Agenda
Part 4
 Part 4 New POI
 How to look at the POI
 The Program
 Education
 Training
 Evaluating
 Conclusion
“If the mind is to emerge unscathed from this relentless struggle with
the unforeseen [in war], two qualities are indispensable: first, an
intellect that, even in the darkest hour, retains some glimmerings of
the inner light which leads to truth; and second, the courage to follow
this faint light wherever it may lead.”
Carl von Clausewitz On War
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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How to Look at POI
Defining the end state
 Future LTs must be adaptive and have intuition:
 Commanding units that operate dispersed, but cannot rely on
technology
 Leading more powerful units at all levels!
 Influence decisions at all levels of war
 Transition from complex unit fighting to humanitarian tasks
demanding different skills, based on decision making skills =>
Both are Key to Success
“The US military must overcome the way it has trained and educated
leaders. Defense officials are moving ahead to overcome Cold-War
era training to create a new generation of leaders who aren't
constrained by what the doctrine says.”
General Richard B. Myers, CJCS
September 2004
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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How to Look at POI
Defining the end state “Adaptability”
 What is Adaptability?
 Adaptability refers to the process of adjusting practices,
processes, and systems to projected or actual changes of
environment, e.g., the climate or the enemy.
 Adaptability includes the creation of innovative combined arms
organizations, doctrine, systems, and training concepts as
demanded by the environment, allies, and the enemy.
 Adaptive solutions to complex problems in chaotic, unpredictable
situations are based more on intuition than on analysis, deliberate
planning, and doctrine.
“Sun Tzu’s theory of adaptability to existing situations is an
important aspect of his self thought. Just as water adapts itself to
the conformation of the ground, so in war one must be flexible; he
must adapt his tactics to the enemy situation.”
John Poole, The Last Hundred Yards
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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How to Look at POI
Defining the end state “Intuition”
From “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)
 What is Intuition?
 Intuition is the way we translate experience into action
 Training and education can provide experience that builds intuition
 Intuition enables rapid decision making without conscious
awareness or effort
 Intuition enhances decisions at all levels
 Three elements of intuition training:
Identify decision requirements of the job
Practice decision making in context
Review and obtain feedback on decision making experiences
“Defining intuition: As Army officers, we are primarily decision
makers. Our weapon is the unit we command. We decide on a course
of action and then clearly communicate that decision to our unit. Our
Soldiers translate that decision into action.”
”Combat Squad Leader’s Course,” Syllabus for
MLSC 113, Georgetown University ROTC (Spring 2005)
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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How to Look at POI
Principles in Education
 Theme: Develop adaptability and intuition
 Take people out of their comfort zones
Training with stress
“Experience the thing before you try to give it a name”
teaching approach
 Knowledge and abilities to be learned
Mental processes to be developed
 Experience
Real or virtual in the broad spectrum of missions associated
with asymmetric war
Exposure to problem solving processesFrom “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)
“Finally, ‘Duty, Honor and Country’. Those intangible things must still
be taught but over the length of the 4 years.”
Major Darryl M. Perry
Morgan State University, Nov 2004
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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How to Look at POI
Principles in Education (EPIC)
 Encourage Self-awareness
 Elements: Self-awareness; character; self-leadership
 “Self-aware and adaptive leaders are the basis for success in full
spectrum operations. The greater self-awareness gained by
assessment against measurable standards, the more adaptive the
leader” (ATLDP, 2004)
 Promote Critical and Creative thinking
 Elements: Critical thinking/creativity & innovation; risk-taking
 “Critical thinking skills are becoming especially important now as
our world is changing at an ever-accelerating rate … Critical
thinking skills are needed to adapt to a changing environment …”
(ARI)
 Insist on Courageous Communication
 Elements: relationship management; effective listening
 Create an environment for continuous learning
 Elements: The learning organization; Owner/Coach mentoring;
Effective Feedback (360 degree—”safe “two-way” feedback)
From “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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How to Look at POI
Principles in Education
 Adaptability
 Is a cognitive skill, e.g.,
intuition
 Must be inculcated across
Cadet Command in all
aspects of training
 Requires trust and
cohesion – human
interpersonal dynamics
trump technical solutions
 Requires a climate that
accepts and rewards
adaptable and creative
individuals
From “Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats”
The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004)
 Learning adaptability
requires
 Education in how to think
 Multiple training events with
widely varying and frequently
shifting tasks and conditions
 Recognition of the need to
change
 Encourage experimentation
with doctrine, task
organization, etc.
