e-Learning: Facilitating
Learning through Technology
Bob Bostrom
Terry College of Business
University of Georgia
[email protected]
Tutorial Resources available at
http://www.terry.uga.edu/people/rbostrom/
Click on “e-Learning” under Resources
HOW LEARNING IS DELIVERED
The evolution of training technologies
1800’s-1980’s
Mid 1980’s - mid 1990’s
1996 to present
• CDs
• Web-based
• Video Conferencing
• Correspondence
Courses
• Audio Tapes
Technologies that
support:
• Satellite Broadcasts
• Asynchronous
• Audio & Video Tapes
• Synchronous
• Computer-Based Train.
• Self-paced Learning
Ford Learning Network: e-Learning Example
• Touches 125,000 employees, 30,000 on regular basis
• One searchable portal; search capability critical (neural-net
search system)
• Contains:
• 400,000 titles, including 1500 on-line courses, 800 classroom
courses, and 1900 e-books, and internal resources
• 48,000 20-minute learning objects in various media designed
as just-in-time solutions or refreshers
• Much of material is mapped to job-role competencies;
employees self-assess skills, determine gaps, find training
• Track value of training on the job
• Reference:
http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_cloprofile.asp?articleid=180&zoneid=4
Academic e-Learning Examples
• Designed, implemented and taught in UGA PwC/IBM
MBA program (both design of curriculum and technical infrastructure)
[see web site for paper]
• MIT’s OpenCourseWare Project http://ocw.mit.edu/ (virtually all of
MIT’s course available free by 2007)
• Michigan Virtual University http://www.mivu.org/ (MVU founded by
state government; cooperative effort with higher education and industry; see
IT training initiative)
• New Jersey Institute of Technology http://cpe.njit.edu/ (a leader
in e-Learning since 1978; degree and professional programs)
• Sanford Center for Professional Development
http://scpd.stanford.edu/
• NYU Online: launched in 1998, closed it doors in late
2001 (Spent $25 million)
LEARNING IS MOVING ONLINE: Do for us?
• Reaches more people (Access)
• Universal access via the Web
• Improved Quality?
• Time & money savings are obvious
• travel costs, delivery delays
• increase ROI from training expenditures
• Offers new possibilities
• Anytime, anyplace training (smaller modules) [Key
value proposition: time and/or place independent]
• Improving performance
• Bottom Line: Continuous/Lifelong Learning
“The biggest growth in the
Internet, and the area that will
prove to be one of the biggest
agents of change, will be in online training, or e-learning.”
John Chambers, CEO, Cisco
e-Learning
e-Learning refers to the technology supporting learning
activities in any of the following environments.
TIME
Different
PLACE
Same
SAME (Synchronous)
DIFFERENT (Asynchronous)
Face To Face Interaction
Ongoing Coordination
CLASS
Simultaneous interaction
across distances
Virtual Classroom
(Centra, Interwise)
Instant Messaging
AnyTime
AnyWhere
AnyOne
Interaction across time
and distance
E-Mail, LMS, LCS
(Blackboard)
Distance/Distributed Learning: learning in which the learner
and learning resources are separated by time and/or space.
Can Technology
Facilitate Learning?
YES
NO
MAYBE
What technology do you use now in your classes?
• Website
– Static or Dynamic (interactivity)?
• Course Management Systems
– Blackboard
– WebCT
– Other
• Collaboration tools
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Email
Listserv (Group Email)
Instant Messaging
Audio/Video Conferencing
Virtual Classroom
Threaded discussions
Other (Groove, etc.)
Tutorial Outcomes
•
Purpose: provide an overview of e-learning to
encourage and facilitate IS professionals’ teaching
and research efforts.
• The ultimate question is: Can technology really
facilitate learning? If “yes”, how do we use
technology effectively to help activate and challenge
our learners? To answer these questions, this tutorial:
– Provides a technology map of e-learning technology that
can be used to support learning in a classroom or from a
distance;
– Outlines key research issues in e-learning focusing on those
where IS research can add value;
– Shares best practices for implementing and using
technology effectively in IS learning situations; and
– Discuss how instructor roles and skills need to change to
be effective in technology-supported environments, particularly
in distance learning situations..
Relevance of e-Learning to IS Field
(How I find myself presenting this tutorial?)
•IT/IS artifact/technology is a core object of the field (Learning
Systems are an emerging and important technology)
•Relevant IS Contexts where Learning Systems are Embedded
•Business Organizations
•Academic Organizations (primarily Colleges)
•Training and education in business knowledge and skills
especially IS (my love for teaching and training)
•IS Foundational Research Streams
•Group Support Systems/Digital Collaboration
•Computer Training (software, applications systems, endusers, etc.)
