Lesson 1: Sentence
Elements
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
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Learning Objectives
The sentence defined
Sentence Format
Topics and Comments
Subjects and Predicates
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1.1 Learning Objectives
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At the end of this lesson, you will be able to
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recognize a complete thought as expressed in a sentence,
format a sentence correctly,
identify the parts of a complete thought: topic and
comment,
identify grammatical elements of a sentence: subject and
predicate,
identify the parts of a predicate: predicate verb and
objects/complements,
be able to identify the simple subject.
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1.2 What is a sentence?
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The sentence is the basic unit of communication.
A sentence expresses a complete thought in the form
of
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a statement
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a question
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Shrek has good animation.
Shrek is a great film!
What is your favorite film?
What is a great film?
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1.3 How is a sentence formatted?
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Every sentence begins with a capital letter and
ends with an end-mark of punctuation (a
period, question mark, or exclamation mark).
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The hurricane ripped off the roof of my house.
How many languages does Professor Sansone
speaks several languages?
Students have too much homework!
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Practice #1:
format the following sentences. Check your
work by going to the next slide.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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every day we eat lunch in the cafeteria
is the homework due on Tuesday
can you believe that we won
when it is raining, there are lots of traffic
accidents
people drive too fast on I-4
we won
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Answers to Practice #1:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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Every day we eat lunch in the cafeteria.
Is the homework due on Tuesday?
Can you believe that we won ?
When it is raining, there are lots of traffic
accidents.
People drive too fast on I-4 .
We won!
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Review of Lessons 1.1 through 1.3:
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A sentence is a complete thought.
Every sentence begins with a capital letter and
ends with an end-mark of punctuation.
End-marks of punctuation include periods,
question marks, and exclamation marks.
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Analyzing Sentences
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When we analyze something, we break it
down into its constituents (parts).
In lesson 1.4, we will learn the constituents of
a sentence.
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1.4 The parts of a complete thought
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Every complete thought (sentence) can be
divided into two parts: the topic and the
comment.
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The topic is what the sentence is
saying something about.
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Here are some examples:
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Students
My Honda Civic
Watching horror movies late at night
College courses
Wendy’s hamburgers
Each of the examples is a topic. However, none
is a sentence because nothing is said about the
topic.
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The a comment is what the writer says about the topic,
what action the topic does or condition the topic is in,
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for example,
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Students have worked hard to get good grades.
The Honda Civic uses less gas than the Ford
Explorer.
Watching horror movies late at night gives me
nightmares.
College courses require six hours of
homework each week.
Wendy’s hamburgers are greasy.
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Practice #2: Identify the topic and
comment in each sentence.
The grey cat ran away.
2.
The grey cat has four tiny kittens.
3.
The grey cat belongs to my neighbor.
4.
The grey cat has caught several mice.
5.
The grey cat purred softly.
6.
The grey cat was sleeping on the porch.
Note: When you have finished, go to the next slide to
find answers to these items.
1.
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Answers to Practice #2:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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The grey cat (ran away).
The grey cat (has four tiny kittens).
The grey cat (belongs to my neighbor).
The grey cat (has caught several mice).
The grey cat (purred softly).
The grey cat (was sleeping on the porch).
Notice that each item says something
different about the same topic.
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Practice #2:
Identify the topics and the
comments.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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The huge green balloon floated away.
V.C.C. students sometimes have trouble
finding a parking space.
I enjoy visiting my parents during the
holidays.
Danise took five classes last semester.
Several of the cars in the parking lot had
parking tickets on the windows.
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Answers to Practice #2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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The huge green balloon (floated away).
V.C.C. students (sometimes have trouble finding a
parking space.)
I (enjoy visiting my parents during the holidays).
Danise (took five classes last semester).
Several of the cars in the parking lot (had parking
tickets on the windows).
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Review of Lesson 1.4
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The elements of a complete thought
(sentence) are a topic and a comment about
that topic.
The comment tells something about the topic
by
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expressing the action of the topic or (Jack ate the
burrito.)
describing the condition of the topic (The burrito
was too spicy.)
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Lesson 1.5: Subjects and Predicates
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Another way to talk about the parts of a
sentence is by using grammatical terms.
In this lesson, we will use different terms for
topic and comment:
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Topic = Subject
Comment = Predicate
Subject + Predicate = Sentence
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Practice #1:
Identify the subject and the predicate in each
sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Andrea and Rozella are taking College Algebra this
semester.
The loud sirens woke me at 4:00 a.m.
Doing homework makes me sleepy.
My boss is grouchy in the morning.
Creamy mocha cappuccino tastes good.
Note: Go to the next slide to check your work.
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Answers to Practice #1:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Andrea and Rozella (are taking College
Algebra this semester).
The loud sirens (woke me at 4:00 a.m).
Doing homework (makes me sleepy).
My boss (is grouchy in the morning).
Creamy mocha cappuccino (tastes good).
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Elements of the Predicate:
Just as we can analyze a sentence by breaking
it into the subject and the predicate, we can
analyze the predicate by breaking it into its
constituents.
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What are the parts of the predicate?
The predicate may be divided into two parts:
1.
2.
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the predicate verb tense and, sometimes,
objects, modifiers and/or complements of the
predicate verb.