 Focus feedback on
adaptability, innovation and
outcomes rather than on
performance to standard
 Training environment that
acknowledges failure as a
possibility
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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How to Look at POI
Development-Education vs. Training
Resources
In sum:
Task Training
Education:
“How to think”
Educate early, tasktrain as necessary to
enhance decision
making, as cognitive
skills established plug
in task training
Baseline
Complexity
Cognitive
Skills education
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
Task
Training
8
How to Look at POI Development
Begins with tough screening
Baseline
A Better BLOC
Task Training
Cognitive
Skills education
Academic Rigor
begins here
First tough
cut
comes here
Rite of
Passage
BLOC I
Establishes the
foundation in
cognitive skills
“how to think”
sets the foundation
First
unit
Ft Benning
IN
AR
FA
AV
Ft Bliss
AD
EN
MP
CM
Ft Knox
SC
MI
TC
MS
Ft Sill
QM
OD
AG
FI
BLOC II
BLOC III
“Culturalize”
Brings together
those who passed
through the “gate
of commissioning,”
creating bonds
Specialized
training, and
administrative
tasks
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
Functional
Training
(ABN/Ranger,
Scout Leader)
These may
be offered
earlier
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How to Look at POI
Development-Lots of Tools
 STX (LDX, LTX-Free play,
force on force)
 Vignettes
 Mentors/Coaches
 “What if? What then?”
 Combat Land Navigation
 Distributed Learning
 Standards
 360 degree evaluations (for
Everyone, Even Cadre)
 Ownership of Program by
Cadets
 Positions of Responsibility
mirror the Army’s
 Complex learning scenarios
 Grey area situations
 Volatility, ambiguity, uncertainty
 Non-Combat Problems










Tactical Decision Games (TDGs)
Innovative Physical Training
OEF/OIF LL Scenarios
ARI/SCP “Best Practices”
Internet War Games
TEWT
Staff Rides (virtual?)
Reading lists
Timed Essay Exams
Competitions like improved
Ranger Challenge
 Leadership Development Program
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
The Future Program New Name
 What do people think when they hear “ROTC?”:
 “Extracurricular activity,” “A club”?
 “Drill and ceremony?”
 “Lieutenant lost with map? can’t spell lost without LT”
 “It’s a dead end assignment!”
 Increased demands for professionalism warrant a new
name, OEP:
 Officer
 Education
 Program
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
Keystone the right people
 More of a personnel investment
 Rotate successful commanders at company and
battalion into PMS and APMS jobs
PMS job becomes second battalion command (to
consolidated programs), i.e., like training battalion
Identifier for those who instruct, can return
PMS as combat arms only
As educators and trainers
Establish a new career track as educator
 Give those who teach a masters degree in leadership
 School of Cadet Command focus on “how to teach”
 Non-deployable combat veterans as cadre
 NCO schools teach more NCO/officer relationships,
and mentorship
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
Keystone the right people
 More of a personnel investment
 Expand the Army’s stabilization program where
Divisions (or Brigades) throughout the nation sponsor programs
Enables personnel to rotate from units to programs and back
 Will further to enhance stabilization of families
 Example, 82nd Airborne Division sponsors schools in NC, SC
and VA
 Units will have a more vested interest in quality of
lieutenants
 Can host cadets to unit visits/participate in training
“Outside command, officers sought instructor
assignments as the only valuable place to be
if they could not lead soldiers.”
Bruce Gudmundsson
Stormtroop Tactics (1989)
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
The Future Program Recruits and Retains
 Good programs sustain themselves:
 Cadets will sell “their” program
 Conduct a strengths, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT)
analysis every six months
 An analysis into “their” strategic value target (SVT) based on the
SAL.
 Conduct a positioning analysis
 Determine the points of differentiation
 Reasons to believe those points will impact a programs success
 Marketing campaigns centered around the individual school, not a
canned CC campaign
 Incentivize a program for success. Instill an entrepreneurial spirit
within a battalion
 Stop using Neo-Taylorism language in speaking about people
“Build it and they will come”
The Field of Dreams
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
Future Program Recruiting and Scholarships
 Theme of marketing:
 Sell the army on its true merits
 Standards and academic rigor will sell over time (patience)
 Scholarships are a thing of the past
 MS I (freshman) does not get benefits, transitions into the program
 Beginning their MS II (upon contract),
A low interest loan to pay for their entire education (including room
and board; minus stipend)
Army loan is paid and forgiven upon commissioning (including
freshman year, exception is disenrollment or medical reasons)
“Problem: Officers entering [active duty] (OCS/ROTC nonscholarship) often have debt associated with educational costs
without access to debt repayment plan such as exists for
enlisted personnel.”