•e-Learning/technology-mediated learning (my experience
implementing an e-Learning MBA program)
•Primary Reference Disciplines: Education, Computer Science,
and Psychology
Information Systems Field/Community
CENTRAL/CORE OBJECTS
•Information System (IS) / Information Technology (IT) [IT Artifact]
•System Development Process/Change Process
•Context IT embedded: Organizational System (Process/Task, Roles/Structure,
People, Outcomes)
•Core Concept: Systems
OUTCOMES / INTENTIONS
•Applied - “Added Value” (Technology Improves the System)
•Contributions to Knowledge Domains
•Technology Design
•Technology Effects/Impacts on contexts embedded
•Technology Adoption (Diffusion, Use)
•Contributions to Other Fields
Benbasat and Zmud, “The Identity Crisis…” (MISQ, June 2003)
•Nomological Net: IT Artifact, Usage, Impact, IT Capabilities and Practices
•Too many research models include neither the IT artifact nor at least one elements
of nomological net; need to focus on IT artifact and Net
•We need to understand technology as well as individual and organizational uses
•Too much focus on adoption & impacts, instead of focus on technology design
Blended e-Learning
Online Anytime
•Asynchronous
•Primarily Diff. Time & Place
•Database – Centric
(Shared information
spaces)
•Key Tools
•Learning Management
Systems (LMS, LCMS)
•Learning Team Shared
Spaces
•Discussion Databases
•Group and Individual
email
Traditional Classroom
( Same Time & Place)
Content
•Creation Tools (Make,
Have made)
•Content (Buy, lots free)
•Learning objects
Online Live
•Synchronous/Real Time
•Primarily Same Time +
Diff. Place
•Communication – Centric
•Key Tools
•Instant
Messaging/Chat
•Audio/video
conferencing
•Virtual Classrooms
•Electronic Meeting
Systems
e-Learning Aliases
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Online learning/Training
Web-based learning/training
Virtual learning
Distributed learning
Distance learning
Asynchronous Learning Networks
Technology-Supported/Mediated/Facilitated Learning
Networked Learning
Electronic learning
Collaborative electronic learning
Electronic Performance Support
Workflow-based learning
• [Learning/Training]
e-Learning Content Creation Tools
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Content delivered electronically)
Text/Words [Word]
Audio (Regular, Streaming)
Video (Regular, Streaming)
Photographs/Pictures/Images [Photoshop]
Diagrams [MindManager]
Animation [Flash]
Simulations [RoboDemo]
Presentations/Slide Show [PowerPoint]
Multimedia Presentations (audio, video, slides, audio
in text) [Producer, AgilityPresenter, iCreate,
TurboDemo, Breeze]
Classroom Presentations Captured
Authoring Systems [Authorware, ToolBook]
Web Site Development tools [DreamWeaver,
Frontpage]
Other Software [Excel, etc.]
Electronic Content is Everywhere!
Colleagues, Professional Organizations, and Learning Communities
•IT: ACM Professional Development http://pd.acm.org/
•For a good talk on Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Listening, see http://stanfordonline.stanford.edu/milo/
•IT/MIS: http://www.isworld.org/
Conferences
•Techlearn 2002: http://www.techlearn.net/layout/default.cfm
•IT Content: GarnterLive http://www.gartner.com/gartnerlive.html
Vendors and Learning Portals (buy, many free courses, or have made)
•IT, Business and Leadership: http://www.skillsoft.com/
•Fathom http://www.fathom.com/
•Most Virtual Classroom vendors offer free seminars and recordings (for
example see http://www.interwise.com/live/livecatalog.asp)
Publishers/Book Sellers
•Laudon book web site: http://www.prenhall.com/laudon/
•Barnes and Noble University: http://www.barnesandnobleuniversity.com/
TRENDS
•More content available, easily accessible and transferable (standards)
•Impact on Teaching role:
•Finding, evaluating, and selecting content
•Chunking (smaller learning objects/activities) & Sequencing Content
•Matching Content to Delivery Tool & Environment
University Entrepreneurs
• More than 2,000 SkillSoft courses are eligible for credit
at Drexel University. To receive credit for a SkillSoft
course, a student must obtain a grade of 70 percent or
higher on the course test. Students receive one credit for
every ten contact hours associated with a SkillSoft
course. For instance, successful completion of SkillSoft’s
Six Sigma course series, comprised of eight courses,
would earn the learner a minimum of 3 college credits.
