quakers because they “quaked” during
intense religious practices.
They offended religious & secular leaders in
 Refused to pay taxes to support the Church
of England.
 They met without paid clergy
 Believed all were children of God refused
to treat the upper classes with deference.
 Keep hats on.
 Addressed them as commoners  ”thees”/“thous.”
 Wouldn’t take oaths.
 Pacifists.
Penn’s Treaty with the
Native Americans
Pennsylvanian Society
Attracted many different people
 Religious misfits from other colonies.
 Many different ethnic groups.
No provision for military defense.
No restrictions on immigration.
No slavery!!
“Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage
plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc.
A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity,
civil liberty, & religious freedom!!
Urban Population Growth
1650 - 1775
New Jersey — PA’s Neighbor
1664  aristocratic proprietors
rcvd. the area from the Duke
of York.
Many New Englanders [because of
worn out soil] moved to NJ.
 1674  West NJ sold to Quakers.
 East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers.
1702  E & W NJ combined into
NJ and created one colony.
Delaware — PA’s Neighbor
Named after Lord De La Warr
[harsh military governor of VA in
Closely associated with Penn’s
1703  granted its own
Remained under the control of PA
until the American Revolution.
Ethnic Groups
Take Five
What societal changes will take place
in the middle colonies (particularly
PA) within 50-75 years of its
The Carolinas
The Fundamental Constitution of Carolina
Anthony Ashley Cooper
John Locke
Feudal system
North Carolina
small farmers
South Carolina
trading post to plantations
rice, cotton, indigo
The West Indies  Way Station to Mainland America
1670  a group of small English farmers from the
West Indies arrived in Carolina.
 Were squeezed out by sugar barons.
 Brought a few black slaves and a model of the Barbados
slave code with them.
Named for King Charles II.
The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters [Lord
 They hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in
Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to
Settling the “Lower South”
Crops of the
Carolinas: Rice
The primary export.
Rice was still an exotic
food in England.
 Was grown in Africa,
so planters imported
West African slaves.
 These slaves had a
genetic trait that
made them immune to
American Long
Grain Rice
By 1710  black slaves were a majority in
Crops of the
Carolinas: Indigo
In colonial times, the main use
for indigo was as a dye for spun
cotton threads that were woven
into cloth for clothes.
Today in the US, the main use
for indigo is a dye for cotton
work clothes & blue jeans.
Rice & Indigo Exports
from SC & GA: 1698-1775
The Emergence of North Carolina
Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA
 VA dominated by aristocratic planters who were generally
Church of England members.
 Dissenters from VA moved south to northern Carolina.
 Poor farmers with little need for slaves.
 Religious dissenters.
Distinctive traits of North Carolinians
 Irreligious & hospitable to pirates.
 Strong spirit of resistance to authority.
1712  NC officially separated from SC.
Take Five
What was the original purpose of the
colony of Georgia?
What was not allowed in Georgia that
may have been allowed in other
Buffer state
Col. James Oglethorpe
Debtors colony
Col. James Oglethorpe
Mary Musgrove
18c Southern Colonies
Georgia--The “Buffer” Colony
Chief Purpose of Creating Georgia:
 As a “buffer” between the valuable Carolinas & Spanish
Florida & French Louisiana.
 Received subsidies from British govt. to offset costs
of defense.
 Export silk and wine.
 A haven for debtors
thrown in to prison.
Determined to keep
slavery out!
 Slavery found in GA
by 1750.
The Port City of Savannah
Diverse community.
 All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious
Missionaries worked among debtors and Indians 
most famous was John Wesley.

England Arrives at the New World