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Special Note:
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While every sentence has a predicate verb, not
every predicate contains modifiers and/or
complements,
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For example, “is sleeping” (present continuous
verb) is the complete predicate in the sentence
“Paul is sleeping.”
However, the predicate in “Paul is sleeping on the
floor” includes the predicate verb “is sleeping”
and the modifier “on the floor.”
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What is the predicate verb?
The predicate verb is the verb tense (present tenses,
past tenses, perfect tenses, continuous tenses). It
does not include any objects, modifiers, or
complements. It is also referred to as the simple
verb, for example
1.
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Paul snores during class.
Cindy was taking notes during the lecture.
Heather will write her essay over the weekend.
The policeman could have given me a parking ticket.
Go on to the next slide for some practice identifying
the predicate verb (simple verb).
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Practice #3: Identify the predicate verb
in each sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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The red, white, and blue flag flapped in the wind.
Victor has been having a hard time with his math
homework.
My mom enjoys reading romance novels.
My brother should have finished cutting the grass
by now.
After working for several hours, I usually walked to
Star Buck’s for a cup of coffee and a cookie.
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Answers to Practice #3:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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The red, white, and blue flag flapped in the wind.
Victor has been having a hard time with his math
homework.
My mom enjoys reading romance novels.
My brother should have finished cutting the grass
by now.
After working for several hours, I usually walked to
Star Buck’s for a cup of coffee and a cookie.
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What are modifiers, objects, and
complements of verbs?
2.
complements of the verb include adverbs and
objects of the verb, for example
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Paul often snores loudly.
David is reading the newspaper.
She has always wanted to be a teacher.
Sheila will pass the exam today.
Today, Sheila passed the exam.
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The parts of the subject
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Just as the sentence and the predicate can be
analyzed into parts, so the subject can be
divided into parts.
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What are the parts of the subject?
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The subject is made up of the simple subject (the
person, place, or thing) and any modifiers (adjectives
that come before or after the simple subject). Note
that prepositional phrases can be adjectives.
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homework for math class
the cars in the parking lot
a gleaming gold Rolex watch
The soft, squishy orange-flavored jello in the bowl
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Exercise 4: identify the simple subject in each sentence by
putting brackets around the modifiers of the subject and then
highlighting the simple subject. Do nothing to the predicate.
1.
2.
3.
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A large red box lay on the table.
The tired, stressed out student sitting at the
table next to me needs to relax.
The homework assignments that were due on
Tuesday took a lot of time to complete.
Sam, a Valencia student, is studying to
become an engineer.
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Exercise 4 Answers:
1.
2.
3.
4.
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[A large red] box lay on the table.
[The tired, stressed out] student [sitting at the
table next to me] needs to relax.
[The homework] assignments [that were due
on Tuesday] took a lot of time to complete.
Sam, [a Valencia student,] is studying to
become an engineer.
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Complete Subjects + Complete Predicates:
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Homework is time consuming.
The cars in the parking lot are expensive.
A gleaming gold Rolex watch would make a
great birthday gift.
The soft, squishy orange-flavored jello in the
bowl was the unappealing dessert for lunch.
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Practice: Underline the predicate verb. Then separate the
complete subject from the predicate by placing a slash between the
complete subject and the complete predicate. The first one is done
for you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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The green bicycle in the garage/has a flat tire.
Several of the students in this class didn’t do their
homework.
The soft, wet snow is falling all around us.
A strange orange light coming from the window
frightened some people.
Two large blue boxes were on the table.
A black backpack on wheels is required for all
nursing students.
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Practice: Underline the predicate verb, and draw a line to separate
the complete subject from the predicate. The first one is done for
you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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The green bicycle in the garage/has a flat tire.
Several of the students in this class /didn’t do their
homework.
The soft, wet snow/ is falling all around us.
A strange orange light coming from the window/
frightened some people.
Two large blue boxes/ were on the table.
A black backpack on wheels/ is required for all
nursing students.
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Summary: parts of a sentence:
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subject and predicate (also known as a topic
and comment about the topic).
Parts of a predicate:
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predicate verb (always present ),
objects and/or complements (sometimes present)
Parts of a subject:
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Simple subject
Subject modifiers
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Summary: Format of a sentence
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Begins with a capital letter
Ends with an end mark of punctuation
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Forms of a complete thought
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statement
question
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Review Quiz
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Take out a sheet of paper and write your
name, today’s date, and CRN # in the upper
right-hand corner of your paper. On the topic
line write: EAP 1640, 10-point review,
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Review Quiz: Working with a partner,
answer the following questions.
1.
2.
Write a sentence. Then draw a line between
the parts of the complete thought and then
label the grammatical parts.
Explain how to format a sentence. Give an
example.
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3.
4.
5.
What are the two forms of a complete thought?
Give an example of each.
Double underline the predicate verb(s) in the
following sentence: I finished my essay and solved
the calculus problems.
Single underline the simple subject in the
following sentence: Valencia students on West
Campus have trouble finding parking spaces.
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Identify complete thoughts by writing CT next to
them. Identify incomplete thoughts by writing NCT
next to them.
6. a dark green pickup truck with chrome wheels
7. the small child wearing the red jacket
8. he has barely eaten anything in several days
9. strong winds create perfect waves for the surfers
10. experienced not only the loud noise but also the
intense heat
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Sentence Elements - Valencia College