For more information on how to obtain credit for SkillSoft
courses and for a catalog of online programs offered by
Drexel, go to www.drexel.com/skillsoft (taken from
Skillsoft web site)
• A CASE STUDY OF WEB-BASED LEARNING: THE
MICHIGAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY IT TRAINING
INITIATIVE James J. Cappel: Central Michigan
University, Jonathan M. Ahlbrand: Michigan Virtual
University (AMCIS 2002 Proceedings)
http://aisel.isworld.org/
Hot area: Simulation and Gaming
•
Simulation is an interactive (difference from animation) model
– Recreate or model specific work environment (gaming creates more artificial world)
– Experience and learn through explorations (learn by doing)
•
Game-based learning: serious learning + interactive entertainment
– (see book Digital Game-Based Learning &
http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/default.asp)
– Additional site: http://www.games2train.com/ Learn from Gaming Industry?
•
•
•
Many different types of Games/Simulations for different types of learning: Factsgame show competition, Skills-Role Playing (e.g., MUDs)
Many business simulations are role playing situations, e.g., Creating effective
coaches (see http://www.cognitivearts.com and Schank book Designing World
Class e-Learning…) Many take blended approach: Simulation + Mentor
IS sample applications
– Software training: “show me, try me” (form of most IT e-Learning, little research on
effectiveness) Example: Steelcase SAP end-user training
– Network simulations (Cisco certification exams)
– Other: IS World Link (not much there)
•
•
•
•
Lots of success stories, research?
Generational and evolution of web experience? Under 40 “Games Generations”
Growth in area driven by the availability of good cheap development tools, e.g.,
RoboDemo (acad. price ~ $198 ) [see next slide]
Good Area for IS research and development (How to sell your textbook?)
RoboDemo Simulation Tool
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tool to create flash simulation learning objects
Fast Authoring and Easy editing
Supports branching to customize student learning
Supports multiple annotation formats (voice, text boxes
etc)
Supports Quizzes and Assessment
Supports Pocket PC
Available in 13 languages
Sample Applications:
– Capital University uses RoboDemo to assist students
in using Blackboard, their online learning & classroom
software system.
– Mira Costa College shows faculty and staff how to
request media from the media department.
Site: http://www.ehelp.com/products/robodemo/
Communication-Centric Tools
• Email, listservs (group emails)
• Email push (or web): survey/polling software
http://www.zoomerang.com (free version)
• Real time/Synchronous tools (Online Live)
– Real time or instant messaging: ICQ, AOL, MSN Messg.,
Lotus Real Time (http://web.icq.com/)
http://www.trillian.cc/ provides IM tool that allows access to
other IM products
– Audio/Video conferencing:
• NetMeeting:
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/netmeeting/
Free (Comes with Windows 2000), integrated
into Messenger in Windows XP
– Meeting support/Virtual classrooms tools/Broadcast
Technology (Very popular, huge growth in this area)
• http://www.webex.com/, https://www.centranow.com/
, http://main.placeware.com/ (MicroSoft Live),
http://www.Interwise.com/, http://www.horizonlive.com/
Provides meeting, classroom and broadcast software. (free
versions available, very limited)
• e-Meeting/GSS software used in classroom (lots of IS
research) [Syn and/or Asyn]
• http://www.facilitate.com/, http://www.groupsystems.com/,
Communication-Centric
• Focus: Facilitate communication
• Time-Place model: Same time
• Functions
– Chat
– File transfer
– Whiteboard
– Shared Screen/applications
– Protocols/controls (Classroom: raise hand, etc.)
– Meeting tools: generate, organize, evaluate (voting/polling,
quiz/test, etc.)
• Communication Media
– Computer text and graphics (data)
– Audio (web or phone)
– Video
• Communication Context
– # communicating
– mode: 1-1, 1-many, many-many
– one or two way communication
Instant Messenger (IM)
• Time-Place model: Same time, different place
• Functions
– Real time message (text or audio)
– Chat
– File transfer (very large files)
– [new versions adding video and other functionality:
whiteboard, application sharing]
• Communication Media
– Computer text and graphics (data)
– [latest versions adding Audio & Video]
• Communication Context
– mode: 1-1, many-many (small group)
– two way communication
• Applications?
