e-Learning: Facilitating Learning through Technology Bob Bostrom Terry College of Business University of Georgia firstname.lastname@example.org Tutorial Resources available at http://www.terry.uga.edu/people/rbostrom/ Click on “e-Learning” under Resources HOW LEARNING IS DELIVERED The evolution of training technologies 1800’s-1980’s Mid 1980’s - mid 1990’s 1996 to present • CDs • Web-based • Video Conferencing • Correspondence Courses • Audio Tapes Technologies that support: • Satellite Broadcasts • Asynchronous • Audio & Video Tapes • Synchronous • Computer-Based Train. • Self-paced Learning Ford Learning Network: e-Learning Example • Touches 125,000 employees, 30,000 on regular basis • One searchable portal; search capability critical (neural-net search system) • Contains: • 400,000 titles, including 1500 on-line courses, 800 classroom courses, and 1900 e-books, and internal resources • 48,000 20-minute learning objects in various media designed as just-in-time solutions or refreshers • Much of material is mapped to job-role competencies; employees self-assess skills, determine gaps, find training • Track value of training on the job • Reference: http://www.clomedia.com/content/templates/clo_cloprofile.asp?articleid=180&zoneid=4 Academic e-Learning Examples • Designed, implemented and taught in UGA PwC/IBM MBA program (both design of curriculum and technical infrastructure) [see web site for paper] • MIT’s OpenCourseWare Project http://ocw.mit.edu/ (virtually all of MIT’s course available free by 2007) • Michigan Virtual University http://www.mivu.org/ (MVU founded by state government; cooperative effort with higher education and industry; see IT training initiative) • New Jersey Institute of Technology http://cpe.njit.edu/ (a leader in e-Learning since 1978; degree and professional programs) • Sanford Center for Professional Development http://scpd.stanford.edu/ • NYU Online: launched in 1998, closed it doors in late 2001 (Spent $25 million) LEARNING IS MOVING ONLINE: Do for us? • Reaches more people (Access) • Universal access via the Web • Improved Quality? • Time & money savings are obvious • travel costs, delivery delays • increase ROI from training expenditures • Offers new possibilities • Anytime, anyplace training (smaller modules) [Key value proposition: time and/or place independent] • Improving performance • Bottom Line: Continuous/Lifelong Learning “The biggest growth in the Internet, and the area that will prove to be one of the biggest agents of change, will be in online training, or e-learning.” John Chambers, CEO, Cisco e-Learning e-Learning refers to the technology supporting learning activities in any of the following environments. TIME Different PLACE Same SAME (Synchronous) DIFFERENT (Asynchronous) Face To Face Interaction Ongoing Coordination CLASS Simultaneous interaction across distances Virtual Classroom (Centra, Interwise) Instant Messaging AnyTime AnyWhere AnyOne Interaction across time and distance E-Mail, LMS, LCS (Blackboard) Distance/Distributed Learning: learning in which the learner and learning resources are separated by time and/or space. Can Technology Facilitate Learning? YES NO MAYBE What technology do you use now in your classes? • Website – Static or Dynamic (interactivity)? • Course Management Systems – Blackboard – WebCT – Other • Collaboration tools – – – – – – – Email Listserv (Group Email) Instant Messaging Audio/Video Conferencing Virtual Classroom Threaded discussions Other (Groove, etc.) Tutorial Outcomes • Purpose: provide an overview of e-learning to encourage and facilitate IS professionals’ teaching and research efforts. • The ultimate question is: Can technology really facilitate learning? If “yes”, how do we use technology effectively to help activate and challenge our learners? To answer these questions, this tutorial: – Provides a technology map of e-learning technology that can be used to support learning in a classroom or from a distance; – Outlines key research issues in e-learning focusing on those where IS research can add value; – Shares best practices for implementing and using technology effectively in IS learning situations; and – Discuss how instructor roles and skills need to change to be effective in technology-supported environments, particularly in distance learning situations.. Relevance of e-Learning to IS Field (How I find myself presenting this tutorial?) •IT/IS artifact/technology is a core object of the field (Learning Systems are an emerging and important technology) •Relevant IS Contexts where Learning Systems are Embedded •Business Organizations •Academic Organizations (primarily Colleges) •Training and education in business knowledge and skills especially IS (my love for teaching and training) •IS Foundational Research Streams •Group Support Systems/Digital Collaboration •Computer Training (software, applications systems, endusers, etc.) •e-Learning/technology-mediated