“State of Command” Brief (Fall 2002)
U.S. Army Cadet Command
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
Future Program Recruiting and Scholarships
 Green to Gold receives loan under same conditions as
stated
 Other incentives:
 Cadet completes each year given an increased bonus 1k for MSI, 2k
for MS II and 3k for MS III
 Like USMA graduates, new officers get a low interest loan
 Cadets get bonuses for completing hard to find
 Foreign language skills such as Chinese or Arabic
 Skills that lean toward specialties in need
 Completion of a graduate degree
“…the October 2004 survey at Northwestern specifically asked how many of the
students would consider serving as a prison guard in places like Abu Ghraib and
Guantanamo. In return, they would have their student loans forgiven and be given
G.I. Bill benefits for graduate school. A remarkable 11 percent that this would be a
‘very likely’ option and another 18 percent would ‘seriously consider’ such an
option.”
Dr. Charlie Moskos “The Citizen Soldier: The Ideal
and Reserve Culture” (October 2004)
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
The Degree in Decisive Leadership
Commissioning
BA Decisive
Leadership
Army loan forgiven
Open to any person
admitted to school
and passes DOPMER
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
The Future Program Summary
Summer
Training
Course
Semester 1
Semester 2
MS I
Soldier First
MS I, Science, Writing,
Communications,
Foreign Language
MS I, History,
Literature, Foreign
Language; Contract
Army
Schools
Or,
cultural
studies
MS II
Squad Ldr
MS II, Ldr theory,
History, culture
Foreign Language
MS II, Grp
Dynamics, History,
Foreign Language
Army
Schools
Or,
cultural
studies
MS III
Innovative
MS III, Sociology,
Cultural studies,
Foreign studies
MS III, Cultural
studies, mil-history,
Foreign Language
LEC
Army
schools
MS IV
Transition
MS IV, Security
studies, mil-history,
Foreign Language
MS IV, Strategic
studies, mil-history,
Foreign Language
2LT
TAC at
LEC or
Goldbar
Other
Reqs.
Orientation Course,
FTXs, Labs, PT, BDE
FTX, Counseling
FTXs, Labs, PT,
BDE FTX,
Counseling
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
BA in Leadership
 BA in Leadership
 A better education for all cadets
 Over time, the curricula of Future Program merges with other
existing on-campus leadership programs
 Cadets still have option for “minor,” while enrolled and
advancing in other disciplines, especially in sciences
 Focus is “how to think” and “decision-making” as the
foundation all officers
 Understands their role in the “larger picture”
 Additionally
 Proficiency in foreign language
 Establishes cognitive skills
 Cultural studies
 Military history
 Physical fitness is stressed and greatly improved
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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The Program
BA in Leadership
 Understand other cultures (part of contract to
commission)
 Bonuses for languages such as Arabic, Russian, Chinese,
Urdu, Pashtun, Farsi, Tagalog, etc…
 No bonuses for Spanish, French and German, but meets
requirement
 Must take some type of foreign cultural studies prior to
commissioning
 Assist cadets who qualify for Scholarships and Fellowships
 After commissioning, 2 years of graduate school before returning
 funds to study abroad and learn about other cultures
“In the late 19th century, the British Army ‘seconded’ bright officers to various
corners of the world to immerse them in the cultures of the Empire and to
become intimate with potentates from Egypt to Malaya. Names such as China
Gordon and T. E. Lawrence testify to the wisdom of such a custom.”
“Culture-Centric Warfare” Major General Robert Scales, Jr.
U.S. Army (Retired) Proceedings, September 2004
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Education
The military curriculum
 The principles of education and the tools just
mentioned are embodied in:
 Academics:
 MS I-Laying the Foundation: The Soldier
 MS II-The Combat Squad Leader’s Course
 MS III-Innovative Tactical Thought
 MS IV-Transition Toward Officership
 Training:
 Physical training must be challenging and innovative
 Labs centered around individual and unit tasks
 FTXs focus on free play force on force scenarios
“The advantage which a commander thinks he can attain through
continued personal intervention is largely illusory. By engaging in it he
assumes a task that really belongs to others, whose effectiveness he
thus destroys. He also multiplies his own tasks to a point where he can
no longer fulfill the whole of them.”