• Sample Products: ICQ, MSN Messenger, AOL IM, Yahoo IM
Interwise Virtual Classroom
• Time-Place model: same time, different place
• Similar to classroom except place independent
• Functions: Chat, File transfer, Whiteboard, Shared
Screen/applications, Protocols/controls (Classroom),
Meeting/class tools (voting/polling, quiz/test, etc. )
• On-Demand Edited Recordings (content creation)
• Breakout sessions
• Communication Media
– Computer text and graphics (data)
– Audio (web or Phone)
– Video (usually person talking or just instructor)
• Communication Context
– # communicating (2-1000’s)
– All modes: 1-1, 1-many, many-many
– Both one or two way communication
• Applications?
• Unique Features: chat, private interaction, better feedback,
recordings, scalability (not limited by physical seats)
• Very little research on virtual classrooms or emeeting
versions (great area for IS researchers)
UGA Pilot (Spring 2003)
• Intro to IS (MBA), 3 3-hour sessions, 40 people, 2 sections
• 74% said Virtual class was as good or better than a face-toface class
• 67% would use virtual classroom for more than 40% of their
classes
• 100% of students want virtual classroom to be considered
for future use
Unexpected Findings (Still investigating data)
• Better participation and involvement
• Better class feedback which helps guide the discussion
• Easier for student to stay focused (more intense)
• Faculty
– More intense (need to take multiple breaks)
– Very different style of teaching
Online Anytime: Database-Centric Tools
• Focus: Facilitate access to shared information
repositories/containers
• Time-Place model: anytime, anyplace
• Functions
– Database storage and retrieval
– Store in database? (Content: learning objects, Discussions,
etc.)
– Database Categorization Scheme (metalanguage)
– Search capabilities
– Replication (local or distributed databases)
– Email notification (manual, automatic)
– Calendaring and Scheduling
– Meeting support tools (surveys/votes, etc.)
– Project Management Tools (Gantt Charts, etc.)
– Administrative tools (Registration, Tracking, etc.)
– Moderator, facilitator or teacher role
Learning Objects
• Combination of “learning” concept with object concept (borrowed
from IS & Computer Science)
– Self Describing
– Reusable
• Content (Learning)
– Granular/Small and self-contained
• Size not specified
• Guideline: complete enough to accomplish one or more learning outcomes
–
–
–
–
–
Reusable/Redeployable
Revisable
Standards Based (SCORM, XML)
Databased: scalable repository of learning objects
[Just-in-time delivery (IS concept of Electronic Performance Support)]
• Metadata (Self Describing)
–
–
–
–
Content Description
Author
Version
Legal Information
–Learning Outcomes
–Evidence/Evaluation
–Etc.
Learning Objects, Continued
• Do for us?
–
–
–
–
–
Portability (Systems, Platforms)
Interoperability/integration
Sharability of content
Reusability
Design (Basic building blocks): LO, Track/Topic/Module, Course,
Program/Certificate/Degree, etc.
– Create, store, manage, deliver, track, report on independent of
any usage (specific course)
– Eventually have the flexibility to mix course content from different
sources (publishers, etc.)
– Ensure e-Learning investments
• Problems/Challenges
– Uniform and consistency of LOs when assembling to create
modulo, track, course, etc.
– Getting by the hype (using the term), make sure you buying
software that is creating standard-base learning objects
(SCORM)
Standards
• No single e-Learning Standard exists, collection of
standard specifications that cover different areas:
SCORM (Learning objects), IEEE, AICC, ISO
• As buyers and sellers, focus: portability,
reusability, interoperability/integration, meta tags
• Key Issue: think standards when buying, “Are
your products SCORM compliant?”
• Federal Regulations: 508 compliant (disabilities
support), etc.
• Resources
• http://home.click2learn.com/en/products/standards.asp
• http://www.learnativity.com/standards.html
• Academic: commitment but little movement in
learning objects area (mostly 508 compliance)
• http://www.webct.com/standards
Learning Management System/Server
(LMS)
• Learner and organizational focused
• Logistics and administration of managing learners,
learning activities, and competency/skills/job links
(learning requirements)
• Contain both e-learning and non-elearning activities
• Registering, locating, scheduling, tracking, managing,
and reporting on learning activities and
skills/competencies in an organization
• Focus on higher level learning activities, e.g., courselevel tracking, particular completion and effectiveness
scores
• Major interface to other systems: HR, ERP, CRM, etc.