learning (my experience implementing an e-Learning MBA program) •Primary Reference Disciplines: Education, Computer Science, and Psychology Information Systems Field/Community CENTRAL/CORE OBJECTS •Information System (IS) / Information Technology (IT) [IT Artifact] •System Development Process/Change Process •Context IT embedded: Organizational System (Process/Task, Roles/Structure, People, Outcomes) •Core Concept: Systems OUTCOMES / INTENTIONS •Applied - “Added Value” (Technology Improves the System) •Contributions to Knowledge Domains •Technology Design •Technology Effects/Impacts on contexts embedded •Technology Adoption (Diffusion, Use) •Contributions to Other Fields Benbasat and Zmud, “The Identity Crisis…” (MISQ, June 2003) •Nomological Net: IT Artifact, Usage, Impact, IT Capabilities and Practices •Too many research models include neither the IT artifact nor at least one elements of nomological net; need to focus on IT artifact and Net •We need to understand technology as well as individual and organizational uses •Too much focus on adoption & impacts, instead of focus on technology design Blended e-Learning Online Anytime •Asynchronous •Primarily Diff. Time & Place •Database – Centric (Shared information spaces) •Key Tools •Learning Management Systems (LMS, LCMS) •Learning Team Shared Spaces •Discussion Databases •Group and Individual email Traditional Classroom ( Same Time & Place) Content •Creation Tools (Make, Have made) •Content (Buy, lots free) •Learning objects Online Live •Synchronous/Real Time •Primarily Same Time + Diff. Place •Communication – Centric •Key Tools •Instant Messaging/Chat •Audio/video conferencing •Virtual Classrooms •Electronic Meeting Systems e-Learning Aliases • • • • • • • • • • • • Online learning/Training Web-based learning/training Virtual learning Distributed learning Distance learning Asynchronous Learning Networks Technology-Supported/Mediated/Facilitated Learning Networked Learning Electronic learning Collaborative electronic learning Electronic Performance Support Workflow-based learning • [Learning/Training] e-Learning Content Creation Tools • • • • • • • • • • • • • (Content delivered electronically) Text/Words [Word] Audio (Regular, Streaming) Video (Regular, Streaming) Photographs/Pictures/Images [Photoshop] Diagrams [MindManager] Animation [Flash] Simulations [RoboDemo] Presentations/Slide Show [PowerPoint] Multimedia Presentations (audio, video, slides, audio in text) [Producer, AgilityPresenter, iCreate, TurboDemo, Breeze] Classroom Presentations Captured Authoring Systems [Authorware, ToolBook] Web Site Development tools [DreamWeaver, Frontpage] Other Software [Excel, etc.] Electronic Content is Everywhere! Colleagues, Professional Organizations, and Learning Communities •IT: ACM Professional Development http://pd.acm.org/ •For a good talk on Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Listening, see http://stanfordonline.stanford.edu/milo/ •IT/MIS: http://www.isworld.org/ Conferences •Techlearn 2002: http://www.techlearn.net/layout/default.cfm •IT Content: GarnterLive http://www.gartner.com/gartnerlive.html Vendors and Learning Portals (buy, many free courses, or have made) •IT, Business and Leadership: http://www.skillsoft.com/ •Fathom http://www.fathom.com/ •Most Virtual Classroom vendors offer free seminars and recordings (for example see http://www.interwise.com/live/livecatalog.asp) Publishers/Book Sellers •Laudon book web site: http://www.prenhall.com/laudon/ •Barnes and Noble University: http://www.barnesandnobleuniversity.com/ TRENDS •More content available, easily accessible and transferable (standards) •Impact on Teaching role: •Finding, evaluating, and selecting content •Chunking (smaller learning objects/activities) & Sequencing Content •Matching Content to Delivery Tool & Environment University Entrepreneurs • More than 2,000 SkillSoft courses are eligible for credit at Drexel University. To receive credit for a SkillSoft course, a student must obtain a grade of 70 percent or higher on the course test. Students receive one credit for every ten contact hours associated with a SkillSoft course. For instance, successful completion of SkillSoft’s Six Sigma course series, comprised of eight courses, would earn the learner a minimum of 3 college credits. For more information on how to obtain credit for SkillSoft courses and for a catalog of online programs offered by Drexel, go to www.drexel.com/skillsoft (taken from Skillsoft web site) • A CASE STUDY OF WEB-BASED LEARNING: THE MICHIGAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY IT TRAINING INITIATIVE James J. Cappel: Central Michigan University, Jonathan M. Ahlbrand: Michigan Virtual University (AMCIS 2002 Proceedings) http://aisel.isworld.org/ Hot area: Simulation and Gaming • Simulation is an interactive (difference from animation) model – Recreate or model specific work