Helmuth von Moltke, papers of von Moltke
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Education
The military curriculum
 Know the tactical and operational doctrine manuals
 The “Future Program” text books by John Poole
 The Last Hundred Yards: The NCOs contribution to Warfare
 Tactics of the Crescent Moon: Militant Muslim Combat Methods
 The Tiger’s Way: A U.S. Private’s Best Chance for Survival
 Phantom Soldier: The Enemy’s Answer to U.S. Firepower
 Other Core Books
 William S. Lind, The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
 Anton Myrer, Once an Eagle
 Alister Horne, A Savage War of Peace
“The Last Hundred Yards was the best small unit tactics manual
published in many years. Now, just in time for Iraq, Afghanistan and
wherever else the neo-cons want to send American soldiers to die, he is
offering his take on how Islamic non-state forces fight. Tactics of the
Crescent Moon, should be in the backpack of every American soldier and
Marine.”
Book review by William S. Lind
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© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
Education
The military curriculum
 Tactical decision games (TDGs) develop adaptability and
intuition
 Johann Pestalozzi’s methods adapted by Prussians
 “Experience the thing before you try to give it a name”
 Use as quizzes or exams (oral or written)
 Vary conditions
Solve TDG under time limit
With loud music playing
Feed changing intelligence
 Brief decisions to instructor, peers and subordinates
“A subordinate's failure to act in the absence of orders was ‘illegal’ and
inexcusable in the eyes of his superiors and peers. An officer was
expected to act on the situation as he saw it, and he knew his action
would be supported. As a result, action in the face of uncertainty and
responsibility for that action was developed into a social norm.”
LTC John Silva “Auftragstatik: Its Orgin and Development”
Infantry Magazine (Sept-Oct 1989)
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Education
The military curriculum

MS I: “Laying the Foundation—The Soldier”
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
Revolves around The Tiger’s Way: A U.S. Private’s Best Chance for
Survival & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
Two-day course introducing them to the US Army
Riflemen in same squad, platoon and company entire time as cadet
Land navigation, physical training; intro to orders process
Semesters, consisting of four core blocks:
 “A Growing Threat at 75 Yards”
 “The New Basics”
Encourage “how to think”
 “What The Eastern Soldier Does”
 “The Winning Edge”
Includes historical case studies for examples
Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate
classes or as dog tags
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Education
The military curriculum
 MS II: “The Combat Squad Leader’s Course”
 Revolves around Phantom Soldier: The Enemy’s Answer to U.S.
Firepower , Tactics of the Crescent Moon: Militant Muslim Combat
Methods & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
 Team and squad leaders
 More land navigation and physical training
 TDGs
 Focuses on squad level missions
 Semesters four core blocks:
 “The Eastern Way of War”
 “The Differences in Tactical Technique”
Encourage “how to think”
 “The Next Disappearing Act”
 “Strategies for Deception”
 Includes historical case studies for examples
 Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate
blocks of instruction
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Education
The military curriculum
 MS III: “Innovative Tactical Thought”
 Revolves around The Last Hundred Yards: The NCOs contribution to
Warfare & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook
 Initially squad leaders and platoon sergeant, evolve to PLs/CO
 Land navigation and physical training
 Briefing OPORDs and TDGs to peers and instructors
 Officer and NCO relationships
 Consists of three core blocks:
 “The Shortfall in Recorded Knowledge
Encourage “how to think”
 “Techniques from the NCO Corps”
 “More Complex Problems”
 Includes historical case studies for examples
 Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate
blocks of instruction
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Education
The military curriculum
 MS IV: “Transition toward Officership”
Updated reading lists based on “Canon”
Two-day duties and responsibilities course
“Extension of Cadre” positions based on campus OML
Plan and execute labs (task training) and field training exercises are
variables in free play force on force environments
 OPORDs to PMS and cadre for each major event
 Two Semesters, Consisting of:
“News Briefings” & “Leadership Briefings”
“Discussions from Readings”
Encourage “how to think”
“Essays Based on Assigned Readings”
Quizzes, Tests and Final Exams
 Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate
classes
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© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Training
 Train the mind as well as the body
 PT must be challenging and fun
 “By the time APFT is given, it is seen as a break”
Three days is not enough
Not punishment—it becomes a way of life
 Cadre and cadets must be innovative as well
“Get that wounded member to this location”
Weekly foot road marches
 Reference, “Physical Training Programs for light infantry units: are they
preparing soldiers for the rigor of combat?” by Major Frank O’Donnell
“FM 21-20, Physical Fitness Training, is a good manual that
emphasizes combat readiness and train as you fight but does an
equally poor job of explaining how to do this, and the Army physical
fitness test (APFT) does not adequately correspond to the actual
physical readiness of a soldier in the performance of his combat
tasks.”