• Examples: WebMentor, IBM LMS (see Web for others)
Learning Content Management System/Server
(LCMS, LCS)
• Content focused at learning object level
• Create, store, reuse, locate, deliver, manage, track, and
improve learning objects
• Advance Features
• Tracks user interactions to personalize learning and
reporting
• Add collaboration tools , in context of learning objects, that
allow learners to collaborate with each other and
experts/mentors
• Capturing unstructured knowledge, primarily from
interactions, around learning object; use to create new
LOs or improve existing LOs
• Examples: Generation 21, Electure
Integration of LMS and LCMS
• Both access content (common content repository?)
• Both access user information: LMS has rich user
profile, used by LCMS to create personalized
experience, LCMS passes performance information
back to LMS
• Tight integration needed! (same vendor or separate
vendor?)
• Where to Course Management Systems (WebCt,
Blackboard) fit in all of this? What is the learning
object? Is it an object? How will these academicoriented systems link with commercial LMS and
LCMS that are moving away from course-based
systems?
Enterprise Learning System/Suite
(ELS)
• Components
–
–
–
–
–
Learning Management System
Leaning Content Management System
Virtual Classroom
Common Content Repository
Collaboration and Content Creation tools (besides those in LCMS)
• Examples
– Aspen (see next slide)
– Saba: http://www.saba.com/english/products/
– Docent: http://www.docent.com/products/product.html
• Big Boys moving in: IBM, SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, Siebel,
Sun
• Major IS research issues: implementation/design of ELS/LMS/LCMS
as a complex system; integration with knowledge management, ERP,
etc.
Aspen Enterprise Architecture
(See http://home.click2learn.com/en/aspen/index.asp)
Transaction Logging
Job, Skill profiles
and plans, etc.
Common Content
Repository
Threaded Diss, IM, KB
of Expert Interactions,
Community Support
Different Levels Involved in e-Learning
Organizational or
Interorganizational
levels
Learning Management
tools, cross-program
communication
Organizational-level: The management
of multiple programs and students
(employees, suppliers, customers).
Issues: programs integration and
management, student registration and
tracking, etc.
On-line anytime: LMS
Personal and
program news and
file sharing
Program-level coordination: The
management and coordination of
multiple courses and students taking
those courses. Issues: integrated
planning, scheduling and resource
allocation, student and faculty bios,
program discussions, etc.
On-line anytime: LMS
Assignments,
lectures,
discussions
Course-level: The resources and tools to
teach/take a particular course. Issues:
course design, assignments, discussions,
grading, etc.
On-line anytime (LCMS, Course
Management, email) and live (virtual
classroom, Instant messaging)
Program level
Course level
Student-Team level
Student-Team level: Tools necessary
for student teams geographically
spread out to meet, work on
assignments and collaboratively learn
together.
On-line anytime and live (emeeting, IM)
[Virtual] Learning Teams
(Cooperative/Collaborative Learning, Educational literature)
• Last 100 years, over 550 experimental and 100 correlational
studies; different subject areas & settings (including College)
– Learning together better than competitive or individual learning
– Higher achievement, higher-level reasoning, greater transfer, higher
self-esteem, greater social competencies
– The more conceptual, problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, or
real world application needed; the greater superiority of cooperative
• Have to be done right!: Team Development/Structure
–
–
–
–
–
–
Positive interdependence: I cannot succeed unless team does
Individual accountability: individual student assessment
Promotive/supportive interaction: support each other
Social/interpersonal skills: need good group skills
Group processing: discussion of progress and relationships
Mechanisms: Shared outcomes, roles, ground rules; develop skills
and relationships; peer evaluation; reward system;: etc.
• Resources: See web site for article by Johnson & Johnson
and Student team contract development exercise and
behaviorally-anchored peer evaluation
Collaboration and Technology
• Learning = Content+Technology+[Collaboration]
• Education Metastudy (Lou et. al, see refs on Web site)
– 486 findings, 122 studies from 1965-1999
– Small group learning had significantly more positive
effect on achievement, group performance, process and
affective outcomes
– Considerable variability-primary sources: technology, task,
group, learner characteristics
– Technology: most programs were content-delivery, designed
for individual (need for group designs, e.g., MUDs)
– Group: Size, cooperative learning strategies
• IS Research (Primarily Collaboration Technology)
– GSS enhances the effectiveness of collaborative learning
– Teaching programming more effective using peer approach
– Using technology enhance collaborative learning key IS
research area
Communication-Centric Tools
(all useful for teams)
• Email, listservs (group emails)
• Email push (or web): survey/polling software
http://www.zoomerang.com (free version)
• Real time/Synchronous tools
– Real time or instant messaging: ICQ, AOL, MSN Messg.,
Lotus Real Time (http://web.icq.com/)
http://www.trillian.cc/ provides IM tool that allows access to
other IM products
– Audio/Video conferencing:
• NetMeeting:
http://www.microsoft.com/windows/netmeeting/
Free (Comes with Windows 2000), integrated
into Messenger in Windows XP
– Meeting support/Virtual classrooms tools/Broadcast
Technology (Very popular, huge growth in this area)
• http://www.webex.com/, https://www.centranow.com/
, http://main.placeware.com/ (MicroSoft Live),
http://www.Interwise.com/, http://www.horizonlive.com/
Provides meeting, classroom and broadcast software. (free
versions available, very limited)
• e-Meeting software that hase been used in classroom
(GSS software researched) [Syn or Asyn]
Team Tech: Database-Centric
• Environment to store documents and have
discussions:
• Lotus TeamRoom (Notes Based, comes as part
of Notes 5))
http://www.lotus.com/products/qplace.nsf
QuickPlace is the web implementation of Lotus
TeamRoom.