environment (gaming creates more artificial world) – Experience and learn through explorations (learn by doing) • Game-based learning: serious learning + interactive entertainment – (see book Digital Game-Based Learning & http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/default.asp) – Additional site: http://www.games2train.com/ Learn from Gaming Industry? • • • Many different types of Games/Simulations for different types of learning: Factsgame show competition, Skills-Role Playing (e.g., MUDs) Many business simulations are role playing situations, e.g., Creating effective coaches (see http://www.cognitivearts.com and Schank book Designing World Class e-Learning…) Many take blended approach: Simulation + Mentor IS sample applications – Software training: “show me, try me” (form of most IT e-Learning, little research on effectiveness) Example: Steelcase SAP end-user training – Network simulations (Cisco certification exams) – Other: IS World Link (not much there) • • • • Lots of success stories, research? Generational and evolution of web experience? Under 40 “Games Generations” Growth in area driven by the availability of good cheap development tools, e.g., RoboDemo (acad. price ~ $198 ) [see next slide] Good Area for IS research and development (How to sell your textbook?) RoboDemo Simulation Tool • • • • • • • • • Tool to create flash simulation learning objects Fast Authoring and Easy editing Supports branching to customize student learning Supports multiple annotation formats (voice, text boxes etc) Supports Quizzes and Assessment Supports Pocket PC Available in 13 languages Sample Applications: – Capital University uses RoboDemo to assist students in using Blackboard, their online learning & classroom software system. – Mira Costa College shows faculty and staff how to request media from the media department. Site: http://www.ehelp.com/products/robodemo/ Communication-Centric Tools • Email, listservs (group emails) • Email push (or web): survey/polling software http://www.zoomerang.com (free version) • Real time/Synchronous tools (Online Live) – Real time or instant messaging: ICQ, AOL, MSN Messg., Lotus Real Time (http://web.icq.com/) http://www.trillian.cc/ provides IM tool that allows access to other IM products – Audio/Video conferencing: • NetMeeting: http://www.microsoft.com/windows/netmeeting/ Free (Comes with Windows 2000), integrated into Messenger in Windows XP – Meeting support/Virtual classrooms tools/Broadcast Technology (Very popular, huge growth in this area) • http://www.webex.com/, https://www.centranow.com/ , http://main.placeware.com/ (MicroSoft Live), http://www.Interwise.com/, http://www.horizonlive.com/ Provides meeting, classroom and broadcast software. (free versions available, very limited) • e-Meeting/GSS software used in classroom (lots of IS research) [Syn and/or Asyn] • http://www.facilitate.com/, http://www.groupsystems.com/, Communication-Centric • Focus: Facilitate communication • Time-Place model: Same time • Functions – Chat – File transfer – Whiteboard – Shared Screen/applications – Protocols/controls (Classroom: raise hand, etc.) – Meeting tools: generate, organize, evaluate (voting/polling, quiz/test, etc.) • Communication Media – Computer text and graphics (data) – Audio (web or phone) – Video • Communication Context – # communicating – mode: 1-1, 1-many, many-many – one or two way communication Instant Messenger (IM) • Time-Place model: Same time, different place • Functions – Real time message (text or audio) – Chat – File transfer (very large files) – [new versions adding video and other functionality: whiteboard, application sharing] • Communication Media – Computer text and graphics (data) – [latest versions adding Audio & Video] • Communication Context – mode: 1-1, many-many (small group) – two way communication • Applications? • Sample Products: ICQ, MSN Messenger, AOL IM, Yahoo IM Interwise Virtual Classroom • Time-Place model: same time, different place • Similar to classroom except place independent • Functions: Chat, File transfer, Whiteboard, Shared Screen/applications, Protocols/controls (Classroom), Meeting/class tools (voting/polling, quiz/test, etc. ) • On-Demand Edited Recordings (content creation) • Breakout sessions • Communication Media – Computer text and graphics (data) – Audio (web or Phone) – Video (usually person talking or just instructor) • Communication Context – # communicating (2-1000’s) – All modes: 1-1, 1-many, many-many – Both one or two way communication • Applications? • Unique Features: chat, private interaction, better feedback, recordings, scalability (not limited by physical seats) • Very little research on virtual classrooms or emeeting versions (great area for IS researchers) UGA Pilot (Spring 2003) • Intro to IS (MBA), 3 3-hour sessions, 40 people, 2 sections • 74% said Virtual class was as good or better than a face-toface class • 