GRAMMAR 101
Miss Phillips
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
UNIT 1
SENTENCES
There are 4 parts that all sentences must have.
1. A CAPITAL LETTER at the beginning of the sentence.
2. A PUNCTUATION MARK at the end of the sentence.
3. A SUBJECT tells who or what the sentence is about.
4. A PREDICATE tells what the subject is doing.
COMPLETE SUBJECT
A sentence consists of a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE, which together, express a complete
thought.
Both a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE may consist of more than one word.
The COMPLETE SUBJECT includes all of the words in the subject of a sentence.
COMPLETE PREDICATE
The COMPLETE PREDICATE includes all of the words
in the predicate of a sentence.
Complete Subject
Complete Predicate
My sister read a book.
PRACTICE
Complete Subject and Predicate
Let’s Practice: Circle the complete subject and underline the complete
predicate.
1. My sister read Diary of a Wimpy Kid to me.
2. A young boy named Greg is the main character.
3. Greg enjoys playing with his friend Rowley.
4. The boys play video games all day and night.
5. Diary of a Wimpy Kid is a popular series of books for kids.
SIMPLE SUBJECT & PREDICATE
Simple Subjects and Predicates
The SIMPLE SUBJECT is the main word or group of words in the
complete subject of a sentence.
The SIMPLE PREDICATE is the main word or group of words in
the complete predicate of a sentence.
Simple Subject
Simple Predicate
My sister read a book.
PRACTICE
Simple Subject and Predicate
Let’s Practice: Circle the simple subject and underline the simple
predicate.
1. My sister read Diary of a Wimpy Kid to me.
2. A young boy named Greg is the main character.
3. Greg enjoys playing with his friend Rowley.
4. The boys play video games all day and night.
5. Diary of a Wimpy Kid is a popular series of books for kids.
SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
Sentence Fragments
A sentence fragment is a group of words that is NOT a complete sentence.
oIt can be missing a SUBJECT or a PREDICATE.
To correct a sentence fragment:
oAdd a NOUN if the subject is missing.
oAdd a VERB if the predicate is missing.
PRACTICE
Let’s Practice: Read each sentence fragment. Decide if it is
missing a subject or a predicate. Add the missing part to turn
each fragment into a complete sentence. Rewrite the complete
sentence.
1. Drove down the street.
_____________________________________________________________
_________
2. My sweet next-door neighbor.
_____________________________________________________________
_________
3. The girls who play soccer.
PRACTICE
Let’s Practice: Read each sentence fragment. Decide if it is
missing a subject or a predicate. Add the missing part to turn
each fragment into a complete sentence. Rewrite the complete
sentence.
4. Sailed through the ocean in the boat.
___________________________________________________
________
5. Moved into a brand new house.
___________________________________________________
________
TYPES OF SENTENCES
Types of Sentences
There are 4 types of sentences.
1. DECLARATIVE : makes a STATEMENT and ends with a PERIOD.
Example:
2. INTERROGATIVE: asks a QUESTION and ends with a QUESTION MARK.
Example:
TYPES OF SENTENCES
Types of Sentences
3. IMPERATIVE : gives a COMMAND and usually ends with a
PERIOD.
Example:
2. EXCLAMATORY: shows strong EMOTION or FEELING and ends
with an EXCLAMATION POINT.
Example:
PRACTICE
Types of Sentences
Let’s Practice: What type of sentence is it? Write declarative,
exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative on the provided line.
1. Language Arts is an academic class.
____________________
2. Do you enjoy your Language Arts class? ____________________
3. Read 30 minutes every single day.
4. I love Language Arts class!
____________________
5. Describe your favorite type of writing.
____________________
SIMPLE SENTENCES
Simple Sentences
A SIMPLE sentence has exactly ONE subject and ONE predicate.
 In a simple sentence, the simple subject is just the main NOUN of the subject.
oExample: Beautiful Josie went to the movies.
Josie is the simple subject because she is the noun that the sentence is about.
SIMPLE SENTENCES
Simple Sentences
A SIMPLE sentence has exactly ONE subject and ONE predicate.
 In a simple sentence, the simple predicate is the main VERB of the predicate.
oExample: Beautiful Josie went to the movies.
Went is the simple predicate because it is the main verb.
PRACTICE
Let’s Practice – Simple Sentences, Simple Subjects, and Simple
Predicates
Directions: Underline each simple subject in red, and each simple
predicate blue.
1. My best friend in the whole world is coming over to my house to visit
me this afternoon.
2. Three beautiful little kittens looked up at me from inside a box of old
clothes.
COMPOUND SENTENCES
Compound Sentences
A COMPOUND sentence is made up of TWO or more simple
sentences.
 If you remove the COMMA and conjunction (but, and, so,
or), you have TWO OR MORE complete sentences.
PRACTICE
Let’s Practice - Compound Sentences
Directions: Underline the first complete sentence in green, and
underline the second complete sentence in purple. Circle the word that
combines the two sentences.
1. My best friend is coming to my house this afternoon, and we
are
going to do a lot of fun things when she visits.
2. Nick wants to eat chicken for dinner, but his brother prefers to eat
steak.
COMPLEX SENTENCES
Complex Sentences
A COMPLEX sentence is made up of a simple sentence and a dependent
clause.
 A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a SUBJECT and a
PREDICATE, but does not express a complete thought.
 A dependent clause may seem like a compound sentence, but one
of the parts is really a FRAGMENT.
PRACTICE
Let’s Practice- Complex Sentences
Directions: Underline the complete sentence in green, and circle the
dependent clause in yellow.
1. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the
last page.
2. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
3. Although he ate a really big dinner, now he wants to eat cake for
dessert.
PRACTICE
Let’s Practice- Complex Sentences
Directions: Underline the complete sentence in green, and
circle the dependent clause in yellow.
4. He’ll be able to maintain a healthy weight, if he continues
to exercise.
5. She learned to play every song in her piano book,
although she dislikes practicing.
RUN-ON SENTENCES
Run-On Sentences
A run-on sentence is more than ONE complete thought that
lacks CLARITY. It is due to lack of PUNCTUATION and/or
CONJUNCTION.
To correct a run-on sentence:
 Add punctuation only (COMMA or SEMI COLON) to the run-on
sentence.
RUN-ON SENTENCES
Add a conjunction
(FOR , AND , NOR , BUT , OR , YET , SO) and a COMMA.
Johnny is tall he is friendly he is stylish he is athletic.
JOHNNY IS TALL, FRIENDLY, STYLISH, AND ATHLETIC.
PRACTICE
Let’s Practice: Run-On Sentences
Directions: Read each run-on sentence. Change each run-on
into two or more complete sentences by using the proper
punctuation and combining phrases.
1. I like learning Science I like doing experiments.
2. My sister was taller than me when we were younger now I am
the tallest that is fun.
3. My mother and my father and my sister and my brother and
my grandmother are all coming to dinner.
PRACTICE
Sentence Fragment vs. Run-On Sentence
Directions: Read each statement below. If it is a sentence fragment, write SF on
the line provided, and if it is a Run-On sentence, write RO on the line provided.
_____ 1. Riding a train to New York!
_____ 2. The conductor, a kind and friendly man.
_____ 3. We waited in line for hours, and there was nothing to do it was boring.
_____ 4. When you come to town.
_____ 5. There are many places to go by train it’s hard to decide where to go
first.
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Complete Subjects and Predicates