• Team Portals on web: a single doorway or
entrance to services to support teams. Good
example, Webspace: http://www.copernus.com/
Team Tech: Integrated
• General: Future tools will integrate Database and
Communication functions into one package
– Seeing in Learning Content Management Systems
– Other software; PeopleSoft integrating in products (IM,
etc.)
• Groove is a peer-to-peer digital collaboration tool
that very useful for students and faculty. Go to
http://www.groove.net/ and download the
software. There is a free version! If you do not
have at least 56k modem connection, this might be
a little slow. Check it out!!
• Some systems are more oriented to communities
instead of focusing on teams, for example see
http://www.communispace.com/
Groove Shared Spaces
• A shared space is a private place where small groups of
people (members) can talk, work, play and store things.
• Has IM capabilities: audio, chat, messaging
• Share space contains a set of tools for members to use (select
individual tools or tool sets, e.g.., Project)
• Key Tools: Files/Documents (Shared Application with Microsoft
Word and Powerpoint), Discussion, Document Review,
Outliner, Notepad, Calendar, Links/Browser, Meetings, Games
and many more (see Groove and Groove Web site)
• Work Seamlessly with MicroSoft Office, Outlook & SharePoint
• Keep work spaces synchronized on multiple computers
• New Project Version: Groove plus TeamDirection’s
– Project: Plan projects and monitor execution status in a highly
graphical environment. Interfaces with MicroSoft Project
– Dashboard: Get "at-a-glance" views of your project and personal
status across all your workspaces.
• See
http://www.groove.net/products/workspace/comparison.html for
comparison of versions
IDC Recent Research
http://www.groove.net/extras/beyondemail/idc/?home
•Summary for both IT and Business Users (also true for student teams)
•90-95 % day-to-day tasks done through email especially when external
constituents
•Key features of emails: ease of use, persistence of record, and ability to use
externally
•At same time, freely criticize email: insecure, inefficient, SPAM, and costly to
maintain
•What stops people from adopting new collaboration tools
•Lack of education and awareness
•Tools themselves: ease of use, reliable performance
•Success of Instant Messaging (50 million business users)? Most IM expanding
features or providing links to other tools
•New tools solving?: Groove, Interwise (virtual meeting, classrooms, and
broadcasts) [Need for research: preliminary evidence that Groove 10 times
more productive]
Business Integration
• Key Business Driver: Integration of business processes within the
organization and supply/value chain to improve performance
• Workflow-based learning (focus on performance support)
– Learning to point of work in real time, on the job, in context of
employee’s workflow
– Systems integration: e-Learning with
• Current integrated systems (ERP, CRM)
• EAI and Web Services efforts: Learning object becomes web service?
– Old IS research stream revived: Electronic Performance Support
• Business/System Integration: e-Learning with
– Business workflow/Performance support (convergence point?)
– Content/Knowledge Management (qualitative information)
• Ford Example
• LCS capturing qualitative information around learning objects
– Business Intelligence (quantitative information)
– Common/shared knowledge repositories and collaboration technology
platform
• Key areas for IS research
The Knowledge Pyramid
Business
Process/Performance
Management
Collaboratio
n
Technology
Content/Knowledge
Management
Knowledge
objects
repositories
e-Learning
Business
Intelligence
IS General e-Learning Research
• General Finding: IT-enable learning methods do better
or as well as traditional methods
• Method most studied collaborative learning: GSS
student teams outperformed non-supported teams
• Considerable variation: Sources/Moderators
– Instructor characteristics
– Student characteristics: more conducive to highly
motivated learners, academic ability, learning style
• Research needed
– Question: How Does technology enhance learning?