67% would use virtual classroom for more than 40% of their classes • 100% of students want virtual classroom to be considered for future use Unexpected Findings (Still investigating data) • Better participation and involvement • Better class feedback which helps guide the discussion • Easier for student to stay focused (more intense) • Faculty – More intense (need to take multiple breaks) – Very different style of teaching Online Anytime: Database-Centric Tools • Focus: Facilitate access to shared information repositories/containers • Time-Place model: anytime, anyplace • Functions – Database storage and retrieval – Store in database? (Content: learning objects, Discussions, etc.) – Database Categorization Scheme (metalanguage) – Search capabilities – Replication (local or distributed databases) – Email notification (manual, automatic) – Calendaring and Scheduling – Meeting support tools (surveys/votes, etc.) – Project Management Tools (Gantt Charts, etc.) – Administrative tools (Registration, Tracking, etc.) – Moderator, facilitator or teacher role Learning Objects • Combination of “learning” concept with object concept (borrowed from IS & Computer Science) – Self Describing – Reusable • Content (Learning) – Granular/Small and self-contained • Size not specified • Guideline: complete enough to accomplish one or more learning outcomes – – – – – Reusable/Redeployable Revisable Standards Based (SCORM, XML) Databased: scalable repository of learning objects [Just-in-time delivery (IS concept of Electronic Performance Support)] • Metadata (Self Describing) – – – – Content Description Author Version Legal Information –Learning Outcomes –Evidence/Evaluation –Etc. Learning Objects, Continued • Do for us? – – – – – Portability (Systems, Platforms) Interoperability/integration Sharability of content Reusability Design (Basic building blocks): LO, Track/Topic/Module, Course, Program/Certificate/Degree, etc. – Create, store, manage, deliver, track, report on independent of any usage (specific course) – Eventually have the flexibility to mix course content from different sources (publishers, etc.) – Ensure e-Learning investments • Problems/Challenges – Uniform and consistency of LOs when assembling to create modulo, track, course, etc. – Getting by the hype (using the term), make sure you buying software that is creating standard-base learning objects (SCORM) Standards • No single e-Learning Standard exists, collection of standard specifications that cover different areas: SCORM (Learning objects), IEEE, AICC, ISO • As buyers and sellers, focus: portability, reusability, interoperability/integration, meta tags • Key Issue: think standards when buying, “Are your products SCORM compliant?” • Federal Regulations: 508 compliant (disabilities support), etc. • Resources • http://home.click2learn.com/en/products/standards.asp • http://www.learnativity.com/standards.html • Academic: commitment but little movement in learning objects area (mostly 508 compliance) • http://www.webct.com/standards Learning Management System/Server (LMS) • Learner and organizational focused • Logistics and administration of managing learners, learning activities, and competency/skills/job links (learning requirements) • Contain both e-learning and non-elearning activities • Registering, locating, scheduling, tracking, managing, and reporting on learning activities and skills/competencies in an organization • Focus on higher level learning activities, e.g., courselevel tracking, particular completion and effectiveness scores • Major interface to other systems: HR, ERP, CRM, etc. • Examples: WebMentor, IBM LMS (see Web for others) Learning Content Management System/Server (LCMS, LCS) • Content focused at learning object level • Create, store, reuse, locate, deliver, manage, track, and improve learning objects • Advance Features • Tracks user interactions to personalize learning and reporting • Add collaboration tools , in context of learning objects, that allow learners to collaborate with each other and experts/mentors • Capturing unstructured knowledge, primarily from interactions, around learning object; use to create new LOs or improve existing LOs • Examples: Generation 21, Electure Integration of LMS and LCMS • Both access content (common content repository?) • Both access user information: LMS has rich user profile, used by LCMS to create personalized experience, LCMS passes performance information back to LMS • Tight integration needed! (same vendor or separate vendor?) • Where to Course Management Systems (WebCt, Blackboard) fit in all of this? What is the learning object? Is it an object? How will these academicoriented systems link with commercial LMS and LCMS that are moving away from course-based systems? Enterprise Learning System/Suite (ELS) • Components – – – – – Learning Management System Leaning Content Management System Virtual Classroom Common Content