GRAMMAR 101 Miss Phillips SENTENCE STRUCTURE UNIT 1 SENTENCES There are 4 parts that all sentences must have. 1. A CAPITAL LETTER at the beginning of the sentence. 2. A PUNCTUATION MARK at the end of the sentence. 3. A SUBJECT tells who or what the sentence is about. 4. A PREDICATE tells what the subject is doing. COMPLETE SUBJECT A sentence consists of a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE, which together, express a complete thought. Both a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE may consist of more than one word. The COMPLETE SUBJECT includes all of the words in the subject of a sentence. COMPLETE PREDICATE The COMPLETE PREDICATE includes all of the words in the predicate of a sentence. Complete Subject Complete Predicate My sister read a book. PRACTICE Complete Subject and Predicate Let’s Practice: Circle the complete subject and underline the complete predicate. 1. My sister read Diary of a Wimpy Kid to me. 2. A young boy named Greg is the main character. 3. Greg enjoys playing with his friend Rowley. 4. The boys play video games all day and night. 5. Diary of a Wimpy Kid is a popular series of books for kids. SIMPLE SUBJECT & PREDICATE Simple Subjects and Predicates The SIMPLE SUBJECT is the main word or group of words in the complete subject of a sentence. The SIMPLE PREDICATE is the main word or group of words in the complete predicate of a sentence. Simple Subject Simple Predicate My sister read a book. PRACTICE Simple Subject and Predicate Let’s Practice: Circle the simple subject and underline the simple predicate. 1. My sister read Diary of a Wimpy Kid to me. 2. A young boy named Greg is the main character. 3. Greg enjoys playing with his friend Rowley. 4. The boys play video games all day and night. 5. Diary of a Wimpy Kid is a popular series of books for kids. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is a group of words that is NOT a complete sentence. oIt can be missing a SUBJECT or a PREDICATE. To correct a sentence fragment: oAdd a NOUN if the subject is missing. oAdd a VERB if the predicate is missing. PRACTICE Let’s Practice: Read each sentence fragment. Decide if it is missing a subject or a predicate. Add the missing part to turn each fragment into a complete sentence. Rewrite the complete sentence. 1. Drove down the street. _____________________________________________________________ _________ 2. My sweet next-door neighbor. _____________________________________________________________ _________ 3. The girls who play soccer. PRACTICE Let’s Practice: Read each sentence fragment. Decide if it is missing a subject or a predicate. Add the missing part to turn each fragment into a complete sentence. Rewrite the complete sentence. 4. Sailed through the ocean in the boat. ___________________________________________________ ________ 5. Moved into a brand new house. ___________________________________________________ ________ TYPES OF SENTENCES Types of Sentences There are 4 types of sentences. 1. DECLARATIVE : makes a STATEMENT and ends with a PERIOD. Example: 2. INTERROGATIVE: asks a QUESTION and ends with a QUESTION MARK. Example: TYPES OF SENTENCES Types of Sentences 3. IMPERATIVE : gives a COMMAND and usually ends with a PERIOD. Example: 2. EXCLAMATORY: shows strong EMOTION or FEELING and ends with an EXCLAMATION POINT. Example: PRACTICE Types of Sentences Let’s Practice: What type of sentence is it? Write declarative, exclamatory, imperative, or interrogative on the provided line. 1. Language Arts is an academic class. ____________________ 2. Do you enjoy your Language Arts class? ____________________ 3. Read 30 minutes every single day. 4. I love Language Arts class! ____________________ 5. Describe your favorite type of writing. ____________________ SIMPLE SENTENCES Simple Sentences A SIMPLE sentence has exactly ONE subject and ONE predicate. In a simple sentence, the simple subject is just the main NOUN of the subject. oExample: Beautiful Josie went to the movies. Josie is the simple subject because she is the noun that the sentence is about. SIMPLE SENTENCES Simple Sentences A SIMPLE sentence has exactly ONE subject and ONE predicate. In a simple sentence, the simple predicate is the main VERB of the predicate. oExample: Beautiful Josie went to the movies. Went is the simple predicate because it is the main verb. PRACTICE Let’s Practice – Simple Sentences, Simple Subjects, and Simple Predicates Directions: Underline each simple subject in red, and each simple predicate blue. 1. My best friend in the whole world is coming over to my house to visit me this afternoon. 2. Three beautiful little kittens looked up at me from inside a box of old clothes. COMPOUND SENTENCES Compound Sentences A COMPOUND sentence is made up of TWO or more simple sentences. If you remove the COMMA and conjunction (but, and, so, or), you have TWO OR MORE complete sentences. PRACTICE Let’s Practice - Compound Sentences Directions: Underline the first complete sentence in green, and underline the second complete sentence in purple. Circle the word that combines the two sentences. 1. My best friend is coming to my house this afternoon, and we are going to do a lot of fun things when she visits. 2. Nick wants to eat chicken for dinner, but his brother prefers to eat steak. COMPLEX SENTENCES Complex Sentences A COMPLEX sentence is made up of a simple sentence and a dependent clause. A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE, but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause may seem like a compound sentence, but one of the parts is really a FRAGMENT. PRACTICE Let’s Practice- Complex Sentences Directions: Underline the complete sentence in green, and circle the dependent clause in yellow. 1. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. 2. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. 3. Although he ate a really big dinner, now he wants to eat cake for dessert. PRACTICE Let’s Practice- Complex Sentences Directions: Underline the complete sentence in green, and circle the dependent clause in yellow. 4. He’ll be able to maintain a healthy weight, if he continues to exercise. 5. She learned to play every song in her piano book, although she dislikes practicing. RUN-ON SENTENCES Run-On Sentences A run-on sentence is more than ONE complete thought that lacks CLARITY. It is due to lack of PUNCTUATION and/or CONJUNCTION. To correct a run-on sentence: Add punctuation only (COMMA or SEMI COLON) to the run-on sentence. RUN-ON SENTENCES Add a conjunction (FOR , AND , NOR , BUT , OR , YET , SO) and a COMMA. Johnny is tall he is friendly he is stylish he is athletic. JOHNNY IS TALL, FRIENDLY, STYLISH, AND ATHLETIC. PRACTICE Let’s Practice: Run-On Sentences Directions: Read each run-on sentence. Change each run-on into two or more complete sentences by using the proper punctuation and combining phrases. 1. I like learning Science I like doing experiments. 2. My sister was taller than me when we were younger now I am the tallest that is fun. 3. My mother and my father and my sister and my brother and my grandmother are all coming to dinner. PRACTICE Sentence Fragment vs. Run-On Sentence Directions: Read each statement below. If it is a sentence fragment, write SF on the line provided, and if it is a Run-On sentence, write RO on the line provided. _____ 1. Riding a train to New York! _____ 2. The conductor, a kind and friendly man. _____ 3. We waited in line for hours, and there was nothing to do it was boring. _____ 4. When you come to town. _____ 5. There are many places to go by train it’s hard to decide where to go first.