– Focus on interactions of technology, instructional
methods, learner psychological processes, and
environmental factors
• Primary Reference: ALavi & Leidner, ISR, March 2001
Asynchronous Learning Networks
• IS and Education Research
• ALNs tend to be as effective or more effective than traditional
modes of course delivery at the university levels
• Considerable variability-Sources: technology, students,
instructors, instructional methods
• Some interesting findings: (not all)
– Increase importance of technology and use of Course Management
Systems by Faculty (increase communications with students)
– Longer to create, more time for interaction
– More effective for well motivated student; challenge: create
independent active learners
– Interactivity Key: building learning community
• Communication with instructor
• Collaborative learning activities
• Active participation
• Primary References: Hiltz & Turoff, CACM, April 2002; good sites:
http://www.aln.org/, http://www.alnresearch.org, http://www.uwex.edu/disted/
Research Issues Summary
• Key research questions:
– How does technology enhance learning in a given context (students,
instructor/mentor, instructional method, environmental factors)?
– For whom is it better? For what methods and instructors? Key Environmental
factors?
– Some Key Contexts: Business knowledge and skills especially IS/IT education
and training, Customer Learning, Classrooms
• e-Learning represents very different technologies
– Development of good technology models and typologies
– Research Specific technologies: virtual classrooms, workflow-based learning,
simulations and gaming
– Comparison of technologies to accomplish learning outcomes
• Matching technology to learning outcomes and activities (task-technology
fit view of the world)
– Most e-Learning done in blends, e.g., face-to-face, online live, online anytime
– Develop guidelines for creating blended e-Learning
• Technology enhances the effectiveness of collaborative learning-continue
research in this area: [virtual] learning teams, virtual classrooms [add GSS
functionality], specific components, instructor/facilitator role, integrating
collaboration into content software
Different Levels Involved in e-Learning
Organizational or
Interorganizational
levels
Learning Management
tools, cross-program
communication
Personal and
program news and
file sharing
Program-level coordination: The
management and coordination of
multiple courses and students taking
those courses. Issues: integrated
planning, scheduling and resource
allocation, student and faculty bios,
program discussions, etc.
On-line anytime: LMS
Assignments,
lectures,
discussions
Course-level: The resources and tools to
teach/take a particular course. Issues:
course design, assignments, discussions,
grading, etc.
On-line anytime (LCMS, Course
Management, email) and live (virtual
classroom, Instant messaging)
Program level
Course level
Most
Research
at this
level
Organizational-level: The management
of multiple programs and students
(employees, suppliers, customers).
Issues: programs integration and
management, student registration and
tracking, etc.
On-line anytime: LMS
Student-Team level
Student-Team level: Tools necessary
for student teams geographically
spread out to meet, work on
assignments and collaboratively learn
together.
On-line anytime and live (emeeting, IM)
Greater Breadth of Research
• More focus on program and organizational levels
• Many exciting initiatives, little research or sharing
[Great area for research]
• Good Starting points: Alavi & Gallupe, Academy of Management
Learning & Education, 2:2, 2003 (5 successful cases); Bostrom et. al.
and Jessup & Wheeler Case studies (see Web site references)
• Some key findings (not all)
– Programs implemented to support strategic vision
– Culture that supports innovation is critical
– Various technological models successful; key is blending
technology to support vision
– Focus on learning, not technology
– High levels of on-going support is needed for both faculty
and students, needs are often underestimated
– Intellectual property important, not addressed adequately
– Most assessments of programs are anecdotal
Other Research Issues
• Implementation of Learning Systems (ELS, LMS, LCMS) as
a complex system
• How are technologies enabling emergent organizational
learning structures? What managerial issues / opportunities
do these create? Learning Strategies?
• Business integration: e-Learning integration with
content/knowledge management, Business Intelligence, and
Business Process/Performance Management
• Individual differences? How to develop an active/selfregulated learner (metacognition)? How can technology
help?
• All research projects would benefit from collaborative efforts
with business and education colleagues, action-research
projects, etc.
Transforming Learning
•What is our vision and strategy for learning and how do we design an
infrastructure to support it?
•What exactly should the offerings of a university be?
•What should a course be? Should there be courses at all?
•How can we make education better?
•Are we going to wait till we are seriously challenged in the free market?
•Etc.
•Good article to make you think, Shank
http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/schank/schank_index.html
I leave you with the following:
We have the opportunity to create some massive
technology enabled changes in what it means to be
involved in obtaining an education? What will your role
be?