Repository Collaboration and Content Creation tools (besides those in LCMS) • Examples – Aspen (see next slide) – Saba: http://www.saba.com/english/products/ – Docent: http://www.docent.com/products/product.html • Big Boys moving in: IBM, SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, Siebel, Sun • Major IS research issues: implementation/design of ELS/LMS/LCMS as a complex system; integration with knowledge management, ERP, etc. Aspen Enterprise Architecture (See http://home.click2learn.com/en/aspen/index.asp) Transaction Logging Job, Skill profiles and plans, etc. Common Content Repository Threaded Diss, IM, KB of Expert Interactions, Community Support Different Levels Involved in e-Learning Organizational or Interorganizational levels Learning Management tools, cross-program communication Organizational-level: The management of multiple programs and students (employees, suppliers, customers). Issues: programs integration and management, student registration and tracking, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Personal and program news and file sharing Program-level coordination: The management and coordination of multiple courses and students taking those courses. Issues: integrated planning, scheduling and resource allocation, student and faculty bios, program discussions, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Assignments, lectures, discussions Course-level: The resources and tools to teach/take a particular course. Issues: course design, assignments, discussions, grading, etc. On-line anytime (LCMS, Course Management, email) and live (virtual classroom, Instant messaging) Program level Course level Student-Team level Student-Team level: Tools necessary for student teams geographically spread out to meet, work on assignments and collaboratively learn together. On-line anytime and live (emeeting, IM) [Virtual] Learning Teams (Cooperative/Collaborative Learning, Educational literature) • Last 100 years, over 550 experimental and 100 correlational studies; different subject areas & settings (including College) – Learning together better than competitive or individual learning – Higher achievement, higher-level reasoning, greater transfer, higher self-esteem, greater social competencies – The more conceptual, problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, or real world application needed; the greater superiority of cooperative • Have to be done right!: Team Development/Structure – – – – – – Positive interdependence: I cannot succeed unless team does Individual accountability: individual student assessment Promotive/supportive interaction: support each other Social/interpersonal skills: need good group skills Group processing: discussion of progress and relationships Mechanisms: Shared outcomes, roles, ground rules; develop skills and relationships; peer evaluation; reward system;: etc. • Resources: See web site for article by Johnson & Johnson and Student team contract development exercise and behaviorally-anchored peer evaluation Collaboration and Technology • Learning = Content+Technology+[Collaboration] • Education Metastudy (Lou et. al, see refs on Web site) – 486 findings, 122 studies from 1965-1999 – Small group learning had significantly more positive effect on achievement, group performance, process and affective outcomes – Considerable variability-primary sources: technology, task, group, learner characteristics – Technology: most programs were content-delivery, designed for individual (need for group designs, e.g., MUDs) – Group: Size, cooperative learning strategies • IS Research (Primarily Collaboration Technology) – GSS enhances the effectiveness of collaborative learning – Teaching programming more effective using peer approach – Using technology enhance collaborative learning key IS research area Communication-Centric Tools (all useful for teams) • Email, listservs (group emails) • Email push (or web): survey/polling software http://www.zoomerang.com (free version) • Real time/Synchronous tools – Real time or instant messaging: ICQ, AOL, MSN Messg., Lotus Real Time (http://web.icq.com/) http://www.trillian.cc/ provides IM tool that allows access to other IM products – Audio/Video conferencing: • NetMeeting: http://www.microsoft.com/windows/netmeeting/ Free (Comes with Windows 2000), integrated into Messenger in Windows XP – Meeting support/Virtual classrooms tools/Broadcast Technology (Very popular, huge growth in this area) • http://www.webex.com/, https://www.centranow.com/ , http://main.placeware.com/ (MicroSoft Live), http://www.Interwise.com/, http://www.horizonlive.com/ Provides meeting, classroom and broadcast software. (free versions available, very limited) • e-Meeting software that hase been used in classroom (GSS software researched) [Syn or Asyn] Team Tech: Database-Centric • Environment to store documents and have discussions: • Lotus TeamRoom (Notes