Frederick O’Donnell, MAJ, USA, “Physical Training Programs”
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Training
 Labs (see back ups-approach to training)
 Move from the classroom to practice
 Decentralize as much as possible
 Individual tasks up to squad
 Buddy team drills
 Individual movement techniques (IMT)
 Land navigation
 Train as cohesive squads as much as possible
 Let MS IVs and MS IIIs serve as trainers
 Must rehearse classes before cadre
 Must recon, calibrate and walk through each lab
“Our labs train cadets on ‘the how to’ with tools which they can
chose when making decisions during free play exercises.”
c/LTC Dan Feehan (Nov 2004)
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Training
 Field Training Exercises (see back ups-approach to
training)
 Evaluation of leadership dealing with complex unit problems
 Center around force-on-force free play exercises
 Involve latest lessons from war,
 Cadet Command creates mobile training team
 Continually develops new scenarios
 Cadre evaluate how people change under stress
 Brigades host two major FTXs, one fall and one spring:
 Multi-echelon free play force-on-force exercise fire team through
company
 Masses limited resources such as MILEs and blanks
 Create TAC teams for continual assessment and mentorship
 TAC Teams rotate for 12 hours, in order to maintain continual
observation
“MS IIIs and MS IVs stated that they learned the most during FTXs”
MS3 & MS 4 Survey SY02-03, U.S. Army Cadet Command, 11 Nov 2004
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Training
 LTC becomes an “Infusion Course,” for “lateral entry”
cadets to catch up with progression cadets
 Summer training not limited to Army schools/units
 Send cadets to other cultures
 Open up Army schools: scout leaders, mortar leaders, etc
 Eliminate 2 and 3-year ROTC contracts/cadets (except
Green-to-Gold)
 Military education demands this in the 21st Century
 Applicants with prior service at least two years, and pass
screening may advance to MS III year if academically aligned
Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious,
than to be able to decide.”
Napoleon Bonaparte,
”Napoleon’s Maxims”
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Training
 Leadership Evaluation Course (LEC), a “Ranger course (with
sleep)”—28 Days. Replaces LDAC (“summer camp”)
No “make ups” (unless injured) on APFT or Land Nav
Is “a test”: exceeds standards, standards, or fails
Focus on evaluation of leadership, not training tasks
Evaluations during free play force on force exercises:
LDP as used on campus (focused on decision making)
Complexity of problems grows throughout exercise
Programs assess cadets who can handle more prior to arrival
 Three TAC Teams throughout rotation => 24 hour observed
 Emphasis on the Warrior Ethic:
Garrison for in-processing, APFT, and clearing (4 days)
Cadets live in field as in combat environment the entire time
Will continue to do land navigation and BRM (tactical)
Foot road march everywhere
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© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Evaluating
 Core of the Leadership Evaluation Approach (LEA) is:
 Uses “double looping”
Provides different perspectives to develop leadership
Clarifies assumptions across the frame work of leadership
 Uses 360 evaluations, peer, subordinate and cadre
 At heart of assessment, is “did the cadet make a
decision,” then ask, “in a timely manner,” in the spirit of:
 “Commander’s intent” (two levels up)
 “Mission statement” (given the conditions at that time)
 If no decision, then failure
 From dimensions of 15 To 3 “guiding-actions”:
Problem solving
Social judgment
Knowledge
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Evaluating
 Other aspects of “double-loop”:
 In task performance:
 APFT
 Land Navigation
 To briefings: OPORDs, Training,
Leadership, News, TDGs
 With exams and quizzes, which revolve around essays
under timed conditions for example:
Cadet receives a “higher OPORD” with instructions “given the company
OPORD, a map, cadet will write a platoon OPORD, and then be
prepared to respond with actions (in writing) to a series of questions
pertaining to this mission, under a time restriction”
 Instructors continually “tweak” character through feedback
on evaluations
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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New POI
Conclusion
 Establishing and sustaining a reputation
 “Making-Mission” is subordinated to quality
Using “Goals” instead of “mission” when talking “numbers”
Flexibility to get within a percentage below or above “Goal”
 It is subordinated to how well a program prepared cadets
LEC becomes a “test,” measure of program as well
How do cadets do at other evaluations and training as well
Positive, vice negative, view: programs will build “credibility
points” for:
 Honor and distinguished graduates of OBCs and Army schools
 Or, finishing difficult schools like Ranger school
 Sending a number of cadets and finishing summer training
 Percentage of cadets finishing DMG
 Inspections adhere to principles in education, bde/Rgn
sit in on classes, watch instruction or training.
© 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff
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Part 4: New POI - Defense and the National Interest