A Vision of Learning Transformed
Any individual can participate in online education programs
regardless of geographic location, age, physical limitation, or
personal schedule. Everyone can access repositories of
educational materials, easily recalling past lessons, updating
skills, or selecting from among different teaching methods in
order to discover the most effective ways of learning.
Educational programs can be customized to each
individual's needs, so that the information revolution reaches
everyone and personal digital libraries provide a mechanism for
managing one's accumulated knowledge resources. Learning
involves all our senses, to help focus each student's attention
and better communicate educational material.
Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future
Report to the President, February 1999
President's Information Technology Advisory Committee
Recommendations from the 2001 PITAC Report
Overarching Recommendation
Make the effective integration of information technology, with education and training a
national priority.
Supporting Actions
• Establish and coordinate a major research initiative focusing on:
•Learning technologies and sciences – Information technologies for education and
training
•Requirements for learning and teaching information technology fluency
•Establish partnerships involving government, university, industry, and foundations to
support the pursuit of the research initiative and to collaborate in that research
•Enable educators and related professionals to use information technology effectively
•Work with industry and academia to develop standards for extendable
component-based technology and infrastructures that can be widely used in online
education and training.
PITAC Report (2001). “Using Information Technology to Transform the Way We Learn.” Arlington, VA, President’s
Information Technology /Advisory Committee, Panel on Transforming Learning. http://www.itrd.gov/pitac/; for
commentary see http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=5664
Teaching Roles: New or Expanded
• Course Design
– Focus on Instructional Goals & Learning Activities, not
Technology
– Finding, evaluating, and selecting content including
simulated environments
– Chunking (smaller learning objects/ activities) & Sequencing
Content
– Blending: Matching Content to Delivery Tool & Environment
(Time & Place Considerations)
– Flexible, Adaptable Designs
– Learner-Centered rather than Instructor-Centered
• Linking: Digital or Live Links To Digital or Human
Resources
– Editorial Role
– Adding Value for Linkage
– Testing (Broken Links) & Economics of Linking
Teaching Roles: New or Expanded
• Content Delivery
– Asynchronously, primarily text-based teaching
• Dynamic documents
• Frequently asked questions
• Discussion databases
– Digital Media Segments (lecturing from a distance)
– Synchronous Virtual Classrooms
• Learner Support
– On-line assistance (instant mess., email,
audio/video conf, etc.)
– On-line Coaching/facilitation
Teaching Roles: New or Expanded
• General Facilitation
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
“To Make Easy”
New Environments: Different Time & Place; Same Time, Different Place
Establish Norms/Ground Rules and Culture of Course
Confusion Reduction (High Use of FAQ, Students Support Each Other)
Listen, Clarifies & Integrates Information
Develops & Asks Good Questions
Manages Conflict & Negative Emotions
Role Model for Working with Others
– Keeps Class/ Individual Focused on Learning Outcomes
• Create Collaborative Environment
–
–
–
–
–
Actively Builds Rapport & Relationships
Team and community development
Projects & Assignments (Dyads, Teams)
Discussions
Peer Review (Individual, Team)
Teaching Roles: New or Expanded
• Engaging the Learner
–
–
–
–
–
Contracting Early to Set Expectations
Create Curiosity, Activity, Commitment
Encourages/ Supports Multiple Perspectives
Continuous “Touching” of the Distance Learner
Different Strokes for Different Folks
• Technology
– Understands Technology & its Capabilities for Supporting Learning
– Creates Comfort with & Promotes Understanding of How to Use
– Selects Appropriate Technology to Achieve Learning Outcomes
• Monitoring, Assessment & Feedback
–
–
–
–
–
Monitoring Progress of student
Align Evaluation with Instructional Outcomes
Testing vs. Review/ Feedback
Role of Technology: Tracking, Assessing
Team Accountability & Assessment
Strategies
Organizational Strategies
IT Learning Strategy: The pattern of IT actions for
deploying resources to develop the repository of
computer knowledge and skills in a company’s workforce.
IT Training Strategies: The basis for
selecting the best training methods for a
given situation (training session, project,
etc.)
e-Learning Model
Learning Outcomes
Structure
•Schedule
•Grading
•Etc.
Learning Activities
[individual, team]
Technology
Learner
[individual differences]
Assessable Outcomes
Learning Resources
•Faculty
•Instructional Method
•Classmates
•Metacognition
Support
•Etc.
Descargar

Blended learning - People Websites