Based, comes as part of Notes 5)) http://www.lotus.com/products/qplace.nsf QuickPlace is the web implementation of Lotus TeamRoom. • Team Portals on web: a single doorway or entrance to services to support teams. Good example, Webspace: http://www.copernus.com/ Team Tech: Integrated • General: Future tools will integrate Database and Communication functions into one package – Seeing in Learning Content Management Systems – Other software; PeopleSoft integrating in products (IM, etc.) • Groove is a peer-to-peer digital collaboration tool that very useful for students and faculty. Go to http://www.groove.net/ and download the software. There is a free version! If you do not have at least 56k modem connection, this might be a little slow. Check it out!! • Some systems are more oriented to communities instead of focusing on teams, for example see http://www.communispace.com/ Groove Shared Spaces • A shared space is a private place where small groups of people (members) can talk, work, play and store things. • Has IM capabilities: audio, chat, messaging • Share space contains a set of tools for members to use (select individual tools or tool sets, e.g.., Project) • Key Tools: Files/Documents (Shared Application with Microsoft Word and Powerpoint), Discussion, Document Review, Outliner, Notepad, Calendar, Links/Browser, Meetings, Games and many more (see Groove and Groove Web site) • Work Seamlessly with MicroSoft Office, Outlook & SharePoint • Keep work spaces synchronized on multiple computers • New Project Version: Groove plus TeamDirection’s – Project: Plan projects and monitor execution status in a highly graphical environment. Interfaces with MicroSoft Project – Dashboard: Get "at-a-glance" views of your project and personal status across all your workspaces. • See http://www.groove.net/products/workspace/comparison.html for comparison of versions IDC Recent Research http://www.groove.net/extras/beyondemail/idc/?home •Summary for both IT and Business Users (also true for student teams) •90-95 % day-to-day tasks done through email especially when external constituents •Key features of emails: ease of use, persistence of record, and ability to use externally •At same time, freely criticize email: insecure, inefficient, SPAM, and costly to maintain •What stops people from adopting new collaboration tools •Lack of education and awareness •Tools themselves: ease of use, reliable performance •Success of Instant Messaging (50 million business users)? Most IM expanding features or providing links to other tools •New tools solving?: Groove, Interwise (virtual meeting, classrooms, and broadcasts) [Need for research: preliminary evidence that Groove 10 times more productive] Business Integration • Key Business Driver: Integration of business processes within the organization and supply/value chain to improve performance • Workflow-based learning (focus on performance support) – Learning to point of work in real time, on the job, in context of employee’s workflow – Systems integration: e-Learning with • Current integrated systems (ERP, CRM) • EAI and Web Services efforts: Learning object becomes web service? – Old IS research stream revived: Electronic Performance Support • Business/System Integration: e-Learning with – Business workflow/Performance support (convergence point?) – Content/Knowledge Management (qualitative information) • Ford Example • LCS capturing qualitative information around learning objects – Business Intelligence (quantitative information) – Common/shared knowledge repositories and collaboration technology platform • Key areas for IS research The Knowledge Pyramid Business Process/Performance Management Collaboratio n Technology Content/Knowledge Management Knowledge objects repositories e-Learning Business Intelligence IS General e-Learning Research • General Finding: IT-enable learning methods do better or as well as traditional methods • Method most studied collaborative learning: GSS student teams outperformed non-supported teams • Considerable variation: Sources/Moderators – Instructor characteristics – Student characteristics: more conducive to highly motivated learners, academic ability, learning style • Research needed – Question: How Does technology enhance learning? – Focus on interactions of technology, instructional methods, learner psychological processes, and environmental factors • Primary Reference: ALavi & Leidner, ISR, March 2001 Asynchronous Learning Networks • IS and Education Research • ALNs tend to be as effective or more effective than traditional modes of course delivery at the university levels • Considerable variability-Sources: technology, students, instructors, instructional methods • Some interesting findings: (not all) – Increase importance of technology and use of Course Management Systems by Faculty (increase communications with students) – Longer to create, more time for interaction – More effective for well motivated student; challenge: create independent active learners – Interactivity Key: building learning community • Communication with instructor • Collaborative learning activities • Active participation • Primary References: Hiltz & Turoff, CACM, April 2002; good sites: http://www.aln.org/, http://www.alnresearch.org, http://www.uwex.edu/disted/ Research Issues Summary • Key research questions: – How does technology enhance learning in a given context (students, instructor/mentor, instructional method, environmental factors)? – For whom is it better? For what methods and instructors? Key Environmental factors? – Some Key Contexts: Business knowledge and skills especially IS/IT education and training, Customer Learning, Classrooms • e-Learning represents very different technologies – Development of good technology models and typologies – Research Specific technologies: virtual classrooms, workflow-based learning, simulations and gaming – Comparison of technologies to accomplish learning outcomes • Matching technology to learning outcomes and activities (task-technology fit view of the world) – Most e-Learning done in blends, e.g., face-to-face, online live, online anytime – Develop guidelines for creating blended e-Learning • Technology enhances the effectiveness of collaborative learning-continue research in this area: [virtual] learning teams, virtual classrooms [add GSS functionality], specific components, instructor/facilitator role, integrating collaboration into content software Different Levels Involved in e-Learning Organizational or Interorganizational levels Learning Management tools, cross-program communication Personal and program news and file sharing Program-level coordination: The management and coordination of multiple courses and students taking those courses. Issues: integrated planning, scheduling and resource allocation, student and faculty bios, program discussions, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Assignments, lectures, discussions Course-level: The resources and tools to teach/take a particular course. Issues: course design, assignments, discussions, grading, etc. On-line anytime (LCMS, Course Management, email) and live (virtual classroom, Instant messaging) Program level Course level Most Research at this level Organizational-level: The management of multiple programs and students (employees, suppliers, customers). Issues: programs integration and management, student registration and tracking, etc. On-line anytime: LMS Student-Team level Student-Team level: Tools necessary for student teams geographically spread out to meet, work on assignments and collaboratively learn together. On-line anytime and live (emeeting, IM) Greater Breadth of Research • More focus on program and organizational levels • Many exciting initiatives, little research or sharing [Great area for research] • Good Starting points: Alavi & Gallupe, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2:2, 2003 (5 successful cases); Bostrom et. al. and Jessup & Wheeler Case studies (see Web site references) • Some key findings (not all) – Programs implemented to support strategic vision – Culture that supports innovation is critical – Various technological models successful; key is blending technology to support vision – Focus on learning, not technology – High levels of on-going support is needed for both faculty and students, needs are often underestimated – Intellectual property important, not addressed adequately – Most assessments of programs are anecdotal Other Research Issues • Implementation of Learning Systems (ELS, LMS, LCMS) as a complex system • How are technologies enabling emergent organizational learning structures? What managerial issues / opportunities do these create? Learning Strategies? • Business integration: e-Learning integration with content/knowledge management, Business Intelligence, and Business Process/Performance Management • Individual differences? How to develop an active/selfregulated learner (metacognition)? How can technology help? • All research projects would benefit from collaborative efforts with business and education colleagues, action-research projects, etc. Transforming Learning •What is our vision and strategy for learning and how do we design an infrastructure to support it? •What exactly should the offerings of a university be? •What should a course be? Should there be courses at all? •How can we make education better? •Are we going to wait till we are seriously challenged in the free market? •Etc. •Good article to make you think, Shank http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/schank/schank_index.html I leave you with the following: We have the opportunity to create some massive technology enabled changes in what it means to be involved in obtaining an education? What will your role be? A Vision of Learning Transformed Any individual can participate in online education programs regardless of geographic location, age, physical limitation, or personal schedule. Everyone can access repositories of educational materials, easily recalling past lessons, updating skills, or selecting from among different teaching methods in order to discover the most effective ways of learning. Educational programs can be customized to each individual's needs, so that the information revolution reaches everyone and personal digital libraries provide a mechanism for managing one's accumulated knowledge resources. Learning involves all our senses, to help focus each student's attention and better communicate educational material. Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future Report to the President, February 1999 President's Information Technology Advisory Committee Recommendations from the 2001 PITAC Report Overarching Recommendation Make the effective integration of information technology, with education and training a national priority. Supporting Actions • Establish and coordinate a major research initiative focusing on: •Learning technologies and sciences – Information technologies for education and training •Requirements for learning and teaching information technology fluency •Establish partnerships involving government, university, industry, and foundations to support the pursuit of the research initiative and to collaborate in that research •Enable educators and related professionals to use information technology effectively •Work with industry and academia to develop standards for extendable component-based technology and infrastructures that can be widely used in online education and training. PITAC Report (2001). “Using Information Technology to Transform the Way We Learn.” Arlington, VA, President’s Information Technology /Advisory Committee, Panel on Transforming Learning. http://www.itrd.gov/pitac/; for commentary see http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=5664 Teaching Roles: New or Expanded • Course Design – Focus on Instructional Goals & Learning Activities, not Technology – Finding, evaluating, and selecting content including simulated environments – Chunking (smaller learning objects/ activities) & Sequencing Content – Blending: Matching Content to Delivery Tool & Environment (Time & Place Considerations) – Flexible, Adaptable Designs – Learner-Centered rather than Instructor-Centered • Linking: Digital or Live Links To Digital or Human Resources – Editorial Role – Adding Value for Linkage – Testing (Broken Links) & Economics of Linking Teaching Roles: New or Expanded • Content Delivery – Asynchronously, primarily text-based teaching • Dynamic documents • Frequently asked questions • Discussion databases – Digital Media Segments (lecturing from a distance) – Synchronous Virtual Classrooms • Learner Support – On-line assistance (instant mess., email, audio/video conf, etc.) – On-line Coaching/facilitation Teaching Roles: New or Expanded • General Facilitation – – – – – – – – “To Make Easy” New Environments: Different Time & Place; Same Time, Different Place Establish Norms/Ground Rules and Culture of Course Confusion Reduction (High Use of FAQ, Students Support Each Other) Listen, Clarifies & Integrates Information Develops & Asks Good Questions Manages Conflict & Negative Emotions Role Model for Working with Others – Keeps Class/ Individual Focused on Learning Outcomes • Create Collaborative Environment – – – – – Actively Builds Rapport & Relationships Team and community development Projects & Assignments (Dyads, Teams) Discussions Peer Review (Individual, Team) Teaching Roles: New or Expanded • Engaging the Learner – – – – – Contracting Early to Set Expectations Create Curiosity, Activity, Commitment Encourages/ Supports Multiple Perspectives Continuous “Touching” of the Distance Learner Different Strokes for Different Folks • Technology – Understands Technology & its Capabilities for Supporting Learning – Creates Comfort with & Promotes Understanding of How to Use – Selects Appropriate Technology to Achieve Learning Outcomes • Monitoring, Assessment & Feedback – – – – – Monitoring Progress of student Align Evaluation with Instructional Outcomes Testing vs. Review/ Feedback Role of Technology: Tracking, Assessing Team Accountability & Assessment Strategies Organizational Strategies IT Learning Strategy: The pattern of IT actions for deploying resources to develop the repository of computer knowledge and skills in a company’s workforce. IT Training Strategies: The basis for selecting the best training methods for a given situation (training session, project, etc.) e-Learning Model Learning Outcomes Structure •Schedule •Grading •Etc. Learning Activities [individual, team] Technology Learner [individual differences] Assessable Outcomes Learning Resources •Faculty •Instructional Method •Classmates •Metacognition Support •Etc.